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Mosquito Coast
The Mosquito Coast, also known as the Miskito Coast and the Miskito Kingdom, historically comprised the kingdom's fluctuating area along the eastern coast of present-day Nicaragua
Nicaragua
and Honduras. It formed part of the Western Caribbean Zone. It was named after the local Miskito Amerindians and was long dominated by British interests. The Mosquito Coast
Mosquito Coast
was incorporated into Nicaragua
Nicaragua
in 1894; however, in 1960, the northern part was granted to Honduras
Honduras
by the International Court of Justice.[1] The Mosquito Coast
The Mosquito Coast
was generally defined as the domain of the Mosquito or Miskito Kingdom and expanded or contracted with that domain. During the nineteenth century, the question of the kingdom's borders was a serious issue of international diplomacy between Britain, the United States, Nicaragua, and Honduras
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Charles II Of England
Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685)[c] was king of England, Scotland and Ireland. He was king of Scotland from 1649 until his deposition in 1651, and king of England, Scotland and Ireland from the restoration of the monarchy in 1660 until his death. Charles II's father, Charles I, was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War. Although the Parliament of Scotland
Parliament of Scotland
proclaimed Charles II king on 5 February 1649, England entered the period known as the English Interregnum or the English Commonwealth, and the country was a de facto republic, led by Oliver Cromwell. Cromwell defeated Charles II at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, and Charles fled to mainland Europe. Cromwell became virtual dictator of England, Scotland and Ireland, and Charles spent the next nine years in exile in France, the Dutch Republic and the Spanish Netherlands
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Monarch
A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy.[1][2] A monarch may exercise the highest authority and power in the state, or others may wield that power on behalf of the monarch. Typically a monarch either personally inherits the lawful right to exercise the state's sovereign rights (often referred to as the throne or the crown) or is selected by an established process from a family or cohort eligible to provide the nation's monarch. Alternatively, an individual may become monarch by conquest, acclamation or a combination of means
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Tologalpa
Tologalpa is one of two "provinces", the other being Taguzgalpa, mentioned in Spanish records of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, as lying on the Caribbean side of Central America. Tologalpa corresponded more or less to the northern part of modern-day Nicaragua. Very little is known about the province, however, as the Spanish had little contact with it, save for some unsuccessful attempts to evangelize it in the seventeenth century
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Indian Reductions
Reductions or reducciones (Spanish for "congregations") (Portuguese: redução, plural reduções) were settlements created by Spanish rulers in Latin America. The Spanish relocated native inhabitants (Indians), forcibly if necessary, into settlements which were modeled on towns and villages in Spain. In Portuguese speaking Latin America, reductions were called aldeias.A cathedral was always at the center of the reductions, this one in Loreto, Baja California Sur.The policy of reductions began on Caribbean islands in 1503. In the words of the Spanish rulers, "It is necessary that the Indians be assigned to towns in which they will live together and that they not remain or wander separated from each other in the backcountry." The Spanish ordered that Indian villages be destroyed and selected sites for new villages to be built
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Franciscan
The Franciscans
Franciscans
are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic
Catholic
Church, founded in 1209 by Francis of Assisi. These orders include the Order of Friars Minor, the Order of Saint Clare, and the Third Order
Third Order
of Saint Francis. These orders adhere to the teachings and spiritual disciplines of the founder and of his main associates and followers, such as Clare of Assisi, Anthony of Padua, and Elizabeth of Hungary, among many others.[2] Francis began preaching around 1207 and traveled to Rome
Rome
to seek approval from Pope Innocent III
Pope Innocent III
in 1209 to form a new religious order. The original Rule of Saint Francis approved by the Pope
Pope
disallowed ownership of property, requiring members of the order to beg for food while preaching
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Cristóbal Martínez De Salas
Cristóbal Martínez de Salas (1572 – October 22, 1640) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Panamá (1625–1640).[1][2][3][4] Biography[edit] Cristóbal Martínez de Salas was born in Medina del Campo, Spain and ordained a priest in the Order of Canons Regular of Prémontré.[1] On May 10, 1625, Pope Urban VIII, appointed him Bishop of Panamá.[1] In January 18, 1626, he was consecrated bishop by Alfonso López Gallo, Bishop of Valladolid with Miguel Ayala, Bishop of Palencia and Juan López, Bishop of Monopoli as Co-Consecrators.[1] He served as Bishop of Panamá until his death on October 22, 1640. References[edit]^ a b c d Catholic Hierarchy: "Bishop Cristóbal Martínez de Salas, O. Praem." retrieved November 23, 2015 ^ Cheney, David M. "Archdiocese of Panamá". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. Retrieved March 25, 2018. self-published ^ Chow, Gabriel. "Metropolitan Archdiocese of Panamá"
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Kingdom Of England
Unitary parliamentary monarchy (1215–1707)Monarch •  927–939 Æthelstan
Æthelstan
