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Mound Builder (people)
The various cultures collectively termed MOUND BUILDERS were inhabitants of North America who, during a 5,000-year period, constructed various styles of earthen mounds for religious and ceremonial, burial, and elite residential purposes. These included the Pre-Columbian cultures of the Archaic period ; Woodland period
Woodland period
(Adena and Hopewell cultures); and Mississippian period ; dating from roughly 3500 BCE (the construction of Watson Brake ) to the 16th century CE, and living in regions of the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
, the Ohio River
Ohio River
Valley, and the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
valley and its tributary waters. Since the 19th century, the prevailing scholarly consensus has been that the mounds were constructed by indigenous peoples of the Americas
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Mound Builder (other)
The MOUND BUILDERS were members of various indigenous North American cultures who constructed earthwork mounds. MOUND BUILDER or MOUND BUILDERS may refer to: * Southwestern Moundbuilders , athletic teams representing Southwestern College * Mound-builder (bird) , or Megapode, birds in the family Megapodiidae * Mound-building termites
Mound-building termites
, a group of termite species that live in mounds * Mound-building mouse or steppe mouse, a species of This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title MOUND BUILDER. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mound_builder_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Monks Mound
MONKS MOUND is the largest Pre-Columbian earthwork in the Americas and the largest pyramid north of Mesoamerica . The beginning of its construction dates from 900-955 CE. Located at the Cahokia Mounds UNESCO World Heritage Site near Collinsville, Illinois
Collinsville, Illinois
, the mound size was calculated in 1988 as about 100 feet (30 m) high, 955 feet (291 m) long including the access ramp at the southern end, and 775 feet (236 m) wide. This makes Monks Mound
Monks Mound
roughly the same size at its base as the Great Pyramid of Giza (13.1 acres / 5.3 hectares). Its base circumference is larger than the Pyramid of the Sun
Pyramid of the Sun
at Teotihuacan
Teotihuacan
. As a platform mound, the earthwork supported a wooden structure on the summit
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Cahokia Mounds
The CAHOKIA MOUNDS STATE HISTORIC SITE /kəˈhoʊkiə/ (11 MS 2 ) is the site of a pre-Columbian Native American city (c. 600–1400 CE) directly across the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
from modern St. Louis, Missouri . This historic park lies in southern Illinois
Illinois
between East St. Louis and Collinsville . The park covers 2,200 acres (890 ha), or about 3.5 square miles (9 km2), and contains about 80 mounds, but the ancient city was much larger. In its heyday, Cahokia
Cahokia
covered about 6 square miles (16 km2) and included about 120 human-made earthen mounds in a wide range of sizes, shapes, and functions. Cahokia
Cahokia
was the largest and most influential urban settlement of the Mississippian culture that developed advanced societies across much of what is now the central and southeastern United States, beginning more than 1000 years before European contact
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UNESCO World Heritage Site
A WORLD HERITAGE SITE is a landmark or area which has been officially recognized by the United Nations , specifically by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO ). Sites are selected on the basis of having cultural, historical, scientific or some other form of significance, and they are legally protected by international treaties. UNESCO regards these sites as being important to the collective interests of humanity
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Collinsville, Illinois
COLLINSVILLE is a city located mainly in Madison County , and partially in St. Clair County , both in Illinois
Illinois
. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 25,579, an increase from 24,707 in 2000. Collinsville is approximately 12 miles from St. Louis, Missouri
Missouri
and is considered part of that city's Metro-East area. It is the home of the Brooks Catsup Bottle Water Tower , the world's largest ketchup bottle, and is the world's horseradish capital. Monks Mound , the largest man-made earthwork in North America, and now part of the Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site
Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site
, is located here
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Pre-columbian
The PRE-COLUMBIAN ERA incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas
Americas
before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period . While the phrase "pre-Columbian era" literally refers only to the time preceding Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
's voyages of 1492, in practice the phrase is usually used to denote the entire history of indigenous Americas
Americas
cultures until those cultures were vanquished, diminished, or extensively altered by Europeans, even if this happened decades or centuries after Columbus's first landing. For this reason the alternative terms of PRECONTACT AMERICAS, PRE-COLONIAL AMERICAS or PREHISTORIC AMERICAS are also in use
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Earthworks (archaeology)
