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Mosquito Coast
The MOSQUITO COAST, also known as the MISKITO COAST, historically comprised an area along the eastern coast of present-day Nicaragua
Nicaragua
and Honduras
Honduras
. It formed part of the Western Caribbean Zone . It was named after the local Miskito Amerindians and was long dominated by British interests. The Mosquito Coast was incorporated into Nicaragua
Nicaragua
in 1894; however, in 1960, the northern part was granted to Honduras
Honduras
by the International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
. The Mosquito Coast was generally defined as the domain of the Mosquito or Miskito Kingdom and expanded or contracted with that domain. During the nineteenth century, the question of the kingdom's borders was a serious issue of international diplomacy between Britain, the United States, Nicaragua, and Honduras
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Kingdom Of England
Unitary parliamentary monarchy (1215–1707) MONARCH • Until 939 Æthelstan (first) • 1702–1707 Anne (last) LEGISLATURE Parliament • Upper house House of Lords • Lower house House of Commons HISTORY • Unification 10th century • Battle of Hastings 14 October 1066 • Conquered Wales 1277–1283 • Incorpora
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Dutch Republic
The DUTCH REPUBLIC, also known as the REPUBLIC OF THE SEVEN UNITED NETHERLANDS (_Republiek der Zeven Verenigde Nederlanden_), REPUBLIC OF THE UNITED NETHERLANDS or REPUBLIC OF THE SEVEN UNITED PROVINCES (_Republiek der Zeven Verenigde Provinciën_), was a republic in Europe
Europe
existing from 1581, when part of the Netherlands
Netherlands
separated from Spanish rule , until 1795. It preceded the Batavian Republic
Republic
, the Kingdom of Holland
Kingdom of Holland
, the United Kingdom of the Netherlands
Netherlands
, and ultimately the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands
Netherlands
. Alternative names include the UNITED PROVINCES (_Verenigde Provinciën_), SEVEN PROVINCES (_Zeven Provinciën_), FEDERATED DUTCH PROVINCES (_Foederatae Belgii Provinciae_), and DUTCH FEDERATION (_Belgica Foederata_)
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Privateer
A PRIVATEER was a private person or ship that engaged in maritime warfare under a commission of war. The commission, also known as a letter of marque , empowered the person to carry on all forms of hostility permissible at sea by the usages of war, including attacking foreign vessels during wartime and taking them as prizes. Captured ships were subject to condemnation and sale under prize law , with the proceeds divided between the privateer sponsors, shipowners, captains and crew. A percentage share usually went to the issuer of the commission. Since robbery under arms was common to seaborne trade, all merchant ships were already armed. During war, naval resources were auxiliary to operations on land so privateering was a way of subsidizing state power by mobilizing armed ships and sailors
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God Save The King
"GOD SAVE THE QUEEN" (alternatively "GOD SAVE THE KING", depending on the gender of the reigning monarch) is the national or royal anthem in a number of Commonwealth realms , their territories, and the British Crown Dependencies
Crown Dependencies
. The author of the tune is unknown and it may originate in plainchant , but a 1619 attribution to John Bull is sometimes made. It is the national anthem of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and one of two national anthems used by New Zealand
New Zealand
since 1977, as well as for several of the UK's territories that have their own additional local anthem. It is also the royal anthem – played specifically in the presence of the monarch – of all the aforementioned countries, as well as Australia
Australia
(since 1984), Canada
Canada
(since 1980), Barbados
Barbados
and Tuvalu
Tuvalu

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Franciscan
The FRANCISCANS are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
, founded in 1209 by Francis of Assisi
Francis of Assisi
. These orders include the ORDER OF FRIARS MINOR , the ORDER OF SAINT CLARE , and the THIRD ORDER OF SAINT FRANCIS . These orders adhere to the teachings and spiritual disciplines of the founder and of his main associates and followers, such as Clare of Assisi
Clare of Assisi
, Anthony of Padua , and Elizabeth of Hungary
Elizabeth of Hungary
, among many others. Francis began preaching around 1207 and traveled to Rome
Rome
to seek approval from Pope Innocent III in 1209 to form a new religious order. The original Rule of Saint Francis approved by the Pope
Pope
disallowed ownership of property, requiring members of the order to beg for food while preaching
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Indian Reductions
REDUCTIONS or REDUCCIONES (Spanish for "congregations") (Portuguese: REDUçãO, plural REDUçõES) were settlements created by Spanish rulers in Latin America. The Spanish relocated native inhabitants (Indians), forcibly if necessary, into settlements which were modeled on towns and villages in Spain
Spain
. In Portuguese speaking Latin America, reductions were called aldeias. A cathedral was always at the center of the reductions, this one in Loreto, Baja California Sur . The policy of reductions began on Caribbean islands in 1503. In the words of the Spanish rulers, "It is necessary that the Indians be assigned to towns in which they will live together and that they not remain or wander separated from each other in the backcountry." The Spanish ordered that Indian villages be destroyed and selected sites for new villages to be built
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Christopher Columbus
CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS (Italian : _Cristoforo Colombo_; c. 1451 – 20 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer. Born in the Republic of Genoa
Genoa
, under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain
Spain
he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean. Those voyages and his efforts to establish settlements on the island of Hispaniola
Hispaniola
initiated the permanent European colonization of the New World . At a time when European kingdoms were beginning to establish new trade routes and colonies, motivated by imperialism and economic competition , Columbus proposed to reach the East Indies
East Indies
(South and Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
) by sailing westward. This eventually received the support of the Spanish Crown, which saw a chance to enter the spice trade with Asia
Asia
through this new route
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Taguzgalpa
TAGUZGALPA is a region or district located in northeastern Honduras
Honduras
