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Monocots
An economically important monocotScientific classification Kingdom: PlantaeClade: AngiospermsClade: MonocotsType genusLilium L.[1]Ordersalismatid monocotsAcorales Alismataleslilioid monocotsAsparagales Dioscoreales Liliales Pandanales Petrosavialescommelinid monocotsArecales Commelinales Poales ZingiberalesSynonymsAlternifoliae Bessey[2] Endogenae DC.[3] Lilianae
Lilianae
Takht.[4][5] Liliatae Cronquist,
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Early Cretaceous
The Early Cretaceous/Middle Cretaceous
Cretaceous
(geochronological name) or the Lower Cretaceous
Cretaceous
(chronostratigraphic name), is the earlier or lower of the two major divisions of the Cretaceous. It is usually considered to stretch from 146 Ma to 100 Ma. During this time many new types of dinosaurs appeared or came into prominence, including Psittacosaurus, spinosaurids, carcharodontosaurids and coelurosaurs, while survivors from the Late Jurassic
Jurassic
continued. Angiosperms (flowering plants)[2] appear for the first time. Also, Birds appear for the first time. See also[edit]Geology portal Palaeontology portal Time portalGeologic PeriodReferences[edit]^ http://www.stratigraphy.org/index.php/ics-chart-timescale ^ Sun, G., Q. Ji, D.L. Dilcher, S. Zheng, K.C. Nixon & X. Wang 2002. Archaefructaceae, a New Basal Angiosperm
Angiosperm
Family
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Arthur Cronquist
Arthur John Cronquist (March 19, 1919 – March 22, 1992) was a United States biologist, botanist and a specialist on Compositae. He is considered one of the most influential botanists of the 20th century, largely due to his formulation of the Cronquist system
Cronquist system
as well as being the primary co-author to the Flora of the Pacific Northwest, still the most up to date flora for three northwest U.S. States to date. Two plant genera in the aster family have been named in his honor. These are Cronquistia, a possible synonym of Carphochaete, and Cronquistianthus, which is sometimes included as a group within Eupatorium. The former was applied by R.M. King and the latter by him and Harold E
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name,[1] although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature.[2] For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is Picea abies. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription, position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature)
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Charles Bessey
Charles Edwin Bessey
Charles Edwin Bessey
(21 May 1845 – 25 February 1915) was an American botanist.Contents1 Biography 2 Selected publications2.1 Books 2.2 Articles3 Legacy 4 See also 5 References 6 Bibliography 7 External linksBiography[edit] He was born at Milton, Wayne County, Ohio. He graduated in 1869 at the Michigan Agricultural College. Bessey also studied at Harvard University under Asa Gray, in 1872 and in 1875–76. He was professor of botany at the Iowa Agricultural College, today known as Iowa State University from 1870 to 1884. In 1884, he was appointed professor of botany at the University of Nebraska and became head dean there in 1909
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Precambrian
The Precambrian
Precambrian
(or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pЄ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon. The Precambrian
Precambrian
is so named because it preceded the Cambrian, the first period of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
eon, which is named after Cambria, the Latinised name for Wales, where rocks from this age were first studied. The Precambrian
Precambrian
accounts for 88% of the Earth's geologic time. The Precambrian
Precambrian
(colored green in the timeline figure) is a supereon that is subdivided into three eons (Hadean, Archean, Proterozoic) of the geologic time scale
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DC.
Augustin Pyramus de Candolle also spelled Augustin Pyrame de Candolle (4 February 1778 – 9 September 1841) was a Swiss botanist. René Louiche Desfontaines launched de Candolle's botanical career by recommending him at an herbarium. Within a couple of years de Candolle had established a new genus, and he went on to document hundreds of plant families and create a new natural plant classification system. Although de Candolle's main focus was botany, he also contributed to related fields such as phytogeography, agronomy, paleontology, medical botany, and economic botany. Candolle originated the idea of "Nature's war", which influenced Charles Darwin and the principle of natural selection.[1] de Candolle recognized that multiple species may develop similar characteristics that did not appear in a common evolutionary ancestor; this was later termed analogy
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Carl Christian Mez
Carl Christian Mez
Carl Christian Mez
(26 March 1866 – 8 January 1944) was a German botanist and university professor. He is denoted by the author abbreviation Mez when citing a botanical name.[1]Grave of Carl Mez in the Freiburg cemeteryContents1 Life and work 2 Writings (selected) 3 References 4 External linksLife and work[edit] Mez came from a family of industrialists in Freiburg im Breisgau, Baden. He was a grandchild of the entrepreneur and politician Karl Christian Mez (1808–1877). As a high-school student he was interested in botany, and wrote a technical paper regarding a hybrid Inula. In 1890, Mez married Therese (Thea) Jensen (1867–1937), the daughter of poet Wilhelm Jensen. They had 5 children together
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Sensu
Sensu is a Latin
Latin