In archaeology , EARTHWORKS are artificial changes in land level, typically made from piles of artificially placed or sculpted rocks and soil. Earthworks can themselves be archaeological features , or they can show features beneath the surface. CONTENTS * 1 Types * 2 Size * 3 Detection * 4 Interpretation * 5 Examples * 6 Gallery * 7 Notes * 8 References TYPESEarthworks of interest to archaeologists include hill forts , henges , mounds , platform mounds , effigy mounds , enclosures , long barrows , tumuli , ridge and furrow , mottes , round barrows , and other tombs . * Hill forts , a type of fort made out of mostly earth and other natural materials including sand, straw, and water, were built as early as the late Stone Age and were built more frequently during the Bronze Age and Iron Age as a means of protection
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Mesoamerica
MESOAMERICA was a region and cultural area in the Americas , extending up there approximately from central Mexico to Belize , Guatemala , El Salvador , Honduras , Nicaragua , and northern Costa Rica , within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries. It is one of six areas in the world where ancient civilization arose independently, and the second in the Americas along with Norte Chico (Caral-Supe) in present-day northern coastal Peru . As a cultural area, Mesoamerica is defined by a mosaic of cultural traits developed and shared by its indigenous cultures
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North America
NORTH AMERICA is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere . It can also be considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas . It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean , to the east by the Atlantic Ocean , to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean , and to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea . North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers (9,540,000 square miles), about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa , and the fourth by population after Asia, Africa, and Europe
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Mound
A MOUND is a heaped pile of earth , gravel , sand , rocks , or debris . Most commonly, mounds are earthen formations such as hills and mountains , particularly if they appear artificial. A mound may be any rounded area of topographically higher elevation on any surface. Artificial mounds have been created for a variety of reasons throughout history, including ceremonial (platform mound ), burial (tumulus ), and commemorative purposes (e.g. Kościuszko Mound )
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Archaic Period In The Americas
In the classification of the archaeological cultures of North America , the ARCHAIC PERIOD OR "MESO-INDIAN PERIOD" in North America
North America
, accepted to be from around 8000 to 2000 BC in the sequence of North American pre-Columbian cultural stages, is a period defined by the archaic stage of cultural development. The rest of the Americas also have an Archaic Period . The Archaic stage is characterized by subsistence economies supported through the exploitation of nuts , seeds , and shellfish . As its ending is defined by the adoption of sedentary farming , this date can vary significantly across the Americas
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Woodland Period
In the classification of Archaeological cultures of North America
North America
, the WOODLAND PERIOD of North American pre-Columbian cultures spanned a period from roughly 1000 BCE to European contact in the eastern part of North America, with some archaeologists distinguishing the Mississippian period, from 1000 CE to European contact as a separate period. The term "Woodland Period" was introduced in the 1930s as a generic term for prehistoric sites falling between the Archaic hunter-gatherers and the agriculturalist Mississippian cultures . The Eastern Woodlands cultural region covers what is now eastern Canada south of the Subarctic
Subarctic
region, the Eastern United States
Eastern United States
, along to the Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico

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Adena Culture
The ADENA CULTURE was a Pre-Columbian Native American culture that existed from 1000 to 200 BC, in a time known as the Early Woodland period . The Adena culture
Adena culture
refers to what were probably a number of related Native American societies sharing a burial complex and ceremonial system. The Adena lived in an area including parts of present-day Ohio
Ohio
, Indiana
Indiana
, Wisconsin
Wisconsin
, West Virginia
West Virginia
, Kentucky
Kentucky
, New York , Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and Maryland
Maryland

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Hopewell Culture
The HOPEWELL TRADITION (also called the HOPEWELL CULTURE) describes the common aspects of the Native American culture that flourished along rivers in the northeastern and midwestern United States
United States
from 200 BC to 500 AD , in the Middle Woodland
Middle Woodland
period . The Hopewell tradition was not a single culture or society, but a widely dispersed set of related populations. They were connected by a common network of trade routes, known as the Hopewell exchange system. At its greatest extent, the Hopewell exchange system ran from the Southeastern United States
United States
as far south as the Crystal River Indian Mounds into the southeastern Canadian shores of Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario
in