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Mosquito Coast
The MOSQUITO COAST, also known as the MISKITO COAST, historically comprised an area along the eastern coast of present-day Nicaragua
Nicaragua
and Honduras
Honduras
. It formed part of the Western Caribbean Zone . It was named after the local Miskito Amerindians and was long dominated by British interests. The Mosquito Coast
The Mosquito Coast
was incorporated into Nicaragua
Nicaragua
in 1894; however, in 1960, the northern part was granted to Honduras
Honduras
by the International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
. The Mosquito Coast
The Mosquito Coast
was generally defined as the domain of the Mosquito or Miskito Kingdom and expanded or contracted with that domain. During the nineteenth century, the question of the kingdom's borders was a serious issue of international diplomacy between Britain, the United States, Nicaragua, and Honduras. Conflicting claims regarding both the kingdom's extent and arguable nonexistence were pursued in diplomatic exchanges. The British and Miskito definition applied to the whole eastern seaboard of Nicaragua
Nicaragua
and even to La Mosquitia in Honduras
Honduras
: i.e., the coast region as far west as the Río Negro or Tinto
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The Mosquito Coast
THE MOSQUITO COAST is a 1986 American drama film directed by Peter Weir and starring Harrison Ford , Helen Mirren , Andre Gregory , and River Phoenix . It is based on the novel of the same name by Paul Theroux . The film tells the story of a family that leaves the United States and tries to find a happier and simpler life in the jungles of Central America. However, their jungle paradise quickly turns into a dystopia as their stubborn father's behavior becomes increasingly erratic and aggressive. It was shot in the cities of Cartersville and Rome in Georgia , in addition to Baltimore, Maryland , and Belize . CONTENTS * 1 Plot * 2 Cast * 3 Production * 4 Reception * 4.1 Critical response * 5 References * 6 External links PLOTAllie Fox, is a brilliant but stubborn inventor who has grown fed up with the American Dream and consumerism. Furthermore, he believes that there is a nuclear war on the horizon as a result of American greed and crime. After Allie and his eldest son Charlie acquire the components at a local dump, he finishes assembling his latest creation, an ice machine known as Fat Boy. Allie's boss, Mr. Polski, an asparagus farm owner, complains that Allie is not tending to the asparagus, which is rotting. Allie, Charlie, and Allie's youngest son, Jerry, meet Mr. Polski, and Allie shows him "Fat Boy." The machine leaves Polski unimpressed
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The Mosquito Coast (novel)
THE MOSQUITO COAST is the most successful novel by American author Paul Theroux . Published in 1981 it won the James Tait Black Memorial Prize and was the Yorkshire Post Novel of the Year. It was adapted into a 1986 film starring Harrison Ford , Helen Mirren and River Phoenix . CONTENTS * 1 Inspiration * 2 Plot outline * 2.1 Part One: Banana Boat * 2.2 Part Two: The Ice-House at Jeronimo * 2.3 Part Three: Brewer\'s Lagoon * 2.4 Part Four: Up the Patuca * 2.5 Part Five: The Mosquito Coast
The Mosquito Coast
* 3 Reception * 4 Publication history * 5 References * 6 External links INSPIRATIONTheroux wrote the novel whilst living in London. Although he is rumoured to have based the main character Allie Fox on himself, he denied this in an interview for Atlantic Unbound, saying he based the character on a number of people, including Pap, Huck Finn
Huck Finn
's father. It may be that Theroux was giving a portrait of a man with Bipolar Disorder. PLOT OUTLINEThe story is told from the viewpoint of fourteen-year-old Charlie Fox and centres around his father Allie, a brilliant inventor ("with nine patents, six pending") who becomes increasingly critical of American consumerism, education and culture: "We eat when we’re not hungry, drink when we’re not thirsty, buy what we don’t need, and throw away everything that’s useful
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Bluefields
BLUEFIELDS (Spanish pronunciation: ) is the capital of the South Caribbean Autonomous Region (RACS) in Nicaragua
Nicaragua
. It was also the capital of the former Zelaya Department , which was divided into North and South Caribbean Coast Autonomous Regions. It is located on Bluefields
Bluefields
Bay at the mouth of the Escondido River in the municipality of the same name. Bluefields
Bluefields
was named after the Dutch pirate Abraham Blauvelt who hid in the bay’s waters in the early 17th century. It has a population of 87,000 (2005) and its inhabitants are mostly Mestizo , Afro-descendant Creoles, and indigenous Miskitu , along with smaller communities of Garifuna , whites , Chinese , Mayangnas, Ulwas , and Ramas . Bluefields
Bluefields
is Nicaragua’s chief Caribbean port , from which hardwood , seafood , shrimp and lobster are exported. Bluefields