, known historically through Spanish sources, and heir to a longer and richer archaeological tradition. It was usually called a "Province" in Spanish sources, and its internal social organization is unclear. Spanish missionary sources put its location as roughly the northeastern quarter of Honduras, bounding on the Wanks River
Wanks River
, the interior jurisdiction of Olancho , and the coast as far as Trujillo as well as the Bay Islands of Honduras. It appeared on the Dutch map of Montanus in 1671 with an alternate spelling of "Tigu zigalpa." It was frequently confused in nineteenth century travel literature with Tegucigalpa
Tegucigalpa
, the present capital of Honduras, and it is possible that both words share the same root
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Tologalpa
TOLOGALPA is one of two "provinces", the other being Taguzgalpa , mentioned in Spanish records of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, as lying on the Caribbean side of Central America. Tologalpa corresponded more or less to the northern part of modern-day Nicaragua
Nicaragua
. Very little is known about the province, however, as the Spanish had little contact with it, save for some unsuccessful attempts to evangelize it in the seventeenth century. Much of its territory eventually passed under the control of Miskito raiders in the eighteenth centuries. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= Tologalpa additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Monarch
A MONARCH is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy . A monarch may exercise the highest authority and power in the state , or others may wield that power on behalf of the monarch. Typically a monarch either personally inherits the lawful right to exercise the state's sovereign rights (often referred to as _the throne_ or _the crown _) or is selected by an established process from a family or cohort eligible to provide the nation's monarch. Alternatively, an individual may become monarch by conquest, acclamation or a combination of means. A monarch usually reigns for life or until abdication
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George II Frederic
GEORGE II FREDERIC was a King of the Miskito , born 1757 or 1758, and who ruled from 1776–1801. CONTENTS * 1 Youth and Education * 2 Political Situation * 3 Alliance with Britain * 4 References YOUTH AND EDUCATIONAs a young man, his father George I sent him to England to be educated. On his return voyage, in 1776, he met and was evangelized by the famous Abolitionist Olaudah Equiano
Olaudah Equiano
(Gustavas Vassa), though Equiano did not think his preaching was very successful. He was crowned in March 1777 by the English Superintendent James Lawrie. POLITICAL SITUATIONBecause of his youth, his uncle Isaac ruled effectively as a regent and bore the title "Duke-Regent." George always had difficulty with his subordinates, to the north his General Tempest gave him trouble, to the south the Admiral Brinton aligned himself with Spain, which in turn sought to use the connection to overthrow George and break the English alliance
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Cay
A CAY (/ˈkiː/ or /ˈkeɪ/ ), also spelled CAYE or KEY, is a small, low-elevation, sandy island on the surface of a coral reef . Cays occur in tropical environments throughout the Pacific , Atlantic and Indian Oceans (including in the Caribbean
Caribbean
and on the Great Barrier Reef and Belize Barrier Reef ). CONTENTS * 1 Formation and composition * 2 Development and stability * 3 Examples * 4 See also * 5 References FORMATION AND COMPOSITION Cay
Cay
sand under an optical microscope A cay forms when ocean currents transport loose sediment across the surface of a reef to a depositional node, where the current slows or converges with another current, releasing its sediment load. Gradually, layers of deposited sediment build up on the reef surface. Such nodes occur in windward or leeward areas of reef where surfaces sometimes occur around an emergent outcrop of old reef or beach rock
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Charles I Of England
CHARLES I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649 ) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England
England
, Scotland , and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. Charles was the second son of King James VI of Scotland , but after his father inherited the English throne in 1603, he moved to England, where he spent much of the rest of his life. He became heir apparent to the English, Irish, and Scottish thrones on the death of his elder brother, Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales
Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales
, in 1612. An unsuccessful and unpopular attempt to marry him to the Spanish Habsburg princess Maria Anna culminated in an eight-month visit to Spain in 1623 that demonstrated the futility of the marriage negotiations. Two years later, he married the Bourbon princess Henrietta Maria of France instead
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Jamaica
JAMAICA (/dʒəˈmeɪkə/ ( listen )) is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea , consisting of the third-largest island of the Greater Antilles . The island, 10,990 square kilometres (4,240 sq mi) in area, lies about 145 kilometres (90 mi) south of Cuba , and 191 kilometres (119 mi) west of Hispaniola (the island containing the nation-states of Haiti and the Dominican Republic ). Jamaica is the fourth-largest island country in the Caribbean , by area. Inhabited by the indigenous Arawak and Taíno peoples, the island came under Spanish rule following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1494. Many of the indigenous people died of disease, and the Spanish imported African slaves as labourers. Named _Santiago_, the island remained a possession of Spain until 1655, when England (later Great Britain ) conquered it and renamed it Jamaica
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Charles II Of England
CHARLES II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England , Scotland and Ireland . He was king of Scotland from 1649 until his deposition in 1651, and king of England, Scotland and Ireland from the restoration of the monarchy in 1660 until his death. Charles II's father, Charles I , was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War . Although the Parliament of Scotland proclaimed Charles II king on 5 February 1649, England entered the period known as the English Interregnum or the English Commonwealth , and the country was a de facto republic, led by Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
. Cromwell defeated Charles II at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, and Charles fled to mainland Europe . Cromwell became virtual dictator of England, Scotland and Ireland, and Charles spent the next nine years in exile in France, the Dutch Republic and the Spanish Netherlands
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