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Mokaya
MOKAYA were pre- Olmec
Olmec
cultures of the Soconusco region in Mexico
Mexico
and parts of the Pacific coast of western Guatemala
Guatemala
, an archaeological culture that developed a number of Mesoamerica’s earliest-known sedentary settlements. The Soconusco region is generally divided by archaeologists into three adjacent zones along the coast—the Lower Río Naranjo region (along the Pacific coast of western Guatemala), Acapetahua, and Mazatán (both on the Pacific coast of modern-day Chiapas
Chiapas
, Mexico). These three zones are about 50 km apart along the coast, but they are connected by a natural inland waterway, which could have permitted easy communication in prehistoric times. The term _Mokaya_ was coined by archaeologists to mean "corn people" in an early form of the Mixe–Zoquean language, which the Mokaya supposedly spoke. CONTENTS * 1 Chronology * 2 Occupational phases * 2.1 Barra: ceramics and chocolate * 2.2 Locona (1650-1550 BC) * 2.3 Ocós to Jocotal phases * 2.4 Conchas (850-650 BC) * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References CHRONOLOGYThe Mokaya
Mokaya
are thought to be the first to domesticate cacao the precursor to chocolate. Around 1900 BC, they domesticated one of the dozen species of cacao and brought it from the upper Amazon
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Olmec
The OLMECS were the first major civilization in Guatemala
Guatemala
and Mexico following a progressive development in Soconusco and modern southwestern pacific lowlands of Guatemala. They lived in the tropical lowlands of south-central Mexico, in the present-day states of Veracruz
Veracruz
and Tabasco
Tabasco
. It has been speculated that Olmec
Olmec
derive in part from neighboring Mokaya
Mokaya
and/or Mixe–Zoque . The population of the Olmecs flourished during Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
's formative period , dating roughly from as early as 1500 BCE to about 400 BCE. Pre- Olmec
Olmec
cultures had flourished in the area since about 2500 BCE, but by 1600–1500 BCE, early Olmec
Olmec
culture had emerged, centered on the San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán site near the coast in southeast Veracruz. They were the first Mesoamerican civilization, and laid many of the foundations for the civilizations that followed. Among other "firsts", the Olmec
Olmec
appeared to practice ritual bloodletting and played the Mesoamerican ballgame , hallmarks of nearly all subsequent Mesoamerican societies. The aspect of the Olmecs most familiar now is their artwork, particularly the aptly named "colossal heads "
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Soconusco
Coordinates : 15°18′56.14″N 92°43′35.01″W / 15.3155944°N 92.7263917°W / 15.3155944; -92.7263917 Soconusco
Soconusco
Region, Chiapas
Chiapas
State SOCONUSCO is a region in the southwest corner of the state of Chiapas in Mexico
Mexico
along its border with Guatemala
Guatemala
. It is a narrow strip of land wedged between the Sierra Madre de Chiapas
Chiapas
mountains and the Pacific Ocean. It is the southernmost part of the Chiapas
Chiapas
coast extending south from the Ulapa River to the Suchiate River , distinguished by its history and economic production. Abundant moisture and volcanic soil has always made it rich for agriculture, contributing to the flowering of the Mokaya
Mokaya
and Olmec
Olmec
cultures, that were based on Theobroma cacao
Theobroma cacao
and rubber of Castilla elastica . In the 19th century, the area was disputed between Mexico
Mexico
and Guatemala
Guatemala
until a treaty signed in 1882 fixed the modern border, dividing the area’s historical extension with most going to Mexico and a smaller portion south of the Suchiate to Guatemala
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Mexico
Coordinates : 23°N 102°W / 23°N 102°W / 23; -102 United Mexican States _Estados Unidos Mexicanos_ (Spanish ) _ Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: Himno Nacional Mexicano
Himno Nacional Mexicano
_ (English: "Mexican National Anthem") Capital and largest city Mexico City
Mexico City
19°26′N 99°08′W / 19.433°N 99.133°W / 19.433; -99.133 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES None at federal level RECOGNIZED REGIONAL LANGUAGES* Spanish 68 native language groups
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Guatemala
Coordinates : 15°30′N 90°15′W / 15.500°N 90.250°W / 15.500; -90.250 Republic of Guatemala _República de Guatemala_ (Spanish ) _ Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: * "Libre Crezca Fecundo" * "El País de la Eterna Primavera" * "The Land of the Eternal Spring" ANTHEM: _ Himno Nacional de Guatemala _ _National Anthem of Guatemala_------------------------- MARCH: _ La Granadera _ _The Song of the Grenadier_ Capital and largest city Guatemala City 14°38′N 90°30′W / 14.633°N 90.500°W / 14.633; -90.500 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES Spanish ETHNIC GROUPS (2010) * 41.5% mestizo * 41% indigenous peoples * (9.1% K\'iche\' * 8.4% Kaqchikel * 7.9% Mam * 6.3% Q\'eqchi\' * 8.6% other Maya * 0.2% non-Maya indigenous * 0.1% others) * 18% white DEMONYM Guatemalan Chapín (in
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Archaeological Culture
