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Motor Cortex
The motor cortex is the region of the cerebral cortex involved in the planning, control, and execution of voluntary movements. Classically the motor cortex is an area of the frontal lobe located in the posterior precentral gyrus immediately anterior to the central sulcus.Contents1 Components of the motor cortex1.1 The premotor cortex 1.2 The supplementary motor cortex2 History 3 The motor cortex map 4 Evolution of the motor cortex 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksComponents of the motor cortex[edit] The motor cortex can be divided into three areas: 1. the primary motor cortex is the main contributor to generating neural impulses that pass down to the spinal cord and control the execution of movement. However, some of the other motor areas in the brain also play a role in this function. It is located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface 2
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Interneuron
An interneuron (also called internuncial neuron, relay neuron, association neuron, connector neuron, intermediate neuron or local circuit neuron) is a broad class of neurons found in the human body.[citation needed] Interneurons create neural circuits, enabling communication between sensory or motor neurons and the central nervous system (CNS).[citation needed] They have been found to function in reflexes, neuronal oscillations,[1] and neurogenesis in the adult mammalian brain. Interneurons can be further broken down into two groups: local interneurons and relay interneurons.[2][need quotation to verify] Local interneurons have short axons and form circuits with nearby neurons to analyze small pieces of information.[3] Relay interneurons have long axons and connect circuits of neurons in one region of the brain with those in other regions.[3] The interaction between interneurons allow the brain to perform complex functions such as learning, and decision-making.Contents1 S
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Mirror Neurons
A mirror neuron, or cubelli neuron, is a neuron that fires both when an animal acts and when the animal observes the same action performed by another.[1][2][3] Thus, the neuron "mirrors" the behavior of the other, as though the observer were itself acting. Such neurons have been directly observed in primate species.[4] Birds have been shown to have imitative resonance behaviors and neurological evidence suggests the presence of some form of mirroring system.[4][5] In humans, brain activity consistent with that of mirror neurons has been found in the premotor cortex, the supplementary motor area, the primary somatosensory cortex and the inferior parietal cortex.[6] The function of the mirror system in humans is a subject of much speculation
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Eduard Hitzig
Eduard Hitzig
Eduard Hitzig
(6 February 1838 – 20 August 1907) was a German neurologist and neuropsychiatrist born in Berlin. He studied medicine at the Universities of Berlin
Berlin
and Würzburg under the instruction of famous men such as Emil Du Bois-Reymond (1818–1896), Rudolf Virchow
Rudolf Virchow
(1821–1902), Moritz Heinrich Romberg (1795–1873), and Karl Friedrich Otto Westphal
Karl Friedrich Otto Westphal
(1833–1890). He received his doctorate in 1862 and subsequently worked in Berlin
Berlin
and Würzburg. In 1875, he became director of the Burghölzli
Burghölzli
asylum, as well as professor of psychiatry at the University of Zurich
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Gustav Fritsch
Gustav Theodor Fritsch (5 March 1838 – 12 June 1927) was a German anatomist, anthropologist, traveller and physiologist from Cottbus. Fritsch studied natural science and medicine in Berlin, Breslau
Breslau
and Heidelberg. In 1874 he became an associate professor of physiology at the University of Berlin, where he was later appointed head of the histological department at the physiological institute. He is known for his work with neuropsychiatrist Eduard Hitzig (1839–1907) involving the localization of the motor areas of the brain
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West Riding Pauper Lunatic Asylum
The West Riding Pauper Lunatic Asylum
West Riding Pauper Lunatic Asylum
comprised four hospitals under the West Riding General Asylums Committee:[1]1818 Stanley Royd Hospital, Stanley, Wakefield 1872 South Yorkshire Asylum, Middlewood, Sheffield 1888 High Royds Hospital, Menston 1904 Storthes Hall, KirkburtonMental Health Museum[edit] The Mental Health Museum (previously known as the Stephen Beaumont Museum of Mental Health), located at Fieldhead Hospital in Wakefield, contains artefacts from and exhibits on the history of the Asylum.[2] Artefacts include restraining equipment, a padded cell, photographs, medical and surgical equipment, and documents. There is also a scale model of the original 1818 Stanley Royd Hospital, which was the museum's original location until the hospital closed in 1995.[3] References[edit]^ "High Royds Hospital". highroydshospital.com. 2014
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Wakefield
Wakefield
Wakefield
is a city in West Yorkshire, England, on the River Calder and the eastern edge of the Pennines, which had a population of 99,251 at the 2011 census.[1] Wakefield
