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Molecular Marker
A molecular marker is a molecule contained within a sample taken from an organism (biological markers) or other matter. It can be used to reveal certain characteristics about the respective source. DNA, for example, is a molecular marker containing information about genetic disorders, genealogy and the evolutionary history of life. Specific regions of the DNA
DNA
(genetic markers) is are used to diagnose the autosomal recessive genetic disorder cystic fibrosis,[1] taxonomic affinity (phylogenetics) and identity ( DNA
DNA
Barcoding)
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Molecule
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.[4][5][6][7][8] Molecules are distinguished from ions by their lack of electrical charge. However, in quantum physics, organic chemistry, and biochemistry, the term molecule is often used less strictly, also being applied to polyatomic ions. In the kinetic theory of gases, the term molecule is often used for any gaseous particle regardless of its composition. According to this definition, noble gas atoms are considered molecules as they are monoatomic molecules.[9] A molecule may be homonuclear, that is, it consists of atoms of one chemical element, as with oxygen (O2); or it may be heteronuclear, a chemical compound composed of more than one element, as with water (H2O)
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Organism
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life. It is a synonym for "life form". Organisms are classified by taxonomy into specified groups such as the multicellular animals, plants, and fungi; or unicellular microorganisms such as a protists, bacteria, and archaea.[1] All types of organisms are capable of reproduction, growth and development, maintenance, and some degree of response to stimuli. Humans are multicellular animals composed of many trillions of cells which differentiate during development into specialized tissues and organs. An organism may be either a prokaryote or a eukaryote
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Special
Special
Special
or the specials or variation, may refer to:.mw-parser-output .tocright float:right;clear:right;width:auto;background:none;padding:.5em 0 .8em 1.4em;margin-bottom:.5em .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-left clear:left .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-both clear:both .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-none clear:none Contents1 Policing 2 Literature 3 Film and television 4 Music4.1 Albums 4.2 Songs5 Computing 6 Other uses 7 See alsoPolicing[edit] Specials, Ulster
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PubMed Identifier
PubMed
PubMed
is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine
United States National Library of Medicine
(NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval.[1] From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries
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New York Times
The New York Times
The New York Times
(sometimes abbreviated as the NYT and NYTimes) is an American newspaper based in New York City
New York City
with worldwide influence and readership.[5][6][7] Founded in 1851, the paper has won 127 Pulitzer Prizes, more than any other newspaper.[8][9] The Times
The Times
is ranked 18th in the world by circulation and 3rd in the U.S.[10] The paper is owned by The New York Times
The New York Times
Company, which is publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure.[11] It has been owned by the family since 1896; A.G
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Carl Zimmer
Carl Zimmer
Carl Zimmer
(born 1966) is a popular science writer and blogger who has specialized in the topics of evolution and parasites. He has authored many books and contributes science essays to publications such as The New York Times, Discover, and National Geographic. He is a fellow at Yale University's Morse College. Zimmer describes his journalistic beat as "life" or "what it means to be alive."[2] He is also the only science writer to have a species of tapeworm (Cestoda) named for him.[3]Contents1 Career 2 Awards 3 Bibliography3.1 Books 3.2 Essays and reporting4 References 5 External linksCareer[edit] Besides his popular science writing, Zimmer also gives frequent lectures, and has appeared on many radio shows, including National Public Radio's Radiolab, Fresh Air
Fresh Air
and This American Life
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a digital object identifier (DOI) is a persistent identifier or handle used to identify objects uniquely, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to identify their referents uniquely
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Biosignature
A biosignature (sometimes called chemical fossil or molecular fossil) is any substance – such as an element, isotope, molecule, or phenomenon – that provides scientific evidence of past or present life.[1][2][3] Measurable attributes of life include its complex physical and chemical structures and also its utilization of free energy and the production of biomass and wastes
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Alloenzyme
Alloenzymes (or also called allozymes) are variant forms of an enzyme which differs structurally but not functionally from other allozymes coded for by different alleles at the same locus. These are opposed to isozymes, which are enzymes that perform the same function, but which are coded by genes located at different loci.[1] Alloenzymes are common biological enzymes that exhibit high levels of functional evolutionary conservation throughout specific phyla and kingdoms. They are used by phylogeneticists as molecular markers to gauge evolutionary histories and relationships between different species. This can be done because allozymes do not have the same structure
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Genome
In terms of modern molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism. It consists of DNA
DNA
(or RNA
RNA
in RNA viruses)
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Alzheimer's Disease
Alzheimer's disease
Alzheimer's disease
(AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.[1][2] It is the cause of 60% to 70% of cases of dementia.[1][2] The most common early symptom is difficulty in remembering recent events (short-term memory loss).[1] As the disease advances, symptoms can include problems with language, disorientation (including easily getting lost), mood swings, loss of motivation, not managing self care, and behavioural issues.[1][2] As a
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Neurodegeneration
Neurodegeneration
Neurodegeneration
is the progressive loss of structure or function of neurons, including death of neurons. Many neurodegenerative diseases – including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and Huntington's
Huntington's
– occur as a result of neurodegenerative processes. Such diseases are incurable, resulting in progressive degeneration and/or death of neuron cells.[1] As research progresses, many similarities appear that relate these diseases to one another on a sub-cellular level. Discovering these similarities offers hope for therapeutic advances that could ameliorate many diseases simultaneously
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Molecular Diagnostics
Molecular diagnostics
Molecular diagnostics
is a collection of techniques used to analyse biological markers in the genome and proteome—the individual's genetic code and how their cells express their genes as proteins—by applying molecular biology to medical testing
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Proteins
Proteins (/ˈproʊˌtiːnz/ or /ˈproʊti.ɪnz/) are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a polypeptide. A protein contains at least one long polypeptide. Short polypeptides, containing less than 20–30 residues, are rarely considered to be proteins and are commonly called peptides, or sometimes oligopeptides. The individual amino acid residues are bonded together by peptide bonds and adjacent amino acid residues
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Natural Environment
The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally, meaning in this case not artificial. The term is most often applied to the Earth
Earth
or some parts of Earth
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