Bluefields
was a rendezvous for English and Dutch buccaneers in the 16th and 17th century and became capital of the English protectorate over the Mosquito Coast
Mosquito Coast
in 1678. During United States
United States
interventions (1912–15, 1926–33) in Nicaragua, American Marines were stationed there
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Miskito Language
MISKITO (MíSKITU in the Miskito language) is a Misumalpan language spoken by the Miskito people in northeastern Nicaragua , especially in the North Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region , and in eastern Honduras . With 150,000 speakers, Miskito is the most widely spoken of a family of languages of Nicaragua and Honduras that has come to be known as Misumalpan. This name is formed from parts of the names of the family's subgroups: Miskito, Sumo, Matagalpan. Although some aspects of the internal family tree with family are uncertain, it is clear Miskito is apart from Sumo and Matagalpan , which seem to share a common lower node, and that in the past Miskito was heavily influenced by other Misumalpan languages. Sumo is thought to have been dominant in the area before the period of Miskito ascendancy. Today the relationship has been reversed: many former Sumo speakers have shifted to Miskito, which has in turn heavily influenced the Sumo dialects. Several of these (Tawahka, Panamahka and Tuahka) constitute the Mayangna sub-branch of Sumo, while the Ulwa language is in another sub-branch. The Matagalpan branch of Misumalpan contains two languages that are now extinct: Matagalpa and Cacaopera . The latter was formerly spoken in parts of eastern El Salvador
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English Language
ENGLISH /ˈɪŋɡlɪʃ/ (_ listen ) is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca _. Named after the Angles , one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to England , it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia (Angeln) peninsula in the Baltic Sea . It is closely related to the Frisian languages , but its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages particularly Norse (a North Germanic language ), as well as by Latin and Romance languages , particularly French . English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. The earliest forms of English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are called Old English . Middle English began in the late 11th century with the Norman conquest of England , and was a period in which the language was influenced by French. Early Modern English began in the late 15th century with the introduction of the printing press to London and the King James Bible , and the start of the Great Vowel Shift . Through the worldwide influence of the British Empire , modern English spread around the world from the 17th to mid-20th centuries
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Spanish Language
(see many more ) REGULATED BY Association of Spanish Language Academies ( Real Academia Española and 22 other national Spanish language academies) LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 es ISO 639-2 spa ISO 639-3 spa GLOTTOLOG stan1288 LINGUASPHERE 51-AAA-b Spanish language in the world SPANISH (/ˈspænᵻʃ/ (_ listen ); español_ (help ·info )), also called CASTILIAN (/kæˈstɪliən/ (_ listen ), castellano_ (help ·info )), is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers around the world. It is usually considered the world\'s second-most spoken native language , after Mandarin Chinese . Spanish is a part of the Ibero-Romance group of languages , which evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin in Iberia after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century
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Monarchy
A MONARCHY is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty , embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch , exercises the role of sovereignty. The actual power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic (crowned republic ), to partial and restricted (_constitutional_ monarchy ), to completely autocratic (_absolute_ monarchy ). Traditionally the monarch's post is inherited and lasts until death or abdication. In contrast, elective monarchies require the monarch to be elected. Both types have further variations as there are widely divergent structures and traditions defining monarchy. For example, in some elected monarchies only pedigrees are taken into account for eligibility of the next ruler, whereas many hereditary monarchies impose requirements regarding the religion, age, gender, mental capacity, etc. Occasionally this might create a situation of rival claimants whose legitimacy is subject to effective election. There have been cases where the term of a monarch's reign is either fixed in years or continues until certain goals are achieved: an invasion being repulsed, for instance. Richard I of England being anointed during his coronation in Westminster Abbey , from a 13th-century chronicle. Monarchic rule was the most common form of government until the 19th century
