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Monocots
An economically important monocot SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION Kingdom: Plantae Clade: Angiosperms
Angiosperms
Clade: MONOCOTS TYPE GENUS Lilium
Lilium
L
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Batsch
AUGUST JOHANN GEORG KARL BATSCH (28 October 1761 – 29 September 1802) was a German naturalist . He was a recognised authority on mushrooms , and also described new species of ferns , bryophytes , and seed plants . CONTENTS * 1 Life and career * 2 Botany * 3 Zoology * 4 Selected publications * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links LIFE AND CAREERBatsch was born in Jena
Jena
, Saxe-Weimar to George Lorenz Bratsch and Ernestine (nee Franke) Bratsch. He studied at the city school, and then had private tuition. He showed an aptitude for natural sciences, and so subsequently studied at the University of Jena
Jena
(now known as the Friedrich Schiller University of Jena
Jena
), entering in 1772 and obtaining his doctorate in 1781. Batsch was married in 1787 to Amalie Pfaundel. They had three children, Friedrich (born 1789), George Friedrich Karl (1792), and Karoline (1795)
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Takht.
ARMEN LEONOVICH TAKHTAJAN or TAKHTAJIAN (Armenian : Արմեն Լևոնի Թախտաջյան; Russian : Армен Леонович Тахтаджян; surname also transliterated Takhtadjan, Takhtadzhi︠a︡n or Takhtadzhian, pronounced TAHK-tuh-jahn) (June 10, 1910 – November 13, 2009), was a Soviet -Armenian botanist , one of the most important figures in 20th century plant evolution and systematics and biogeography . His other interests included morphology of flowering plants , paleobotany , and the flora of the Caucasus
Caucasus
. He was born in Shusha
Shusha
. He was one of the most influential taxonomists of the latter twentieth century
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Cotyledon
A COTYLEDON (/kɒtɪˈliːdən/ ; "seed leaf" from Latin cotyledon, from Greek : κοτυληδών kotylēdōn, gen.: κοτυληδόνος kotylēdonos, from κοτύλη kotýlē "cup, bowl") is a significant part of the embryo within the seed of a plant , and is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as "The primary leaf in the embryo of the higher plants (Phanerogams); the seed-leaf." Upon germination , the cotyledon may become the embryonic first leaves of a seedling. The number of cotyledons present is one characteristic used by botanists to classify the flowering plants (angiosperms). Species with one cotyledon are called monocotyledonous ("monocots"). Plants with two embryonic leaves are termed dicotyledonous ("dicots") and placed in the class Magnoliopsida
Magnoliopsida
. In the case of dicot seedlings whose cotyledons are photosynthetic, the cotyledons are functionally similar to leaves
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Arthur Cronquist
ARTHUR JOHN CRONQUIST (March 19, 1919 – March 22, 1992) was a United States
United States
biologist, botanist and a specialist on Compositae . He is considered one of the most influential botanists of the 20th century, largely due to his formulation of the Cronquist system . Two plant genera in the aster family have been named in his honor. These are Cronquistia, a possible synonym of Carphochaete , and Cronquistianthus , which is sometimes included as a group within Eupatorium . The former was applied by R.M. King and the latter by him and Harold E. Robinson
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W.Zimm.
