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Moksha (Jainism)
Sanskrit
Sanskrit
MOKSHA or Prakrit
Prakrit
MOKKHA means liberation or salvation. It is a blissful state of existence of a soul, completely free from the karmic bondage, free from saṃsāra , the cycle of birth and death. A liberated soul is said to have attained its true and pristine nature of infinite bliss, infinite knowledge and infinite perception. Such a soul is called siddha and is revered in Jainism
Jainism
. In Jainism
Jainism
, it is the highest and the noblest objective that a soul should strive to achieve. In fact, it is the only objective that a person should have; other objectives are contrary to the true nature of soul. With the right view, knowledge and efforts all souls can attain this state. That is why Jainism
Jainism
is also known as mokṣamārga or the "path to liberation"
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Diwali
DIWALI or DEEPAVALI is the Hindu
Hindu
festival of lights celebrated every year in autumn in the northern hemisphere (spring in southern hemisphere)
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Moksha (other)
MOKSHA is a notion in Hinduism and Jainism. MOKSHA may also refer to: * Moksa (Jainism) , means liberation, salvation or emancipation of soul * Moksha
Moksha
River * The Moksha
Moksha
people or Mordvin-Moksha, an ethnic group belonging to the Volgaic branch of the Finnic peoples
Finnic peoples
. * their Moksha
Moksha
language , one of Finno-Volgaic languages * Moksha, a drug similar to psilocybin used by the Palanese in Aldous Huxley's Island * Moksha
Moksha
(2001 film) , a Bollywood film * Moksha
Moksha
(2011 film) , a Telugu-language film * Moksha
Moksha
(festival) , the annual inter-college cultural festival of the Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology (NSIT), Delhi * moksha (with lower-case "m", also called "Jehannum"), is the name given to one of the three Ravers in Stephen R
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Arihant (Jainism)
ARIHANT (Hindi: अरिहंत , Jain Prakrit: अरिहन्त , Pali: अर्हत् , Arihanta) may refer to: * Arihant (Jainism) , in Jainism, a siddha who has not yet died * Arhat
Arhat
, in Buddhism, a person who has attained nirvaana, the perfected one* Arihant class submarine , a class
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Dilwara Temples
The DILWARA TEMPLES (Gujarati : અાબુના દેલવાડા) of India
India
are located about 2½ kilometres from Mount Abu , Rajasthan\'s only hill station. These Jain
Jain
temples were built by Vimal Shah and designed by Vastapul-Tejpal, Jain
Jain
laymen , between the 11th and 13th centuries AD and are famous for their use of marble and intricate marble carvings. The five marble temples of Dilwara
Dilwara
are a sacred pilgrimage place of the Jains. Some consider them to be one of the most beautiful Jain
Jain
pilgrimage sites in the world. The temples have an opulent entranceway, the simplicity in architecture reflecting Jain
Jain
values like honesty and frugality. The temples are in the midst of a range of forested hills. A high wall shrouds the temple complex
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Haribhadra
HARIBHADRA SURI was a Svetambara mendicant Jain leader and author. There are multiple contradictory dates assigned to his birth. According to tradition, he lived c. 459–529 CE. However, in 1919, a Jain monk named Jinavijayi pointed out that given his familiarity with Dharmakirti , a more likely choice would be sometime after 650. In his writings, Haribhadra
Haribhadra
identifies himself as a student of Jinabhadra and Jinadatta of the Vidyadhara Kula. There are several, somewhat contradictory, accounts of his life. He wrote several books on Yoga, such as the Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya and on comparative religion, outlining and analyzing the theories of Hindus, Buddhists and Jains
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Yashovijaya
YASHOVIJAYA ( IAST
IAST
: Yaśovijaya, 1624–1688), a seventeenth-century Jain philosopher-monk , was a notable Indian philosopher and logician. He was a thinker, prolific writer and commentator who had a strong and lasting influence on Jainism
Jainism
. He was a disciple of Muni Nayavijaya in the lineage of Jain monk Hiravijaya (belonging to the Tapa Gaccha tradition of Svetambara Jains) who influenced the Mughal Emperor Akbar to give up eating meat . He is also known as YASHOVIJAYJI with honorifics like MAHOPADHYAYA or UPADHYAYA or GANI
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Samantabhadra (Jain Monk)
SAMANTABHADRA was a Digambara
Digambara
acharya (head of the monastic order) who lived about the later part of the second century CE He was a proponent of the Jaina doctrine of Anekantavada . The Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra is the most popular work of Samantabhadra. Samantabhadra lived after Umaswami but before Pujyapada . CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Thought * 3 Works * 4 Praise * 5 References * 6 Sources LIFESamantabhadra is said to have lived from 150 CE to 250 CE. He was from southern India during the time of Chola dynasty
Chola dynasty
. He was a poet, logician, eulogist and an accomplished linguist. He is credited with spreading Jainism
Jainism
in southern India. Samantabhadra, in his early stage of asceticism, was attacked with a disease known as bhasmaka (the condition of insatiable hunger)
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Kundakunda
ACHARYA KUNDAKUNDA is a revered Digambara
Digambara
Jain monk and philosopher. He authored many Jain texts such as: Samayasara , Niyamasara , Pancastikayasara , Pravachanasara , Atthapahuda and Barasanuvekkha. He occupies the highest place in the tradition of the Jain acharyas . Modern scholarship has found it difficult to locate him chronologically, with a possible low date in the 2nd-3rd centuries CE and a late date in 8th century. CONTENTS * 1 Names * 2 Biography * 3 Thought * 4 Works * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links NAMESHis proper name was Padmanandin, he is popularly referred to as Kundakunda