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King
KING is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant (while the title of queen on its own usually refers to the consort of a king). * In the context of prehistory, antiquity and contemporary indigenous peoples, the title may refer to tribal kingship . Germanic kingship is cognate with Indo-European traditions of tribal rulership (c.f. Indic _rājan _, Gothic _reiks _, and Old Irish _rí _, etc.) * In the context of classical antiquity, king may translate Latin _rex _ or either Greek _archon _ or _basileus _. * In classical European feudalism , the title of _king_ as the ruler of a KINGDOM is understood as the highest rank in the feudal order, potentially subject, at least nominally, only to an emperor (harking back to the client kings of the Roman Empire ). * In a modern context, the title may refer to the ruler of one of a number of modern monarchies (either absolute or constitutional). The title of _king_ is used alongside other titles for monarchs, in the West prince , emperor , archduke , duke or grand duke , in the Middle East sultan or emir ; etc. King may also refer to a king consort , a title that is sometimes given to the husband of a ruling queen , however the title prince consort is sometimes granted instead
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Oldman
OLDMAN (died 1687), King of the Miskito Nation from c. 1650 until his death in 1687, was the son of a Miskito leader whose name is not recorded. This earlier king went to England, according to a memorial left in Jamaica by one of his descendants, during the reign of Charles I (1625–49) but during the time when the Providence Island Company was operating in the region (c. 1631 to 1641). He was followed by another visitor, alleged to be a "prince" of the same group. According to the testimony of his son Jeremy I , as recorded in 1699 by an English witness called W. M., Oldman was taken to England
England
and received in audience by "his brother king", Charles II "soon after the conquest of Jamaica" (1655). He was given a lace hat as a sort of crown and a written commission "to kindly use and relieve such straggling Englishment as should chance to come that way". He was succeeded in 1687 by his son, Jeremy I . REFERENCES * ^ Hans Sloane, A Voyage to Jamaica (2 vols., London, 1707) vol. 1, pp. lxxvi-lxxvii * ^ Olien, Michael (1983). "The Miskito Kings and the Line of Succession". Journal of Anthropological Research. 39: 201. * ^ M. W. "The Mosqueto Indian and his Golden River", in Awnsham Churchill , A Collection of Voyages and Travels (London, 1732), vol. 6, p.288. This Central America-related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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George Augustus Frederic II
GEORGE AUGUSTUS FREDERIC II was King of the Miskito kingdom from 1845 to 1864. He ruled at a time when the kingdom was subject to international rivalry. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Reign * 3 Competence and Character * 4 References EARLY LIFEHe was born around 1833, the son of King Robert Charles Frederic . In 1840 King Robert Charles, established a will which created a council to oversee the affairs of the country in the last years of his reign, and to insure that his heir be advised during a regency, and that the education and support of his family be maintained. The will granted considerable power to the Superintendent, Alexander MacDonald, to appoint councilors, and gave the council full power to institute and change laws, aside from the law establishing the Church of England as the official church. REIGNGeorge Augustus was only about 9 when his father died, and the Regency Council created by his father and MacDonald, having been rejected in Great Britain, was resumed with a different composition, this time under Superintendent Patrick Walker. However, in addition to this council, there was also a regency organized within the kingdom itself, consisting of "Prince" Wellington, "Colonel" Johnson and "General" Lowrey, recognized by the British government on 4 May 1843. He was crowned in Belize on 7 May 1845, when only 12 years old
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Robert Henry Clarence
ROBERT HENRY CLARENCE (September 6, 1872 – January 6, 1908) was Hereditary Chief of the Miskito Nation . He was born at the Public General Hospital in Kingston, Jamaica . He was the last hereditary chief of the Miskito in 1890–1894 and briefly during July to August 1894. Clarence succeeded to the chiefdom on the death of his cousin Jonathan Charles Frederick , Hereditary Chief of the Miskito, in July 1890. After his downfall, he was rescued by a British warship that took him into exile together with 200 refugees to Puerto Limon
Puerto Limon
