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Mosaic Authorship
Mosaic authorship
Mosaic authorship
is the Jewish and Christian tradition that Moses
Moses
was the author of the Torah, the first f
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José De Ribera
Jusepe de Ribera
Jusepe de Ribera
(baptized February 17, 1591; died September 2, 1652) was a Spanish Tenebrist painter and printmaker, also known as José de Ribera and Josep de Ribera. He also was called Lo Spagnoletto ("the Little Spaniard") by his contemporaries and early writers. Ribera was a leading painter of the Spanish school, although his mature work was all done in Italy.Contents1 Early life 2 Neapolitan period 3 Later life 4 Work 5 Legacy 6 Notes 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksEarly life[edit]Jacob's Dream, 1639Ribera was born at Xàtiva, near Valencia, Spain. He was baptized on February 17, 1591.[1] His father was a shoemaker, perhaps on a large scale. His parents intended him for a literary or learned career, but he neglected these studies and is said to have apprenticed with the Spanish painter Francisco Ribalta
Francisco Ribalta
in Valencia, although no proof of this connection exists
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David Weiss Halivni
David Weiss Halivni
David Weiss Halivni
(Hebrew: דוד וייס הלבני‎) (born 1927) is a European-born American-Israeli rabbi, scholar in the domain of Jewish Sciences and professor of Talmud.Contents1 Biography 2 Impact 3 Controversy3.1 Source-critical analysis 3.2 Chate'u Israel 3.3 As a spiritual leader4 Awards 5 Published works 6 See also 7 ReferencesBiography[edit] David Weiss was born in the small town of Kobyletska Poliana (Кобилецька Поляна, Poiana Cobilei, Gergyanliget) in Carpathian Ruthenia, then in Czechoslovakia (now in Rakhiv Raion, in Ukraine). His parents separated when he was 4 years old, and he grew up in the home of his grandfather, a Talmud
Talmud
scholar in Sighet, Romania.[1] During the Holocaust, at the age of 16 he was deported to Auschwitz
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Orthodox Judaism
Orthodox Judaism
Judaism
is the branch of religious Judaism
Judaism
which subscribes to a tradition of mass revelation, and adheres to the interpretation and application of the laws and ethics of the Torah, as legislated in the Talmudic texts by the Tannaim and Amoraim
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Joshua
Joshua
Joshua
(/ˈdʒɒʃuə/) or Jehoshua (Hebrew: יְהוֹשֻׁעַ‬ Yehōšuʿa)[a] is the central figure in the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible's Book of Joshua. According to the books of Exodus, Numbers and Joshua, he was Moses' assistant and became the leader of the Israelite
Israelite
tribes after the death of Moses.[3] His name was Hoshe'a (הוֹשֵׁעַ) the son of Nun, of the tribe of Ephraim, but Moses
Moses
called him Joshua
Joshua
(Numbers 13:16), the name by which he is commonly known. The name is shortened to Yeshua in Nehemiah (Nehemiah 8:17)
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Joseph Ben Samuel Bonfils
Joseph ben Samuel Bonfils (lived in the middle of the eleventh century) was a French rabbi, Talmudist, Bible commentator, and payyeṭan (author of Jewish liturgical poems known as piyyutim). He is also known by the Hebrew name Tov Elem, a Hebrew translation from the French name "Bonfils."[1] Of his life nothing is known but that he came from Narbonne, and was rabbi of Limoges
Limoges
in the province of Anjou.[2] The activity of Bonfils was many-sided. A number of his decisions which earned the high esteem of his contemporaries and of posterity are to be found in "The Mordechai."[3] Among his numerous legal decisions one deserving mention is that pronouncing money won in play an illegal possession, and compelling the winner to return it ("Haggahot Mordecai," upon Sanh. pp. 722, 723)
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Hebrew Alphabet
Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCEDemotic 7 c. BCEMeroitic 3 c. BCEProto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCEUgaritic 15 c. BCE Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCEGe’ez 5–6 c. BCEPhoenician 12 c. BCEPaleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCESamaritan 6 c. BCE Libyco-Berber
Libyco-Berber
3 c. BCETifinaghPaleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE Aramaic 8 c. BCE Kharoṣṭhī
Kharoṣṭhī
4 c. BCE Brāhmī 4 c. BCE Brahmic family
Brahmic family
(see)E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE Devanagari
Devanagari
13 c. CECanadian syllabics 1840Hebrew 3 c. BCE Pahlavi 3 c. BCEAvestan 4 c. CEPalmyrene 2 c. BCE Syriac 2 c. BCENabataean 2 c. BCE Arabic
Arabic
4 c. CEN'Ko 1949 CESogdian 2 c. BCEOrkhon (old Turkic) 6 c. CEOld Hungarian c. 650 CEOld UyghurMongolian 1204 CEMandaic 2 c. CEGreek 8 c
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Inverted Nun
Inverted nun (נו"ן מנוזרת‬ "isolated nun" or נו"ן הפוכה‬ "inverted nun" or "׆‬" in Hebrew[1]) is a rare glyph used in classical Hebrew. Its function in the ancient texts is disputed. It takes the form of the letter nun in mirror image, and appears in the Masoretic
Masoretic
text of the Tanakh
Tanakh
in nine different places:[2]Twice in the Book of Numbers, 10:35–36: the two verses are delineated by inverted nuns. Seven times in chapter 107 of the Book of Psalms.The images at right show three common variants of the inverted nun – vertically flipped, horizontally flipped, and Z-shaped
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Nun (letter)
Nun is the fourteenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Nūn , Hebrew Nun נ, Aramaic
Aramaic
Nun , Syriac Nūn ܢܢ, and Arabic
