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Monsoon
Monsoon
Monsoon
(/mɒnˈsuːn/) is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation,[1] but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.[2][3] Usually, the term monsoon is used to refer to the rainy phase of a seasonally changing pattern, although technically there is also a dry phase. The term is sometimes incorrectly used for locally heavy but short-term rains,[4] although these rains meet the dictionary definition of monsoon.[5] The major monsoon systems of the world consist of the West
West
African and Asia-Australian monsoons
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Snowsquall
A snowsquall (or snow squall) is a sudden moderately heavy snow fall with blowing snow and strong, gusty surface winds.[1] It is often referred to as a whiteout and is similar to a blizzard but is localized in time or in location and snow accumulations may or may not be significant.Contents1 Types1.1 Lake-effect snow 1.2 Frontal snowsquall2 Dangers 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksTypes[edit] There are two primary types of snowsqualls, lake effect and frontal. Lake-effect snow[edit] Main article: Lake-effect snowRadar trace of lake-effect snowsqualls off the Great Lakes
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Cumulonimbus Cloud
Cumulonimbus, from the Latin
Latin
cumulus ("heaped") and nimbus ("rainstorm"), is a dense, towering vertical cloud[1], forming from water vapor carried by powerful upward air currents. If observed during a storm, these clouds may be referred to as thunderheads. Cumulonimbus can form alone, in clusters, or along cold front squall lines. These clouds are capable of producing lightning and other dangerous severe weather, such as tornadoes. Cumulonimbus progress from overdeveloped cumulus congestus clouds and may further develop as part of a supercell. Cumulonimbus is abbreviated Cb.Contents1 Appearance1.1 Species 1.2 Supplementary features1.2.1 Accessory clouds 1.2.2 Supplementary features 1.2.3 Precipitation-based supplementary features2 Effects 3 Life cycle or stages 4 Cloud
Cloud
types 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksAppearance[edit] Towering cumulonimbus clouds are typically accompanied by smaller cumulus clouds
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Lightning
Lightning
Lightning
is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs typically during a thunderstorm. This discharge occurs between electrically charged regions of a cloud (called intra-cloud lightning or IC), between two clouds (CC lightning), or between a cloud and the ground (CG lightning). The charged regions in the atmosphere temporarily equalize themselves through this discharge referred to as a flash. A lightning flash can also be a strike if it involves an object on the ground
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Sirocco
Sirocco, scirocco, /sɪˈrɒkoʊ/, jugo or, rarely, siroc (Catalan: Xaloc, Greek: Σορόκος, Spanish: Siroco, Occitan: Siròc, Eisseròc, Croatian: Jugo, literally southerly , Libyan Arabic: Ghibli, Egypt: khamsin, Tunisia: ch'hilli) is a Mediterranean
Mediterranean
wind that comes from the Sahara
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Gale
A gale is a strong wind, typically used as a descriptor in nautical contexts. The U.S. National Weather Service
National Weather Service
defines a gale as 34–47 knots (63–87 km/h, 17.5–24.2 m/s or 39–54 miles/hour) of sustained surface winds.[1] Forecasters typically issue gale warnings when winds of this strength are expected. In the United States, a gale warning is specifically a maritime warning; the land-based equivalent in National Weather Service
National Weather Service
warning products is a wind advisory. Other sources use minima as low as 28 knots (52 km/h; 14 m/s; 32 mph), and maxima as high as 90 knots (170 km/h; 46 m/s; 100 mph)
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Simoom
Simoom (Arabic: سموم‎ samūm; from the root س م م s-m-m, سم "to poison") is a strong, dry, dust-laden wind usually used to describe a local wind that blows in the Sahara, Palestine, Jordan, Syria, and the deserts of Arabian Peninsula. Its temperature may exceed 54 °C (129 °F) and the humidity may fall below 10%. Alternative spellings include samoon, samun, simoun, and simoon. Another name used for this wind is samiel (Persian samyeli). Simoom winds have an alternative type occurring in the region of Central Asia known as "Garmsil" (гармсель). The name means "poison wind" and is given because the sudden onset of simoom may also cause heat stroke
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Mesocyclone
A mesocyclone is a vortex of air within a convective storm.[1] It is air that rises and rotates around a vertical axis, usually in the same direction as low pressure systems in a given hemisphere. They are most often cyclonic, that is, associated with a localized low-pressure region within a severe thunderstorm. Such thunderstorms can feature strong surface winds and severe hail. Mesocyclones often occur together with updrafts in supercells, within which tornadoes may form at the interchange with certain downdrafts. Mesocyclones are localized, approximately 2 km (1.2 mi) to 10 km (6.2 mi) in diameter within strong thunderstorms.[1] Thunderstorms containing persistent mesocyclones are supercell thunderstorms. Mesocyclones occur on the "mesoscale" from a few kilometers to hundreds of kilometers. Doppler radar is used to identify mesocyclones
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Heat Burst
In meteorology, a heat burst is a rare atmospheric phenomenon characterized by gusty winds and a rapid increase in temperature and decrease in dew point (moisture). Heat bursts typically occur during night-time and are associated with decaying thunderstorms.[1] Although this phenomenon is not fully understood, it is theorized that the event is caused when rain evaporates (virga) into a parcel of cold dry air high in the atmosphere making the air denser than its surroundings.[2] The parcel descends rapidly, warming due to compression, overshoots its equilibrium level and reaches the surface, similar to a downburst.[3] Recorded temperatures during heat bursts have reached well above 38 °C (100 °F), sometimes rising by 11 °C (20 °F) or more within only a few minutes. More extreme events have also been documented, where temperatures have been reported to exceed 120 °F (49 °C). However, such extreme events have never been officially verified