Wakefield
was dubbed the "Merrie City" in the Middle Ages[2] and in 1538 John Leland described it as, "a very quick market town and meately large; well served of fish and flesh both from sea and by rivers ... so that all vitaile is very good and chepe there. A right honest man shall fare well for 2d. a meal. ... There be plenti of se coal in the quarters about Wakefield".[nb 1] The Battle of Wakefield
Battle of Wakefield
took place in the Wars of the Roses
Wars of the Roses
and it was a Royalist stronghold in the Civil War
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Feed Forward (control)
Feed-forward, sometimes written feedforward, is a term describing an element or pathway within a control system that passes a controlling signal from a source in its external environment, often a command signal from an external operator, to a load elsewhere in its external environment. A control system which has only feed-forward behavior responds to its control signal in a pre-defined way without responding to how the load reacts; it is in contrast with a system that also has feedback, which adjusts the output to take account of how it affects the load, and how the load itself may vary unpredictably; the load is considered to belong to the external environment of the system. In a feed-forward system, the control variable adjustment is not error-based
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Axon
An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body. The function of the axon is to transmit information to different neurons, muscles, and glands. In certain sensory neurons (pseudounipolar neurons), such as those for touch and warmth, the axons are called afferent nerve fibers and the electrical impulse travels along these from the periphery to the cell body, and from the cell body to the spinal cord along another branch of the same axon. Axon
Axon
dysfunction has caused many inherited and acquired neurological disorders which can affect both the peripheral and central neurons. Nerve
Nerve
fibers are classed into three types – group A nerve fibers, group B nerve fibers, and group C nerve fibers. Groups A and B are myelinated, and group C are unmyelinated
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Synapse
In the nervous system, a synapse[1] is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell. Santiago Ramón y Cajal
Santiago Ramón y Cajal
proposed that neurons are not continuous throughout the body, yet still communicate with each other, an idea known as the neuron doctrine.[2] The word "synapse" – from the Greek synapsis (συνάψις), meaning "conjunction", in turn from συνάπτεὶν (συν ("together") and ἅπτειν ("to fasten")) – was introduced in 1897 by the Engli
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Galagos
 Otolemur  Euoticus  Galago  Sciurocheirus  GalagoidesGarnett's galago, Otolemur
Otolemur
garnettiiGalagos /ɡəˈleɪɡoʊz/, also known as bushbabies, bush babies, or nagapies (meaning "little night monkeys" in Afrikaans), are small nocturnal[2] primates native to continental Africa, and make up the family Galagidae (also sometimes called Galagonidae). They are sometimes included as a subfamily within the Lorisidae
Lorisidae
or Loridae. According to some accounts, the name "bushbaby" comes from either the animal's cries or its appearance
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Cécile Vogt-Mugnier
Election to the German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina, National Prize of East GermanyScientific careerFields NeuroscienceInstitutionsKaiser Wilhelm Institute, now the Max Planck Institute for Brain Research, University of BerlinDoctoral advisor Pierre Marie Cécile Vogt-Mugnier
Cécile Vogt-Mugnier
(27 March 1875 – 4 May 1962) was a French neurologist from Haute-Savoie
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Mya (unit)
A year is the orbital period of the Earth
Earth
moving in its orbit around the Sun. Due to the Earth's axial tilt, the course of a year sees the passing of the seasons, marked by changes in weather, the hours of daylight, and, consequently, vegetation and soil fertility. In temperate and subpolar regions around the planet, four seasons are generally recognized: spring, summer, autumn and winter. In tropical and subtropical regions several geographical sectors do not present defined seasons; but in the seasonal tropics, the annual wet and dry seasons are recognized and tracked. The current year is 2018. A calendar year is an approximation of the number of days of the Earth's orbital period as counted in a given calendar. The Gregorian, or modern, calendar, presents its calendar year to be either a common year of 365 days or a leap year of 366 days, as do the Julian calendars; see below
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OCLC
OCLC, currently incorporated as OCLC
OCLC
Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated,[3] is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs".[4] It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC
OCLC
and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog (OPAC) in the world
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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