(first)[a] •  1702–1707 Anne (last)[b]Legislature Parliament •  Upper house House of Lords •  Lower house House of CommonsHistory •  Unification 10th century •  Battle of Hastings 14 October 1066 •  Conquered Wales 1277–1283 •  Incorporated Wales 1535–1542 •  Union of the Crowns 24 March 1603 •  Glorious Revolution 11 December 1688 
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Dutch Republic
The Hague
The Hague
(de facto)Languages Dutch, Zeelandic, West Flemish, Dutch Low Saxon, West FrisianReligion Dutch ReformedGovernment Confederative republicStadtholder •  1581–1584 William I (first) •  1751–1795 William V (last)Grand Pensionary •  1581–1585 Paulus Buys
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Privateer
A privateer is a private person or ship that engages in maritime warfare under a commission of war.[1] The commission, also known as a letter of marque, empowers the person to carry on all forms of hostility permissible at sea by the usages of war, including attacking foreign vessels during wartime and taking them as prizes. Historically captured ships were subject to condemnation and sale under prize law, with the proceeds divided between the privateer sponsors, shipowners, captains and crew. A percentage share usually went to the issuer of the commission. Since robbery under arms was once common to seaborne trade, all merchant ships were already armed. During war, naval resources were auxiliary to operations on land so privateering was a way of subsidizing state power by mobilizing armed ships and sailors. In practice the legality and status of privateers historically has often been vague
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God Save The King
"God Save the Queen" (alternatively "God Save the King", depending on the gender of the reigning monarch) is the national or royal anthem in a number of Commonwealth realms, their territories, and the British Crown Dependencies.[1][2] The author of the tune is unknown and it may originate in plainchant, but an attribution to John Bull is sometimes made. It is the national anthem of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and one of two national anthems used by New Zealand
New Zealand
since 1977, as well as for several of the UK's territories that have their own additional local anthem. It is also the royal anthem – played specifically in the presence of the monarch – of all the aforementioned countries, as well as Australia
Australia
(since 1984), Canada
Canada
(since 1980),[3] Barbados
Barbados
and Tuvalu
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George II Frederic
George II Frederic was a King of the Miskito, born 1757 or 1758, and who ruled from 1776–1801.[1]Contents1 Youth and Education 2 Political Situation 3 Alliance with Britain 4 ReferencesYouth and Education[edit] As a young man, his father George I sent him to England to be educated. On his return voyage, in 1776, he met and was evangelized by the famous Abolitionist Olaudah Equiano (Gustavas Vassa), though Equiano did not think his preaching was very successful.[2] He was crowned in March 1777 by the English Superintendent James Lawrie.[3] Political Situation[edit] Because of his youth, his uncle Isaac ruled effectively as a regent and bore the title "Duke-Regent." George always had difficulty with his subordinates, to the north his General Tempest gave him trouble, to the south the Admiral Brinton aligned himself with Spain, which in turn sought to use the connection to overthrow George and break the English alliance
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Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus[a] (/kəˈlʌmbəs/[3] c. 31 October 1451 – 20 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer. Born in the Republic of Genoa,[4] under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs
Catholic Monarchs
of Spain
Spain
he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean. Those voyages and his efforts to establish settlements on the island of Hispaniola, initiated the permanent European colonization of the New World. At a time when European kingdoms were beginning to establish new trade routes and colonies, motivated by imperialism and economic competition, Columbus proposed to reach the East Indies
East Indies
(South and Southeast Asia) by sailing westward. This eventually received the support of the Spanish Crown, which saw a chance to enter the spice trade with Asia
Asia
through this new route
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Treaty Of Friendship And Alliance
The Treaty of Friendship and Alliance was signed on March 16, 1740 between King Edward I of the Miskito Nation and the British. Based on the terms of the treaty, King Edward relinquished his kingdom to King George II in return for British military protection
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Pound Sterling
3p, 4p, 6p,[1] 25p, £5, Sovereign (British coin), £20, £100, £500 (Silver Kilo), £1,000 (Gold Kilo)[2]DemographicsOfficial user(s) United Kingdom9 British territories British Antarctic Territory   Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
(alongside Falkland Islands
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Captaincy General Of Guatemala
The Captaincy General of Guatemala
Guatemala
(Spanish: Capitanía General de Guatemala), also known as the Kingdom of Guatemala
Guatemala
(Spanish: Reino de Guatemala), was an administrative division of the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
in Central America, including the present-day nations of Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, Belize
Belize
and Guatemala, and the Mexican state of Chiapas. The governor-captain general was also president of the Royal Audiencia of Guatemala, the superior court.Contents1 Antecedents1.1 Moving of the capital 1.2 Role of the church2 Establishment 3 Independence 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksAntecedents[edit] Main article: Spanish conquest of Guatemala Colonization of the area that became the Captaincy General began in 1524
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