An ARCHAEOLOGICAL CULTURE is a recurring assemblage of artifacts from a specific time and place that may constitute the material culture remains of a particular past human society . The connection between the artifacts is based on archaeologists' understanding and interpretation and does not necessarily relate to real groups of humans in the past. The concept of archaeological culture is fundamental to culture-historical archaeology . CONTENTS* 1 Concept * 1.1 Terminology * 2 Development * 3 Notes * 4 References * 5 External links CONCEPT _ This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (October 2011)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_Different cultural groups have material culture items that differ both functionally and aesthetically due to varying cultural and social practices. This notion is observably true on the broadest scales. For example, the equipment associated with the brewing of tea varies greatly across the world. Social relations to material culture often include notions of identity and status
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Naranjo River
The RíO NARANJO is a river in south-west Guatemala. Its sources are located in the Sierra Madre in the western department of San Marcos . From there it flows past the town Coatepeque in the department of Quetzaltenango through the coastal plains of Retalhuleu into the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
. The Naranjo river basin covers a territory of 1,273 square kilometres (492 sq mi) and has a population of approximately 272,611 people REFERENCES * ^ INSIVUMEH. "Principales ríos de Guatemala". * ^ Jeffrey Rivera ">(PDF). Retrieved 2008. Check date values in: access-date= (help ) This article related to a river in Guatemala
Guatemala
is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Río_Naranjo_(Guatemala) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Mazatán, Chiapas
VILLA MAZATáN (Spanish pronunciation: is one of the 122 municipalities in the state of Chiapas. It has an area of 386.6 km ² and is located in the southwestern Mexican state. In 2010, the municipality had a total population of 26,573. In 2010, the town of Mazatán had a population of 6,838. Other than the town of Mazatán, the municipality had 177 localities, the largest of which (with 2010 populations in parentheses) were: Buenos Aires (4,260), classified as urban, and Marte R. Gómez (1,263) and Aquiles Serdán (1,135), classified as rural. A very long archaeological history, going back to 2500 BC, has been documented for this area. CONTENTS * 1 Situation * 2 Toponymy * 3 History * 3.1 Canton Corralito * 3.2 Ojo de Agua * 4 Government * 5 References SITUATION This article NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message ) Archaeological sites in Mazatan area The name of this town comes from the union of two words in Nahuatl, Toltec, mass and so, the name given by the ancient Olmecs
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Chiapas
^ a. By the will of the people of Chiapas
Chiapas
expressed by direct vote for incorporation into the Federation. ^ b. The state's GDP
GDP
was 153,062,117 thousand of pesos in 2008, amount corresponding to 11,957,977.89 thousand of dollars , being a dollar worth 12.80 pesos (value of June 3, 2010). CHIAPAS (Spanish pronunciation: ( listen )), officially the FREE AND SOVEREIGN STATE OF CHIAPAS (Spanish : Estado Libre y Soberano de Chiapas), is one of the 31 states that, with the Federal District , make up the 32 federal entities of Mexico
Mexico
. It is divided into 122 municipalities and its capital city is Tuxtla Gutiérrez . Other important population centers in Chiapas
Chiapas
include Ocosingo , Tapachula , San Cristóbal de las Casas , Comitán and Arriaga . It is the southernmost state, bordered by the states of Oaxaca
Oaxaca
to the west, Veracruz
Veracruz
to the northwest and Tabasco
Tabasco
to the north, and by the Petén , Quiché , Huehuetenango and San Marcos departments of Guatemala
Guatemala
to the east and southeast. Chiapas
Chiapas
has a coastline along the Pacific Ocean to the south. In general, Chiapas
Chiapas
has a humid, tropical climate
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Mixe–Zoquean Languages
The MIXE–ZOQUE LANGUAGES are a language family whose living members are spoken in and around the Isthmus of Tehuantepec
Isthmus of Tehuantepec
, Mexico
Mexico
. The Mexican government recognizes three distinct Mixe–Zoquean languages as official: Mixe or ayook with 188,000 speakers, Zoque or o'de püt with 88,000 speakers, and the Popoluca languages of which some are Mixean and some Zoquean with 69,000 speakers. However the internal diversity in each of these groups is great and the Ethnologue counts 17 different languages, and the current classification of Mixe–Zoquean languages by Wichmann (1995) counts 12 languages and 11 dialects. Extinct languages classified as Mixe–Zoquean include Tapachultec , formerly spoken along the southeast coast of Chiapas
Chiapas
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Classification * 2.1 Wichmann (1995) * 2.2 Kaufman & Justeson (2000) * 3 Phonology * 3.1 Syllables * 4 Grammatical features * 5 Ethnologue classification and SIL ISO-codes * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORYHistorically the Mixe–Zoquean family may have been much more widespread, reaching into the Guatemalan Pacific coast (i.e. the Soconusco region)
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History Of Chocolate
