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Molar Mass
In chemistry, the molar mass M is a physical property defined as the mass of a given substance (chemical element or chemical compound) divided by the amount of substance.[1] The base SI unit
SI unit
for molar mass is kg/mol
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SI Unit
The International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement. It comprises a coherent system of units of measurement built on seven base units (ampere, kelvin, second, metre, kilogram, candela, mole) and a set of twenty decimal prefixes to the unit names and unit symbols that may be used when specifying multiples and fractions of the units. The system also specifies names for 22 derived units for other common physical quantities like lumen, watt, etc. The base units, except for one, are derived from invariant constants of nature, such as the speed of light and the triple point of water, which can be observed and measured with great accuracy
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Decimal Place
The significant figures of a number are digits that carry meaning contributing to its measurement resolution. This includes all digits except:[1]All leading zeros; Trailing zeros when they are merely placeholders to indicate the scale of the number (exact rules are explained at identifying significant figures); and Spurious digits introduced, for example, by calculations carried out to greater precision than that of the original data, or measurements reported to a greater precision than the equipment supports. Significance arithmetic are approximate rules for roughly maintaining significance throughout a computation
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Water (molecule)
Water
Water
(H 2O) is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, which is nearly colorless apart from a hint of blue. It is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" for its ability to dissolve many substances.[16][17] This allows it to be the "solvent of life".[18] It is the most abundant substance on Earth[19] and the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas on Earth's surface.[20] It is also the third most abundant molecule in the universe.[19] Water
Water
molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other and are strongly polar. This polarity allows it to separate ions in salts and strongly bond to other polar substances such as alcohols and acids, thus dissolving them
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Mass Spectrometry
Mass
Mass
spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio. In simpler terms, a mass spectrum measures the masses within a sample. Mass
Mass
spectrometry is used in many different fields and is applied to pure samples as well as complex mixtures. A mass spectrum is a plot of the ion signal as a function of the mass-to-charge ratio. These spectra are used to determine the elemental or isotopic signature of a sample, the masses of particles and of molecules, and to elucidate the chemical structures of molecules, such as peptides and other chemical compounds. In a typical MS procedure, a sample, which may be solid, liquid, or gas, is ionized, for example by bombarding it with electrons
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Part Per Million
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction. Since these fractions are quantity-per-quantity measures, they are pure numbers with no associated units of measurement. Commonly used are ppm (parts-per-million, 10−6), ppb (parts-per-billion, 10−9), ppt (parts-per-trillion, 10−12) and ppq (parts-per-quadrillion, 10−15). This notation is not part of the SI system and its meaning is ambiguous.Contents1 Overview1.1 In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy2 Parts-per expressions 3 Criticism3.1 Long and short scales 3.2 Thousand
Thousand
vs. trillion 3.3 Mass fraction vs. mole fraction vs
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Chemical Formula
A chemical formula is a way of information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs. These are limited to a single typographic line of symbols, which may include subscripts and superscripts. A chemical formula is not a chemical name, and it contains no words. Although a chemical formula may imply certain simple chemical structures, it is not the same as a full chemical structural formula. Chemical formulas can fully specify the structure of only the simplest of molecules and chemical substances, and are generally more limited in power than are chemical names and structural formulas. The simplest types of chemical formulas are called empirical formulas, which use letters and numbers indicating the numerical proportions of atoms of each type
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Phosphoramidite
A phosphoramidite (RO)2PNR2 is a monoamide of a phosphite diester. The key feature of phosphoramidites is their markedly high reactivity towards nucleophiles catalyzed by weak acids e.c., triethylammonium chloride or 1H-tetrazole
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Lithium
Lithium
Lithium
(from Greek: λίθος, translit. lithos, lit. 'stone') is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3. It is a soft, silvery-white alkali metal. Under standard conditions, it is the lightest metal and the lightest solid element. Like all alkali metals, lithium is highly reactive and flammable, and is stored in mineral oil. When cut open, it exhibits a metallic luster, but moist air corrodes it quickly to a dull silvery gray, then black tarnish. It never occurs freely in nature, but only in (usually ionic) compounds, such as pegmatitic minerals which were once the main source of lithium
