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Mound Builder (people)
The various cultures collectively termed MOUND BUILDERS were inhabitants of North America
North America
who, during a 5,000-year period, constructed various styles of earthen mounds for religious and ceremonial, burial, and elite residential purposes. These included the Pre-Columbian
Pre-Columbian
cultures of the Archaic period ; Woodland period
Woodland period
(Adena and Hopewell cultures); and Mississippian period ; dating from roughly 3500 BCE (the construction of Watson Brake
Watson Brake
) to the 16th century CE, and living in regions of the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
, the Ohio River
Ohio River
Valley, and the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
valley and its tributary waters. Since the 19th century, the prevailing scholarly consensus has been that the mounds were constructed by indigenous peoples of the Americas
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Tribe
A TRIBE is viewed, developmentally or historically, as a social group existing before the development of, or outside of, Nations . A tribe is a group of distinct people, dependent on their land for their livelihood, who are largely self-sufficient, and not integrated into the national society. It is perhaps the term most readily understood and used by the general public to describe such communities. Stephen Corry defines tribal people as those who "...have followed ways of life for many generations that are largely self-sufficient, and are clearly different from the mainstream and dominant society". This definition, however, would not apply to countries in the Middle East such as Iraq and Yemen
Yemen
and many African countries such as South Sudan , where the entire population is a member of one tribe or another, and tribalism itself is dominant and mainstream
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Chiefdom
A CHIEFDOM is a form of hierarchical political organization in non-industrial societies usually based on kinship , and in which formal leadership is monopolized by the legitimate senior members of select families or 'houses'. These elites form a political-ideological aristocracy relative to the general group
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Cosmology
COSMOLOGY (from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of") is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe . Physical cosmology is the scholarly and scientific study of the origin, large-scale structures and dynamics, and ultimate fate of the universe , as well as the scientific laws that govern these realities. The term cosmology was first used in English in 1656 in Thomas Blount 's Glossographia, and in 1731 taken up in Latin by German philosopher Christian Wolff , in Cosmologia Generalis. Religious or mythological cosmology is a body of beliefs based on mythological , religious , and esoteric literature and traditions of creation myths and eschatology . Physical cosmology is studied by scientists, such as astronomers and physicists , as well as philosophers , such as metaphysicians , philosophers of physics , and philosophers of space and time
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Mound Builder (other)
The MOUND BUILDERS were members of various indigenous North American cultures who constructed earthwork mounds
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Archaeology
ARCHAEOLOGY, or ARCHEOLOGY, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture . The archaeological record consists of artifacts , architecture , biofacts or ecofacts, and cultural landscapes . Archaeology
Archaeology
can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities . In North America
North America
, archaeology is considered a sub-field of anthropology , while in Europe
Europe
archaeology is often viewed as either a discipline in its own right or a sub-field of other disciplines. Archaeologists study human prehistory and history , from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi in East Africa
Africa
3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology
Archaeology
as a field is distinct from the discipline of palaeontology , the study of fossil remains
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Anthropology
ANTHROPOLOGY is the study of various aspects of humans within past and present societies . Social anthropology and cultural anthropology study the norms and values of societies. Linguistic anthropology studies how language affects social life. Biological or physical anthropology studies the biological development of humans
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Frustum
In geometry , a FRUSTUM (plural: frusta or frustums) is the portion of a solid (normally a cone or pyramid ) that lies between one or two parallel planes cutting it. A RIGHT FRUSTUM is a parallel truncation of a right pyramid . In computer graphics the viewing frustum is the three-dimensional region which is visible on the screen. It is formed by a clipped pyramid; in particular, frustum culling is a method of hidden surface determination . In the aerospace industry , a frustum is the fairing between two stages of a multistage rocket (such as the Saturn V
Saturn V
), which is shaped like a truncated cone
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Eastern United States
The EASTERN UNITED STATES, commonly referred to as the AMERICAN EAST or simply THE EAST, is a region roughly coinciding with the boundaries of the United States
United States
established in the 1783 Treaty of Paris , which bounded the new country to the west along the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
. It is geographically diverse, spanning the Northeast and Southeast as well as the eastern part of the Central United States
United States
. In 2011 the 26 states east of the Mississippi
Mississippi
(including Washington, D.C. but not the small portions of Minnesota
Minnesota
and Louisiana
Louisiana
east of the river) had an estimated population of 179,948,346 or 58.28% of the total U.S. population of 308,745,358 (excluding Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
)
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1848 In Archaeology
1848
1848
IN ARCHAEOLOGY CONTENTS * 1 Explorations * 2 Excavations * 3 Publications * 4 Finds * 5 Awards * 6 Miscellaneous * 7 Births * 8 Deaths * 9 References * 10 See also EXPLORATIONS * First scientific expedition visits Tikal
Tikal
EXCAVATIONS THIS SECTION IS EMPTY. You can help by adding to it . (July 2010) PUBLICATIONS * Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley by Ephraim George Squier and Edwin Hamilton Davis * First volume of Austen H
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Spain
Coordinates : 40°N 4°W / 40°N 4°W / 40; -4 Kingdom of Spain Reino de España (Spanish ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Plus Ultra " (Latin ) "Further Beyond" ANTHEM: " Marcha Real " (Spanish ) "Royal March" Location of Spain
Spain
(dark green) – in Europe
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Conquistador
CONQUISTADORS /kɒŋˈkɪstəˌdɔːrz/ (from Portuguese or Spanish conquistadores "conquerors"; Spanish pronunciation: , Portuguese pronunciation: , ) is a term used to refer to the soldiers and explorers of the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
or the Portuguese Empire in a general sense. During the Age of Discovery , conquistadors sailed beyond Europe to the Americas, Oceania, Africa and Asia, conquering territory and opening trade routes. They colonized much of the world for Spain and Portugal
Portugal
in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries
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Augusta, Georgia
AUGUSTA–RICHMOND COUNTY US : /əˈɡʌstə/ is a consolidated city-county on the central eastern border of the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Georgia , and located on the Savannah River , at the head of its navigable portion. It is in the Piedmont section of the state. The metro Augusta area is situated in both Georgia and South Carolina, which is divided by the Savannah River. Augusta's warm climate made it a major resort town of the Eastern United States
United States
in the early and mid-20th century. The city was named after Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha (1719–1772)
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Hernando De Soto
HERNANDO DE SOTO (c. 1495 – May 21, 1542) was a Spanish explorer and