word meaning "in the sense of". It is used in a number of fields including biology, geology, linguistics, semiotics, and law. Commonly it refers to how strictly or loosely an expression is used in describing any particular concept, but it also appears in expressions that indicate the convention or context of the usage.Contents1 Common qualifiers 2 Qualifiers and contexts 3 Circumscription 4 Examples in practical taxonomy 5 See also 6 ReferencesCommon qualifiers[edit] Sensu is the ablative case of the noun sensus, here meaning "sense". It is often accompanied by an adjective (in the same case)
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August Eichler
August Wilhelm Eichler, also known under his Latinized name, Augustus Guilielmus Eichler (22 April 1839 – 2 March 1887), was a German botanist who developed a new system of classification of plants to reflect the concept of evolution. His author abbreviation in botany is Eichler.Contents1 Biography 2 Eichler System 3 Works 4 See also 5 Notes 6 Bibliography 7 External linksBiography[edit] Born in Neukirchen, Hesse, Eichler studied at the University of Marburg, Germany, and in 1871 became Professor of Botany
Botany
at Technische Hochschule (Technical University) of Graz
Graz
and director of the botanical garden in that city.[1] In 1872 he received an appointment at the University of Kiel, where he remained until 1878 when he became director of the herbarium at the University of Berlin
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Batsch
August Johann Georg Karl Batsch (28 October 1761 – 29 September 1802) was a German naturalist. He was a recognised authority on mushrooms, and also described new species of ferns, bryophytes, and seed plants.Contents1 Life and career 2 Botany 3 Zoology 4 Selected publications 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksLife and career[edit] Batsch was born in Jena, Saxe-Weimar
Saxe-Weimar
to George Lorenz Bratsch and Ernestine (nee Franke) Bratsch. He studied at the city school, and then had private tuition. He showed an aptitude for natural sciences, and so subsequently studied at the University of Jena
Jena
(now known as the Friedrich Schiller University of Jena), entering in 1772 and obtaining his doctorate in 1781.[1] Batsch was married in 1787 to Amalie Pfaundel. They had three children, Friedrich (born 1789), George Friedrich Karl (1792), and Karoline (1795)
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Seeds
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering. The formation of the seed is part of the process of reproduction in seed plants, the spermatophytes, including the gymnosperm and angiosperm plants. Seeds are the product of the ripened ovule, after fertilization by pollen and some growth within the mother plant. The embryo is developed from the zygote and the seed coat from the integuments of the ovule. Seeds have been an important development in the reproduction and success of gymnosperm and angiosperm plants, relative to more primitive plants such as ferns, mosses and liverworts, which do not have seeds and use water-dependent means to propagate themselves. Seed plants now dominate biological niches on land, from forests to grasslands both in hot and cold climates. The term "seed" also has a general meaning that antedates the above—anything that can be sown, e.g. "seed" potatoes, "seeds" of corn or sunflower "seeds"
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Takht.
Armen Leonovich Takhtajan
Takhtajan
or Takhtajian (Armenian: Արմեն Լևոնի Թախտաջյան; Russian: Армен Леонович Тахтаджян; surname also transliterated Takhtadjan, Takhtadzhi︠a︡n
Takhtadzhi︠a︡n
or Takhtadzhian, pronounced TAHK-tuh-jahn) (June 10, 1910 – November 13, 2009), was a Soviet-Armenian botanist, one of the most important figures in 20th century plant evolution and systematics and biogeography. His other interests included morphology of flowering plants, paleobotany, and the flora of the Caucasus. He was born in Shusha
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Type Genus
In biological classification, especially zoology, the type genus is the genus which defines a biological family and the root of the family name.Contents1 Zoological nomenclature 2 Botanical nomenclature 3 See also 4 ReferencesZoological nomenclature[edit] According to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, "The name-bearing type of a nominal family-group taxon is a nominal genus called the 'type genus'; the family-group name is based upon that of the type genus."[1] Any family-group name must have a type genus (and any genus-group name must have a type species, but any species-group name may, but need not, have one or more type specimens)
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Cotyledon
A cotyledon (/kɒtɪˈliːdən/; "seed leaf" from Latin cotyledon,[1] from Greek: κοτυληδών kotylēdōn, gen.: κοτυληδόνος kotylēdonos, from κοτύλη kotýlē "cup, bowl") is a significant part of the embryo within the seed of a plant, and is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
as "The primary leaf in the embryo of the higher plants (Phanerogams); the seed-leaf."[2] Upon germination, the cotyledon may become the embryonic first leaves of a seedling. The number of cotyledons present is one characteristic used by botanists to classify the flowering plants (angiosperms). Species with one cotyledon are called monocotyledonous ("monocots"). Plants with two embryonic leaves are termed dicotyledonous ("dicots") and placed in the class Magnoliopsida. In the case of dicot seedlings whose cotyledons are photosynthetic, the cotyledons are functionally similar to leaves
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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