The HISTORY OF CHOCOLATE begins in Mesoamerica . Fermented beverages made from chocolate date back to 1900 BC. The Aztecs believed that cacao seeds were the gift of Quetzalcoatl , the god of wisdom, and the seeds once had so much value that they were used as a form of currency. Originally prepared only as a drink, chocolate was served as a bitter, frothy liquid, mixed with spices or corn puree. It was believed to have aphrodisiac powers and to give the drinker strength. Today, such drinks are also known as "Chilate" and are made by locals in the South of Mexico. After its arrival to Europe in the sixteenth century, sugar was added to it and it became popular throughout society, first among the ruling classes and then among the common people. In the 20th century, chocolate was considered essential in the rations of United States soldiers at war . The word "chocolate" comes from the Classical Nahuatl word chocolātl, and entered the English language from the Spanish language. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 History in Europe * 2.1 Early history * 2.2 Expansion * 3 Modern usage * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORY An Aztec woman generates foam by pouring chocolate from one vessel to another in the Codex Tudela
Codex Tudela
Cultivation, use, and cultural elaboration of cacao were early and extensive in Mesoamerica , to which the cacao tree is native
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Mesoamerican Chronology
MESOAMERICAN CHRONOLOGY divides the history of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
into several periods: the Paleo-Indian (first human habitation–3500 BCE), the Archaic (3500–2000), the Preclassic or Formative (2000 BCE–200 CE), the Classic (200 CE–1000CE), and the Postclassic (1000 CE–1697 CE). Some of the period divisions are taken from the history of the Maya : The Preclassic-Classic boundary marks the first Maya "collapse", the Classic-Postclassic boundary marks the second, and the end date of 1697 marks the conquest of the last independent Maya city
Maya city
-state, Tayasal. However, this chronology applies to other pre-Columbian Mesoamerican civilizations as well
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Common Era
COMMON ERA or CURRENT ERA (CE) is a year-numbering system (calendar era ) for the Julian and Gregorian calendars that refers to the years since the start of this era, i.e., since the beginning of AD 1. The preceding era is referred to as BEFORE THE COMMON or CURRENT ERA (BCE). The Current Era notation system can be used as an alternative to the Dionysian era system, which distinguishes eras as AD (_anno Domini_, " year of Lord") and BC ("before Christ"). The two notation systems are numerically equivalent; thus "2017 CE" corresponds to "AD 2017" and "400 BCE" corresponds to "400 BC". The year-numbering system for the Gregorian calendar is the most widespread civil calendar system used in the world today. For decades, it has been the global standard, recognized by international institutions such as the United Nations and the Universal Postal Union . The expression has been traced back to Latin usage to 1615, as _vulgaris aerae_, and to 1635 in English as "Vulgar Era". The term "Common Era" can be found in English as early as 1708, and became more widely used in the mid-19th century by Jewish academics
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Olmec Heartland
The OLMEC HEARTLAND is the southern portion of Mexico 's Gulf Coast region between the Tuxtla mountains and the Olmec archaeological site of La Venta , extending roughly 80 km (50 mi) inland from the Gulf of Mexico coastline at its deepest. It is today, as it was during the height of the Olmec civilization, a tropical lowland forest environment, crossed by meandering rivers. Most researchers consider the Olmec heartland to be the home of the Olmec culture which became widespread over Mesoamerica from 1400 BCE until roughly 400 BCE. The area is also referred to as OLMAN or the OLMEC METROPOLITAN ZONE
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Hematite
HEMATITE, also spelled as HAEMATITE, is the mineral form of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3), one of several iron oxides . Hematite crystallizes in the rhombohedral lattice system , and it has the same crystal structure as ilmenite and corundum . Hematite and ilmenite form a complete solid solution at temperatures above 950 °C (1,740 °F). Hematite is colored black to steel or silver-gray, brown to reddish brown, or red. It is mined as the main ore of iron . Varieties include _kidney ore_, _martite_ (pseudomorphs after magnetite ), _iron rose_ and _specularite_ (specular hematite). While the forms of hematite vary, they all have a rust-red streak. Hematite is harder than pure iron, but much more brittle. Maghemite is a hematite- and magnetite -related oxide mineral. Huge deposits of hematite are found in banded iron formations . Gray hematite is typically found in places that can have still standing water or mineral hot springs , such as those in Yellowstone National Park in North America . The mineral can precipitate out of water and collect in layers at the bottom of a lake, spring, or other standing water. Hematite can also occur without water, however, usually as the result of volcanic activity
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Paso De La Amada
PASO DE LA AMADA (from Spanish: "beloved's pass" is an archaeological site in the Mexican state of Chiapas
Chiapas
on the Gulf of Tehuantepec , in the Mazatán part of Soconusco region of Mesoamerica . It is located in farmland between the modern town of Buenos Aires and the settlement of El Picudo. This site was occupied during the Early Formative era, possibly the Mokaya from about 1800 BCE to 1000 BCE, and covered approximately 50 hectares of land. Paso de la Amada
Paso de la Amada
is particularly notable for being the site of the oldest Mesoamerican ballcourt
Mesoamerican ballcourt
, for being "the best evidence" for Olmec contacts in the Soconusco region, and for presenting early evidence of social stratification. CONTENTS * 1 Discovery and excavation * 2 Earliest ballcourt * 3 Mound 6 * 3.1 Significance * 4 Olmec influence * 5