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Microburst
A microburst is an intense small-scale downdraft produced by a thunderstorm or rain shower. There are two types of microbursts: wet microbursts and dry microbursts. They go through three stages in their cycle, the downburst, outburst, and cushion stages.[1] A microburst can be particularly dangerous to aircraft, especially during landing, due to the wind shear caused by its gust front. Several fatal and historic crashes have been attributed to the phenomenon over the past several decades, and flight crew training goes to great lengths on how to properly recover from a microburst/wind shear event. A microburst often has high winds that can knock over fully grown trees
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European Windstorm
European windstorms are the strongest extratropical cyclones which occur across the continent of Europe.[2] They form as cyclonic windstorms associated with areas of low atmospheric pressure. They are most common in the autumn and winter months. On average, the month when most windstorms form is January. The seasonal average is 4.6 windstorms.[3] Deep low pressure areas are relatively common over the North Atlantic, sometimes starting as nor'easters off the New England coast, and frequently track across the North Atlantic Ocean towards western Europe, past the north coast of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland
Ireland
and into the Norwegian Sea. However, when they track further south, they can affect almost any country in Europe
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Arcus Cloud
An arcus cloud is a low, horizontal cloud formation, usually appearing as an accessory cloud to a cumulonimbus. Roll clouds and shelf clouds are the two main types of arcus. Arcus clouds most frequently form along the leading edge or "gust fronts" of thunderstorm outflow; some of the most dramatic arcus formations mark the gust fronts of derecho-producing convective systems. Roll clouds also may arise in the absence of thunderstorms, forming along the shallow cold air currents of some sea breeze boundaries and cold fronts.Contents1 Types1.1 Shelf cloud 1.2 Roll cloud2 See also 3 References 4 External linksTypes[edit] Shelf cloud[edit]A time-lapse photography of shelf cloud just before a thunderstorm in Pondicherry, Puducherry, IndiaA shelf cloud over Enschede, NetherlandsA shelf cloud is a low, horizontal, wedge-shaped arcus cloud
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Cloud
In meteorology, a cloud is an aerosol comprising a visible mass of minute liquid droplets, frozen crystals, or particles suspended in the atmosphere above the surface of a planetary body.[1] The droplets and crystals may be made of water or various chemicals. On Earth, clouds are formed as a result of saturation of the air when it is cooled to its dew point, or when it gains sufficient moisture (usually in the form of water vapor) from an adjacent source to raise the dew point to the ambient temperature. They are seen in the Earth's homosphere (which includes the troposphere, stratosphere, and mesosphere). Nephology is the science of clouds which is undertaken in the cloud physics branch of meteorology. There are two methods of naming clouds in their respective layers of the atmosphere; Latin
Latin
and common
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Typhoon
A typhoon is a mature tropical cyclone that develops between 180° and 100°E in the Northern Hemisphere. This region is referred to as the Northwestern Pacific Basin,[1] and is the most active tropical cyclone basin on Earth, accounting for almost one-third of the world's annual tropical cyclones. For organizational purposes, the northern Pacific Ocean is divided into three regions: the eastern (North America to 140°W), central (140° to 180°W), and western (180° to 100°E). The Regional Specialized Meteorological Center
Regional Specialized Meteorological Center
(RSMC) for tropical cyclone forecasts is in Japan, with other tropical cyclone warning centers for the northwest Pacific in Hawaii
Hawaii
(the Joint Typhoon
Typhoon
Warning Center), the Philippines
Philippines
and Hong Kong
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Landspout
A landspout is a term coined by meteorologist Howard B. Bluestein in 1985 for a kind of tornado not associated with a mesocyclone.[1] The Glossary of Meteorology defines a landspout as"Colloquial expression describing tornadoes occurring with a parent cloud in its growth stage and with its vorticity originating in the boundary layer. The parent cloud does not contain a preexisting mid-level mesocyclone. The landspout was so named because it looks like "a weak Florida Keys waterspout over land."[2]Landspouts form during the growth stage of a cumulus congestus cloud by stretching boundary layer vorticity upward and into the cumulus congestus's updraft. They generally are smaller and weaker than supercell tornadoes and do not form from a mesocyclone or pre-existing rotation in the cloud
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Dust Devil
A dust devil is a strong, well-formed, and relatively long-lived whirlwind, ranging from small (half a meter wide and a few meters tall) to large (more than 10 meters wide and more than 1000 meters tall). The primary vertical motion is upward. Dust devils are usually harmless, but can on rare occasions grow large enough to pose a threat to both people and property.[1] They are comparable to tornadoes in that both are a weather phenomenon involving a vertically oriented rotating column of wind. Most tornadoes are associated with a larger parent circulation, the mesocyclone on the back of a supercell thunderstorm
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