WALTER MAX ZIMMERMANN (May 9, 1892 – June 30, 1980) was a German botanist and systematist . Zimmernann’s notions of classifying life objectively based on phylogenetic methods and on evolutionarily important characters were foundational for modern phylogenetics. Though they were later implemented by Willi Hennig in his fundamental work on phylogenetic systematics, Zimmermann's contributions to this field have largely been overlooked. Zimmermann also made several significant developments in the field of plant systematics such as the discovery of the telome theory . The standard botanical author abbreviation W.ZIMM. is applied to species he described. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Major contributions * 2.1 Modern phylogenetics * 2.2 Plant systematics * 3 Selected publications * 4 References BIOGRAPHYWalter Zimmermann was born in Walldürn , Germany
Germany

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Type Genus
In biological classification , especially zoology , the TYPE GENUS is the genus which defines a biological family and the root of the family name. CONTENTS * 1 Zoological nomenclature * 2 Botanical nomenclature * 3 See also * 4 References ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATUREAccording to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature , "The name-bearing type of a nominal family-group taxon is a nominal genus called the 'type genus'; the family-group name is based upon that of the type genus." Any family-group name must have a type genus (and any genus-group name must have a type species , but any species-group name may, but need not, have one or more type specimens). The type genus for a family-group name is also the genus that provided the stem to which was added the ending -idae (for families)
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Seeds
A SEED is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering. The formation of the seed is part of the process of reproduction in seed plants, the spermatophytes , including the gymnosperm and angiosperm plants. Seeds are the product of the ripened ovule , after fertilization by pollen and some growth within the mother plant. The embryo is developed from the zygote and the seed coat from the integuments of the ovule. Seeds have been an important development in the reproduction and success of gymnosperm and angiosperm plants, relative to more primitive plants such as ferns , mosses and liverworts , which do not have seeds and use water-dependent means to propagate themselves. Seed plants now dominate biological niches on land, from forests to grasslands both in hot and cold climates . The term "seed" also has a general meaning that antedates the above—anything that can be sown , e.g. "seed" potatoes , "seeds" of corn or sunflower "seeds"
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Sensu
SENSU is a Latin
Latin
word meaning "in the sense of". It is used in a number of fields including biology , geology , linguistics , semiotics , and law . Commonly it refers to how strictly or loosely an expression is used in describing any particular concept, but it also appears in expressions that indicate the convention or context of the usage. CONTENTS * 1 Common qualifiers * 2 Qualifiers and contexts * 3 Circumscription * 4 Examples in practical taxonomy * 5 See also * 6 References COMMON QUALIFIERS Sensu is the ablative case of the noun sensus, here meaning "sense". It is often accompanied by an adjective (in the same case)
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature , a SYNONYM is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name, although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature. For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is Picea abies
Picea abies
. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription , position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature )
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Carl Christian Mez
CARL CHRISTIAN MEZ (26 March 1866 – 8 January 1944) was a German botanist and university professor. He is denoted by the author abbreviation MEZ when citing a botanical name . Grave of Carl Mez in the Freiburg cemetery CONTENTS * 1 Life and work * 2 Writings (selected) * 3 References * 4 External links LIFE AND WORKMez came from a family of industrialists in Freiburg im Breisgau
Freiburg im Breisgau
, Baden . He was a grandchild of the entrepreneur and politician Karl Christian Mez (1808–1877). As a high-school student he was interested in botany, and wrote a technical paper regarding a hybrid Inula
Inula
. In 1890, Mez married Therese (Thea) Jensen (1867–1937), the daughter of poet Wilhelm Jensen . They had 5 children together. Through their oldest daughter's marriage, they became parents-in-law to psychologist Narziß Ach
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Charles Bessey
CHARLES EDWIN BESSEY (21 May 1845 – 25 February 1915) was an American botanist . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Selected publications * 2.1 Books * 2.2 Articles * 3 Legacy * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Bibliography * 7 External links BIOGRAPHYHe was born at Milton , Wayne County, Ohio
Ohio
. He graduated in 1869 at the Michigan Agricultural College . Bessey also studied at Harvard University under Asa Gray
Asa Gray
, in 1872 and in 1875–76. He was professor of botany at the Iowa Agricultural College , today known as Iowa State University from 1870 to 1884. In 1884, he was appointed professor of botany at the University of Nebraska and became head dean there in 1909. He also served as Chancellor of the University of Nebraska from 1888 to 1891 and again from 1899 to 1900
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DC.
AUGUSTIN PYRAMUS DE CANDOLLE also spelled AUGUSTIN PYRAME DE CANDOLLE (4 February 1778 – 9 September 1841) was a Swiss botanist . René Louiche Desfontaines launched de Candolle's botanical career by recommending him at an herbarium . Within a couple of years de Candolle had established a new genus, and he went on to document hundreds of plant families and create a new natural plant classification system. Although de Candolle's main focus was botany, he also contributed to related fields such as phytogeography , agronomy , paleontology , medical botany, and economic botany . Candolle originated the idea of "Nature's war", which influenced Charles Darwin and the principle of natural selection . de Candolle recognized that multiple species may develop similar characteristics that did not appear in a common evolutionary ancestor; this was later termed analogy
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E.Morren
CHARLES JACQUES ÉDOUARD MORREN (2 December 1833 – 28 February 1886), was a Belgian botanist, professor of botany and director of the Jardin botanique de l\'Université de Liège from 1857-1886. His special field of study was the