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Moksha (Jainism)
Sanskrit MOKSHA or Prakrit MOKKHA means liberation or salvation. It is a blissful state of existence of a soul, completely free from the karmic bondage, free from saṃsāra , the cycle of birth and death. A liberated soul is said to have attained its true and pristine nature of infinite bliss, infinite knowledge and infinite perception. Such a soul is called siddha and is revered in Jainism . In Jainism , it is the highest and the noblest objective that a soul should strive to achieve. In fact, it is the only objective that a person should have; other objectives are contrary to the true nature of soul. With the right view, knowledge and efforts all souls can attain this state. That is why Jainism is also known as mokṣamārga or the "path to liberation"
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Moksha (other)
MOKSHA is a notion in Hinduism and Jainism. MOKSHA may also refer to: * Moksa (Jainism) , means liberation, salvation or emancipation of soul * Moksha
Moksha
River * The Moksha
Moksha
people or Mordvin-Moksha, an ethnic group belonging to the Volgaic branch of the Finnic peoples
Finnic peoples
. * their Moksha
Moksha
language , one of Finno-Volgaic languages * Moksha, a drug similar to psilocybin used by the Palanese in Aldous Huxley's Island * Moksha
Moksha
(2001 film) , a Bollywood film * Moksha
Moksha
(2011 film) , a Telugu-language film * Moksha
Moksha
(festival) , the annual inter-college cultural festival of the Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology (NSIT), Delhi * moksha (with lower-case "m", also called "Jehannum"), is the name given to one of the three Ravers in Stephen R
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Diwali
DIWALI or DEEPAVALI is the Hindu festival of lights celebrated every year in autumn in the northern hemisphere (spring in southern hemisphere). It is an official holiday in Fiji , Guyana , India , Malaysia , Mauritius , Myanmar , Nepal , Singapore , Sri Lanka , Suriname , Trinidad and Tobago , and recently Sindh Province in Pakistan. One of the most popular festivals of Hinduism, it spiritually signifies the victory of light over darkness, good over evil, knowledge over ignorance, and hope over despair. Its celebration includes millions of lights shining on housetops, outside doors and windows, around temples and other buildings in the communities and countries where it is observed
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Dilwara Temples
The DILWARA TEMPLES (Gujarati : અાબુના દેલવાડા) of India
India
are located about 2½ kilometres from Mount Abu
Mount Abu
, Rajasthan\'s only hill station. These Jain
Jain
temples were built by Vimal Shah and designed by Vastapul-Tejpal, Jain
Jain
laymen , between the 11th and 13th centuries AD and are famous for their use of marble and intricate marble carvings. The five marble temples of Dilwara
Dilwara
are a sacred pilgrimage place of the Jains. Some consider them to be one of the most beautiful Jain
Jain
pilgrimage sites in the world. The temples have an opulent entranceway, the simplicity in architecture reflecting Jain
Jain
values like honesty and frugality. The temples are in the midst of a range of forested hills. A high wall shrouds the temple complex
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Haribhadra
HARIBHADRA SURI was a Svetambara
Svetambara
mendicant Jain leader and author. There are multiple contradictory dates assigned to his birth. According to tradition, he lived c. 459–529 CE. However, in 1919, a Jain monk named Jinavijayi pointed out that given his familiarity with Dharmakirti
Dharmakirti
, a more likely choice would be sometime after 650. In his writings, Haribhadra
Haribhadra
identifies himself as a student of Jinabhadra and Jinadatta of the Vidyadhara Kula. There are several, somewhat contradictory, accounts of his life. He wrote several books on Yoga, such as the Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya and on comparative religion, outlining and analyzing the theories of Hindus, Buddhists and Jains
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Yashovijaya