Arabic
Nūn ن (in abjadi order). It is the third letter in Thaana (ނ), pronounced as "noonu". Its sound value is [n]. The Phoenician letter gave rise to the Greek nu (Ν), Etruscan , Latin N, and Cyrillic Н.Contents1 Origins 2 Arabic
Arabic
nūn2.1 Saraiki nūn 2.2 Social media campaign (2014)3 Hebrew Nun3.1 Pronunciation 3.2 Variations 3.3 Significance4 Character encodings 5 See also 6 NotesOrigins[edit] Nun is believed to be derived from an Egyptian hieroglyph of a snake (the Hebrew word for snake, nachash begins with a Nun and snake in Aramaic
Aramaic
is nun) or eel. Some have hypothesized a hieroglyph of fish in water as its origin (in Arabic, nūn means large fish or whale)
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Eldad And Medad
Eldad and Medad are mentioned in the Book of Numbers, and are described as having prophesied among the Israelites, despite the fact that they had remained in the camp, while 70 elders had gone to the tabernacle outside the camp to receive the ability to prophesy from God.[1] According to the narrative, Joshua
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David Zvi Hoffmann
David Zvi Hoffmann
David Zvi Hoffmann
(November 24, 1843, Verbó, Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
– November 20, 1921, Berlin) (Hebrew: דוד צבי הופמן), was an Orthodox Rabbi
Rabbi
and Torah
Torah
Scholar. Born in Verbó
Verbó
in 1843, he attended various Yeshivas in his native town before he entered the college at Pressburg, from which he graduated in 1865. He then studied philosophy, history, and Oriental languages at Vienna
Vienna
and Berlin, taking his doctor's degree in 1871[1] from the University of Tübingen
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Ezra–Nehemiah
Ezra– Nehemiah
Nehemiah
is a book in the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
found in the Ketuvim section. The Christian scholar Origen
Origen
in the 3rd century, noting that the other Hebrew historical books; Samuel, Kings and Chronicles were 'doubled', proposed that Ezra
Ezra
too should be separated into two books, which he denoted as I Ezra
Ezra
and II Ezra, dealing respectively with the careers of Ezra
Ezra
and Nehemiah; but no surviving Christian Bibles from antiquity follow this principle. Surviving manuscripts of the Christian Old Testament, both in Greek and Old Latin consistently witness otherwise the two books of Ezra
Ezra
known as ' Esdras A' and Esdras B, corresponding respectively to Greek Esdras
Greek Esdras
and the undivided Ezra-Nehemiah
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Balaam
Balaam
Balaam
/ˈbeɪlæm/[1] (Hebrew: בִּלְעָם‬, Standard Bilʻam Tiberian Bileʻām) is a diviner in the Torah, his story occurring towards the end of the Book of Numbers
Book of Numbers
(Hebrew: במדבר‬). The etymology of his name is uncertain, and discussed below. Every ancient reference to Balaam
Balaam
considers him a non-Israelite, a prophet, and the son of Beor, though Beor is not clearly identified. Though some sources may only describe the positive blessings he delivers upon the Israelites, he is reviled as a "wicked man"[2] in both Torah
Torah
and its commentaries, as well as in the New Testament. Balaam
Balaam
refused to speak what God
God
did not speak and would not curse the Israelites, even though King Balak of Moab
Moab
offered him money to do so (Numbers 22–24)
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Menachem Mendel Kasher
Menachem Mendel Kasher (Hebrew: מנחם מנדל כשר‎; March 7, 1895 – November 3, 1983) was a Polish-born Israeli rabbi and prolific author who authored an encyclopedic work on the Torah entitled Torah
Torah
Sheleimah.Contents1 Early life 2 Torah
Torah
Sheleimah 3 Other activities 4 Halachic rulings 5 Awards and honours 6 Published works[4] 7 References 8 See alsoEarly life[edit] Kasher was born in 1895 in Warsaw, Poland
Poland
(then part of the Russian Empire). His father was Rabbi Yitzhak Peretz. At the age of 19, he edited the periodical Degel Ha'Torah, the mouthpiece of the Polish branch of Agudath Israel. In 1924, in response to a call from the Ger Rebbe, Rabbi Avraham Mordechai Alter, Kasher moved to Jerusalem, in Mandate Palestine, to establish the Sfas Emes Yeshiva
Sfas Emes Yeshiva
in honour of the Rebbe's father, Yehudah Aryeh Leib Alter
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Oral Torah
According to Rabbinic Judaism, the Oral Torah
Torah
or Oral Law (Hebrew: תורה שבעל פה‬, Torah
Torah
she-be-`al peh, lit. " Torah
Torah
that is on the mouth") represents those laws, statutes, and legal interpretations that were not recorded in the Five Books of Moses, the "Written Torah" (Hebrew: תורה שבכתב‬, Torah
Torah
she-bi-khtav, lit. " Torah
Torah
that is in writing"), but nonetheless are regarded by Orthodox Jews
Jews
as prescriptive and co-given
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Theophany
Theophany
Theophany
(from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
(ἡ) θεοφάνεια theophaneia,[1] meaning "appearance of a god") refers to the appearance of a deity to a human.[2][3][4] This term has been used to refer to appearances of the gods in the ancient Greek and Near Eastern religions. While the Iliad
Iliad
is the earliest source for descriptions of theophanies in the Classical tradition/era (and they occur throughout Greek mythology), probably the earliest description of a theophany is in the Epic of Gilgamesh.[5] The term theophany has acquired a specific usage for Christians and Jews
Jews
with respect to the Bible: It refers to the manifestation of the Abrahamic God
God
to people; the sensible sign by which his presence is revealed
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