Kundakunda
possibly because the modern village of Kondakunde in Anantapur district of Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
might represent his native home. A.N
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Śvētāmbara
The ŚVēTāMBARA (/ʃwɛˈtʌmbərə/ ; Sanskrit : श्वेतांबर or श्वेतपट śvētapaṭa; also spelled Svetambar, Shvetambara, Shvetambar, Swetambar or Shwetambar) is one of the two main sects of Jainism
Jainism
, the other being the Digambara
Digambara
. Śvētāmbara
Śvētāmbara
"white-clad" is a term describing its ascetics ' practice of wearing white clothes, which sets it apart from the Digambara
Digambara
"sky-clad" Jainas, whose ascetic practitioners go naked. Śvētāmbaras, unlike Digambaras, do not believe that ascetics must practice nudity. Śvētāmbaras also believe that women are able to obtain moksha . Śvētāmbaras maintain that the 19th Tirthankara , Māllīnātha , was a woman
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Siddhasena
SIDDHASēNA DIVāKARA (Magadhi Prakrit
Prakrit
: सिद्दसेन दिवाकर) was an Digambara
Digambara
monk in the fifth century CE who wrote works on Jain philosophy and epistemology. He was like the illuminating lamp of the Jain order and therefore came to be known as Divākara "Lamp-Maker". He is credited with the authorship of many books, most of which are not available. Sanmatitarka (‘The Logic of the True Doctrine’) is the first major Jain work on logic written in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Thought * 3 Works * 4 Notes * 5 References LIFE Siddhasena
Siddhasena
Divakara is said to have lived from 500 CE to 610 CE. He was a Brahmin by birth and a scholar. He was initiated by Acharya Vruddhavadi
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Jain Flag
The FLAG OF JAINISM has five colours: orange or red, yellow, white, green and black or dark blue. These five colours represent the Pañca-Parameṣṭhi (five supreme beings). It also represents the five main vows , small as well as great. CONTENTS* 1 Overview * 1.1 Colours * 1.2 Swastika
Swastika
* 1.3 Three Dots * 1.4 Siddhashila Chakra * 2 Photo gallery * 3 References * 4 See also OVERVIEWCOLOURSThese five colours represent the " Pañca-Parameṣṭhi " and the five vows, small as well as great: * White - represents the arihants , souls who have conquered all passions (anger, attachments, aversion) and have attained omniscience and eternal bliss through self-realization. It also denotes peace or ahimsa (nonviolence). * Red - represents the siddha , souls that have attained salvation and truth
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Mahavir Jayanti
MAHAVIR JANMA KALYANAK, also known as MAHAVIR JAYANTI, is the most important religious festival for Jains . It celebrates the birth of Mahavira , twenty-fourth and the last Tirthankara (Teaching God) of Avasarpiṇī . On the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
, the holiday occurs either in March or April. CONTENTS * 1 Birth * 2 Birth legend * 3 Celebrations * 3.1 Ahimsa run and rallies * 4 Greetings * 5 See also * 6 References * 6.1 Notes * 6.2 Citations * 6.3 Sources * 7 External links BIRTHMost modern historians consider Vasokund as Mahavira 's birthplace. According to Jain
Jain
texts, Mahavira was born on the thirteenth day of the bright half of the moon in the month of Chaitra in the year 599 BCE ( Chaitra Sud 13)
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Samvatsari
SAṃVATSARī (INTERNATIONAL FORGIVENESS DAY) is the last day of Paryushana
Paryushana
—the eight days festival of Switember Jain and ten days festival of Digamber Jain . It is the holiest day of the Jain calendar . Many Jains observe a complete fast on this day. The whole day is spent in prayers and contemplation. A yearly, elaborate penitential retreat called saṃvatsarī pratikramana is performed on this day. After the pratikramana Jains seek forgiveness from all the creatures of the world whom they may have harmed knowingly or unknowingly by uttering the phrase— Micchami Dukkadam , "Khamau Sa" , or "Khamat Khamna". As a matter of ritual, they personally greet their friends and relatives Micchami Dukkadam . No private quarrel or dispute may be carried beyond Saṃvatsarī and messages , telephone calls are made to the outstation friends and relatives asking their forgiveness. REFERENCES * ^ Shah, Nathubhai (1998)
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Palitana Temples
The PALITANA TEMPLES of Jainism
Jainism
are located on Shatrunjaya hill by the city of Palitana
Palitana
in Bhavnagar district , Gujarat
Gujarat
, India
India
. The city of the same name, known previously as Padliptapur, has been dubbed "City of Temples". Shatrunjaya means a "place of victory against inner enemies" or "which conquers inner enemies". This site on Shatrunjaya hill is considered sacred by Svetambara Jains. It is said that 23 of 24 Jain Tirthankaras , except Neminatha , sanctified the hill by their visits. There are approximately 863 marble-carved temples on the hills spread mostly in nine clusters, some being vast temple complexes, while most small in size
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Timeline Of Jainism
Jainism
Jainism
is an ancient Indian religion belonging to the śramaṇa tradition. It prescribes ahimsa (non-violence) towards all living beings to the most possible extent. The three main teachings of Jainism
Jainism
are ahimsa, anekantavada (non-absolutism), aparigraha (non-possessiveness). Followers of Jainism
Jainism
take five main vows: ahimsa, satya (not lying), asteya (non stealing), brahmacharya (chastity), and aparigraha. Monks follow them completely whereas śrāvakas (householders) observe them partially. Self-discipline and asceticism are thus major focuses of Jainism
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