YASHOVIJAYA ( IAST : Yaśovijaya, 1624–1688), a seventeenth-century Jain philosopher-monk , was a notable Indian philosopher and logician. He was a thinker, prolific writer and commentator who had a strong and lasting influence on Jainism . He was a disciple of Muni Nayavijaya in the lineage of Jain monk Hiravijaya (belonging to the Tapa Gaccha tradition of Svetambara Jains) who influenced the Mughal Emperor Akbar to give up eating meat . He is also known as YASHOVIJAYJI with honorifics like MAHOPADHYAYA or UPADHYAYA or GANI. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Life as a monk * 3 Philosophy * 3.1 Secular intellect and tolerance * 3.2 Conception of self * 3.3 Intellectual critic and criticisms * 4 Influence and legacy * 5 Works * 6 Notes * 7 References EARLY LIFE Yashovijaya
Yashovijaya
was born in a village called Kanoda in the Mehsana district in Gujarat
Gujarat
in 1624 CE
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Śvētāmbara
The ŚVēTāMBARA (/ʃwɛˈtʌmbərə/ ; Sanskrit : श्वेतांबर or श्वेतपट śvētapaṭa; also spelled Svetambar, Shvetambara, Shvetambar, Swetambar or Shwetambar) is one of the two main sects of Jainism
Jainism
, the other being the Digambara . Śvētāmbara
Śvētāmbara
"white-clad" is a term describing its ascetics ' practice of wearing white clothes, which sets it apart from the Digambara "sky-clad" Jainas, whose ascetic practitioners go naked. Śvētāmbaras, unlike Digambaras, do not believe that ascetics must practice nudity. Śvētāmbaras also believe that women are able to obtain moksha . Śvētāmbaras maintain that the 19th Tirthankara
Tirthankara
, Māllīnātha , was a woman
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Siddhasena
SIDDHASēNA DIVāKARA (Magadhi Prakrit
Prakrit
: सिद्दसेन दिवाकर) was an Digambara monk in the fifth century CE who wrote works on Jain philosophy and epistemology. He was like the illuminating lamp of the Jain order and therefore came to be known as Divākara "Lamp-Maker". He is credited with the authorship of many books, most of which are not available. Sanmatitarka (‘The Logic of the True Doctrine’) is the first major Jain work on logic written in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Thought * 3 Works * 4 Notes * 5 References LIFE Siddhasena
Siddhasena
Divakara is said to have lived from 500 CE to 610 CE. He was a Brahmin by birth and a scholar. He was initiated by Acharya Vruddhavadi
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Kundakunda
ACHARYA KUNDAKUNDA is a revered Digambara
Digambara
Jain monk and philosopher. He authored many Jain texts
Jain texts
such as: Samayasara
Samayasara
, Niyamasara
Niyamasara
, Pancastikayasara , Pravachanasara , Atthapahuda and Barasanuvekkha. He occupies the highest place in the tradition of the Jain acharyas . Modern scholarship has found it difficult to locate him chronologically, with a possible low date in the 2nd-3rd centuries CE and a late date in 8th century
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Dravyasamgraha
DRAVYASAṃGRAHA (Devnagari: द्रव्यसंग्रह) (Compendium of substances) is a 10th-century Jain text
Jain text
in Jain Sauraseni Prakrit by Acharya Nemicandra belonging to the Digambara Jain
Jain
tradition. It is a composition of 58 gathas (verses) giving an exposition of the six dravyas (substances) that characterize the Jain view of the world: sentient (jīva ), non-sentient (pudgala ), principle of motion (dharma ), principle of rest (adharma), space (ākāśa) and time (kāla ). It is one of the most important Jain works and has gained widespread popularity. Dravyasaṃgraha has played an important role in Jain
Jain
education and is often memorized because of its comprehensiveness as well as brevity
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Samantabhadra (Jain Monk)
SAMANTABHADRA was a Digambara
Digambara
acharya (head of the monastic order) who lived about the later part of the second century CE He was a proponent of the Jaina doctrine of Anekantavada
Anekantavada
. The Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra is the most popular work of Samantabhadra. Samantabhadra lived after Umaswami
Umaswami