, Costa Rica , and later to Jamaica
Jamaica
. He was granted a pension by the British government of £1,785 per annum,and remained head of the "royal house" in name until his death. Clarence died after an operation at the Public General Hospital in Kingston, Jamaica on 6 January 1908. He was married once to Irene Morrison, with whom he had two children, one of which was the "princess" Mary Clarence . He was succeeded as head of the royal house by his cousin Robert Frederick . ANCESTRY ANCESTORS OF ROBERT HENRY CLARENCE 16. George II Frederic 8. George Frederic Augustus I 4. Robert Charles Frederic 2. Prince William Henry Clarence 10. General Thomas Lowry Robinson 5. Juliana Robinson 1. ROBERT HENRY CLARENCE 3
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Nicaragua
NICARAGUA (/ˌnɪkəˈrɑːɡwəˌ -ˈræ-ˌ -ɡjuə/ (_ listen ); Spanish: ), officially the REPUBLIC OF NICARAGUA (Spanish : República de Nicaragua_ (help ·info )), is the largest country in the Central American isthmus , bordered by Honduras to the north, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Nicaragua's capital, Managua , is the country's largest city and the third-largest city in Central America . The multi-ethnic population of six million includes indigenous peoples, Europeans, Africans, and Asians. The main language is Spanish. Native tribes on the eastern coast speak their own languages. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century. Nicaragua gained independence from Spain in 1821. Since its independence, Nicaragua has undergone periods of political unrest, dictatorship, and fiscal crisis—the most notable causes that led to the Nicaraguan Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s. Nicaragua is a representative democratic republic. The mixture of cultural traditions has generated substantial diversity in art and literature, particularly the latter given the literary contributions of Nicaraguan poets and writers, including Rubén Darío , Pablo Antonio Cuadra and Ernesto Cardenal
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Honduras
Coordinates : 15°00′N 86°30′W / 15.000°N 86.500°W / 15.000; -86.500 Republic
Republic
of Honduras _República de Honduras_ (Spanish ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: * "Libre, Soberana e Independiente" (Spanish ) * "Free, Sovereign and Independent" ANTHEM: " Himno Nacional de Honduras " "National Anthem of Honduras" Capital and largest city Tegucigalpa
Tegucigalpa
14°6′N 87°13′W / 14.100°N 87.217°W / 14.100; -87.217 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES Spanish


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Western Caribbean Zone
The WESTERN CARIBBEAN ZONE is a region consisting of the Caribbean coasts of Central America
Central America
, from Yucatán in Mexico
Mexico
to northern Colombia
Colombia
, and also the islands west of Jamaica
Jamaica
. The zone emerged in the late sixteenth century as the Spanish failed to completely conquer many sections of the coast, and northern European powers supported opposition to Spain, sometimes through alliances with local powers. Unsubdued indigenous inhabitants of the region included some Maya polities, and other chiefdoms and egalitarian societies, especially in Belize
Belize
, eastern Honduras
Honduras
, Nicaragua
Nicaragua
, and Costa Rica
Costa Rica
. In addition, the region was the refuge of several groups of runaway slaves, who formed independent settlements or intermixed with the indigenous societies. The combination of unsubdued indigenous people, outlaws (pirates in this case), and an absence of outside control made it similar in some aspects to the American West or the Wild West
Wild West
, as the western half of North America is often called
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Miskito People
The MISKITO are a Native American ethnic group in Central America
Central America
, of whom many are mixed race. In the northern end of their territory, the people are primarily of African-Native American ancestry; others are of mixed African-Native American and English descent. Their territory extends from Cape Camarón , Honduras
Honduras
, to Río Grande , Nicaragua
Nicaragua
, along the Mosquito Coast
Mosquito Coast
, in the Western Caribbean Zone . Their current population is estimated at 180,000 people. The indigenous people speak a native Miskito language , but large groups also speak Miskito creole English , Spanish , which is the language of education and government, and other languages. The creole English came about through frequent contact with the British for trading, as they predominated along this coast. Many are Christians. A 1987 peace agreement afforded them land rights over traditional lands. However, despite significant political struggles throughout their history, today the Miskito face human rights violations over land rights disputes, as recognized by the Inter-American Commission for Human Rights
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