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Chemical Analysis
Analytical chemistry
Analytical chemistry
studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate, identify, and quantify matter.[1] In practice separation, identification or quantification may constitute the entire analysis or be combined with another method. Separation isolates analytes. Qualitative analysis identifies analytes, while quantitative analysis determines the numerical amount or concentration. Analytical chemistry
Analytical chemistry
consists of classical, wet chemical methods and modern, instrumental methods.[2] Classical qualitative methods use separations such as precipitation, extraction, and distillation. Identification may be based on differences in color, odor, melting point, boiling point, radioactivity or reactivity. Classical quantitative analysis uses mass or volume changes to quantify amount. Instrumental methods may be used to separate samples using chromatography, electrophoresis or field flow fractionation
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Distillation
Distillation
Distillation
is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation. Distillation
Distillation
may result in essentially complete separation (nearly pure components), or it may be a partial separation that increases the concentration of selected components of the mixture. In either case the process exploits differences in the volatility of the mixture's components. In industrial chemistry, distillation is a unit operation of practically universal importance, but it is a physical separation process and not a chemical reaction. Distillation
Distillation
has many applications
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Isotopic Enrichment
Isotope separation is the process of concentrating specific isotopes of a chemical element by removing other isotopes. The use of the nuclides produced is various. The largest variety is used in research (e.g. in chemistry where atoms of "marker" nuclide are used to figure out reaction mechanisms). By tonnage, separating natural uranium into enriched uranium and depleted uranium is the largest application. In the following text, mainly the uranium enrichment is considered. This process is a crucial one in the manufacture of uranium fuel for nuclear power stations, and is also required for the creation of uranium based nuclear weapons. Plutonium-based weapons use plutonium produced in a nuclear reactor, which must be operated in such a way as to produce plutonium already of suitable isotopic mix or grade
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Standard Uncertainty
Related concepts and fundamentals:Agnosticism Epistemology Presupposition Probabilityv t eSituations often arise wherein a decision must be made when the results of each possible choice are uncertain.Uncertainty has been called "an unintelligible expression without a straightforward description".[1] It describes a situation involving ambiguous and/or unknown information. It applies to predictions of future events, to physical measurements that are already made, or to the unknown
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Rounding Error
A round-off error,[1] also called rounding error,[2] is the difference between the calculated approximation of a number and its exact mathematical value due to rounding. This is a form of quantization error.[3] One of the goals of numerical analysis is to estimate errors in calculations, including round-off error, when using approximation equations or algorithms, especially when using finitely many digits to represent real numbers (which in theory have infinitely many digits).[4] When a sequence of calculations subject to rounding error is made, errors may accumulate, sometimes dominating the calculation
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Isotope
Isotopes
Isotopes
are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number. All isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons in each atom. The term isotope is formed from the Greek roots isos (ἴσος "equal") and topos (τόπος "place"), meaning "the same place"; thus, the meaning behind the name is that different isotopes of a single element occupy the same position on the periodic table. The number of protons within the atom's nucleus is called atomic number and is equal to the number of electrons in the neutral (non-ionized) atom. Each atomic number identifies a specific element, but not the isotope; an atom of a given element may have a wide range in its number of neutrons
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Safety Data Sheet
A safety data sheet (SDS),[1] material safety data sheet (MSDS), or product safety data sheet (PSDS) is an important component of product stewardship, occupational safety and health, and spill-handling procedures. SDS formats can vary from source to source within a country depending on national requirements. SDSs are a widely used system for cataloging information on chemicals, chemical compounds, and chemical mixtures. SDS information may include instructions for the safe use and potential hazards associated with a particular material or product. The SDS should be available for reference in the area where the chemicals are being stored or in use. There is also a duty to properly label substances on the basis of physico-chemical, health or environmental risk
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