but before Pujyapada . CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Thought * 3 Works * 4 Praise * 5 References * 6 Sources LIFESamantabhadra is said to have lived from 150 CE to 250 CE. He was from southern India during the time of Chola dynasty
Chola dynasty
. He was a poet, logician, eulogist and an accomplished linguist. He is credited with spreading Jainism
Jainism
in southern India. Samantabhadra, in his early stage of asceticism, was attacked with a disease known as bhasmaka (the condition of insatiable hunger)
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Jain Symbols
JAIN SYMBOLS are symbols based on the Jain philosophy
Jain philosophy
. CONTENTS * 1 Swastika
Swastika
* 2 Symbol
Symbol
of Ahimsa * 3 Jain emblem * 3.1 Fundamental concepts * 3.2 Usage * 4 Jain flag
Jain flag
* 5 Om * 6 Om * 6.1 Other symbols * 7 Photo gallery * 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 References SWASTIKA Main article: Swastika
Swastika
The swastika is an important Jain symbol. The four arms of the swastika symbolize the four states of existence as per Jainism
Jainism
: * Heavenly beings (devas encantadia") * Human beings * Hellish being * Tiryancha (subhuman like flora or fauna)It represents the perpetual nature of the universe in the material world, where a creature is destined to one of those states based on their karma
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Samvatsari
SAṃVATSARī (INTERNATIONAL FORGIVENESS DAY) is the last day of Paryushana —the eight days festival of Switember Jain and ten days festival of Digamber Jain . It is the holiest day of the Jain calendar . Many Jains observe a complete fast on this day. The whole day is spent in prayers and contemplation. A yearly, elaborate penitential retreat called saṃvatsarī pratikramana is performed on this day. After the pratikramana Jains seek forgiveness from all the creatures of the world whom they may have harmed knowingly or unknowingly by uttering the phrase— Micchami Dukkadam
Micchami Dukkadam
, "Khamau Sa" , or "Khamat Khamna". As a matter of ritual, they personally greet their friends and relatives Micchami Dukkadam
Micchami Dukkadam
. No private quarrel or dispute may be carried beyond Saṃvatsarī and messages , telephone calls are made to the outstation friends and relatives asking their forgiveness
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Palitana Temples
The PALITANA TEMPLES of Jainism are located on Shatrunjaya
Shatrunjaya
hill by the city of Palitana
Palitana
in Bhavnagar district , Gujarat
Gujarat
, India
India
. The city of the same name, known previously as Padliptapur, has been dubbed "City of Temples". Shatrunjaya
Shatrunjaya
means a "place of victory against inner enemies" or "which conquers inner enemies". This site on Shatrunjaya
Shatrunjaya
hill is considered sacred by Svetambara Jains. It is said that 23 of 24 Jain Tirthankaras , except Neminatha , sanctified the hill by their visits. There are approximately 863 marble-carved temples on the hills spread mostly in nine clusters, some being vast temple complexes, while most small in size
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Mahavir Jayanti
MAHAVIR JANMA KALYANAK, also known as MAHAVIR JAYANTI, is the most important religious festival for Jains . It celebrates the birth of Mahavira
Mahavira
, twenty-fourth and the last Tirthankara
Tirthankara
(Teaching God) of Avasarpiṇī . On the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
, the holiday occurs either in March or April. CONTENTS * 1 Birth * 2 Birth legend * 3 Celebrations * 3.1 Ahimsa run and rallies * 4 Greetings * 5 See also * 6 References * 6.1 Notes * 6.2 Citations * 6.3 Sources * 7 External links BIRTHMost modern historians consider Vasokund as Mahavira
Mahavira
's birthplace. According to Jain
Jain
texts, Mahavira
Mahavira
was born on the thirteenth day of the bright half of the moon in the month of Chaitra
Chaitra
in the year 599 BCE ( Chaitra
Chaitra
Sud 13)
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Timeline Of Jainism
Jainism is an ancient Indian religion belonging to the śramaṇa tradition. It prescribes ahimsa (non-violence) towards all living beings to the most possible extent. The three main teachings of Jainism are ahimsa, anekantavad