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Modica
MODICA (Sicilian : Muòrica, Greek : Μότουκα, Motouka, Latin : Mutyca or Motyca) is a city and comune in the Province of Ragusa
Province of Ragusa
, Sicily
Sicily
, southern Italy
Italy
. The city is situated in the Hyblaean Mountains . Its architecture has been recognised as providing outstanding testimony to the exuberant genius and final flowering of Baroque art in Europe and, along with other towns in the Val di Noto
Val di Noto
, is part of UNESCO Heritage Sites in Italy
Italy
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Main sights * 3 Economy * 4 Culture * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORYAccording to Thucydides
Thucydides
, the city was founded in 1360 BC or 1031 BC and was inhabited by the Sicels
Sicels
in the 7th century BC. It was probably a dependency of Syracuse
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Ancient Rome
ANCIENT ROME was originally an Italic settlement dating from the 8th century BC that grew into the city of Rome
Rome
and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed. The Roman empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world , though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants (roughly 20% of the world's population ) and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117. In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and then to an increasingly autocratic empire . Through conquest and assimilation , it eventually dominated the Mediterranean region, Western Europe , Asia Minor
Asia Minor
, North Africa , and parts of Northern and Eastern Europe
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Egadi
The AEGADIAN ISLANDS (Italian : Isole Egadi; Sicilian : Ìsuli Ègadi, Latin : Aegates Insulae, Greek : Αιγάται Νήσοι, meaning "the islands of goats") are a group of five small mountainous islands in the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
off the northwest coast of Sicily
Sicily
, Italy
Italy
, near the cities of Trapani
Trapani
and Marsala
Marsala
, with a total area of 37.45 square kilometres (14.46 sq mi). The Island of Favignana (Aegusa), the largest, lies 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) southwest of Trapani; Levanzo (Phorbantia) lies 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) west; and Marettimo , the ancient Iera Nesos, 24 kilometres (15 mi) west of Trapani, is now reckoned as a part of the group. There are also two minor islands, Formica and Maraone, lying between Levanzo and Sicily
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Carthaginians
The PUNICS (from Latin
Latin
pūnicus, pl. pūnici), also known as CARTHAGINIANS, were a people from Ancient Carthage
Ancient Carthage
in modern-day Tunisia
Tunisia
, North Africa, who traced their origins to the Berbers
Berbers
and Phoenicians . PUNIC is the English adjective derived from the Latin adjective punicus to describe anything Carthaginian. Their language, Punic , was a dialect of Phoenician . Unlike their Phoenician ancestors, Carthaginians had a landowning aristocracy who established a rule of the hinterland in Northern Africa and trans-Saharan trade routes . In later times one of these clans established a Hellenistic -inspired empire in Iberia , possibly having a foothold in western Gaul
Gaul

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Punic Wars
The PUNIC WARS were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage from 264 BC to 146 BC. At the time, they were probably the largest wars that had ever taken place. The term Punic comes from the Latin
Latin
word Punicus (or Poenicus), meaning "Carthaginian", with reference to the Carthaginians' Phoenician ancestry. The main cause of the Punic Wars
Punic Wars
was the conflicts of interest between the existing Carthaginian Empire and the expanding Roman Republic. The Romans were initially interested in expansion via Sicily
Sicily
(which at that time was a cultural melting pot), part of which lay under Carthaginian control. At the start of the first Punic War, Carthage was the dominant power of the Western Mediterranean, with an extensive maritime empire. Rome was a rapidly ascending power in Italy , but it lacked the naval power of Carthage
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Sicels
The SICELS (Latin : Siculi; Ancient Greek : Σικελοί Sikeloi) were an Italic tribe who inhabited eastern Sicily
Sicily
during the Iron Age . Their neighbours to the west were the Sicani . The Sicels
Sicels
gave Sicily
Sicily
the name it has held since antiquity, but they rapidly fused into the culture of Magna Graecia . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Language * 3 Mythology * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 Sources * 7 Further reading * 8 External links HISTORYArchaeological excavation has shown some Mycenean influence on Bronze Age Sicily. The earliest literary mention of Sicels
Sicels
is in the Odyssey . Homer also mentions Sicania
Sicania
, but makes no distinctions: "they were (from) a faraway place and a faraway people and apparently they were one and the same" for Homer, Robin Lane Fox notes
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Thucydides
THUCYDIDES (/θjuːˈsɪdᵻdiːz/ ; Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Θουκυδίδης, Thoukydídēs, ; c. 460 – c. 400 BC) was an Athenian
Athenian
historian and general . His History of the Peloponnesian War recounts the 5th century BC war between Sparta
Sparta
and Athens
Athens
to the year 411 BC. Thucydides
Thucydides
has been dubbed the father of "scientific history" by those who accept his claims to have applied strict standards of evidence-gathering and analysis of cause and effect, without reference to intervention by the gods, as outlined in his introduction to his work. He has also been called the father of the school of political realism , which views the political behavior of individuals and the subsequent outcomes of relations between states as ultimately mediated by and constructed upon the emotions of fear and self-interest
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek : ελληνικά , elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα ( listen ), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B
Linear B
and the Cypriot syllabary , were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems
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Latin
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages . The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic , it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian . Latin
Latin
, Italian and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Arab
ARABS ( Arabic
Arabic
: عَرَب‎‎ ; ( listen )) are a population inhabiting the Arab world . They primarily live in the Arab
Arab
states in Western Asia
Western Asia
, North Africa
North Africa
, the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
and western Indian Ocean islands . The Arabs are first mentioned in the mid-ninth century BC as tribal people in eastern and southern Syria, and the northern Arabian Peninsula. The Arabs appear to have been under the vassalage of the Neo-Assyrian Empire (911–612 BC), and the succeeding Neo-Babylonian (626–539 BC), Achaemenid (539–332 BC), Seleucid and Parthian empires
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UNESCO Heritage Sites
A WORLD HERITAGE SITE is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO
UNESCO
) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties. The sites are judged important to the collective interests of humanity. To be selected, a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
must be an already classified landmark, unique in some respect as a geographically and historically identifiable place having special cultural or physical significance (such as an ancient ruin or historical structure, building, city, complex, desert, forest, island, lake, monument, mountain, or wilderness area). It may signify a remarkable accomplishment of humanity, and serve as evidence of our intellectual history on the planet
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Verres
GAIUS VERRES (ca. 120 BC – 43 BC) was a Roman magistrate , notorious for his misgovernment of Sicily
Sicily
. His extortion of local farmers and plundering of temples led to his prosecution by Cicero
Cicero
, whose accusations were so devastating that his defence advocate could only recommend that Verres
Verres
should leave the country. Cicero’s prosecution speeches were later published as the Verrine Orations . CONTENTS* 1 Biography * 1.1 Public career * 1.2 Trial and exile * 2 Popular culture references * 3 References * 4 External links BIOGRAPHY THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION
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Municipium
MUNICIPIUM (pl. MUNICIPIA) was the Latin term for a town or city. Etymologically the municipium was a social contract between municipes, the "duty holders," or citizens of the town. The duties, or munera, were a communal obligation assumed by the municipes in exchange for the privileges and protections of citizenship. Every citizen was a municeps. The distinction of municipia was not made in the Roman kingdom ; instead, the immediate neighbors of the city were invited or compelled to transfer their populations to the urban structure of Rome, where they took up residence in neighborhoods and became Romans per se. Under the Roman Republic the practical considerations of incorporating communities into the city-state of Rome
Rome
forced the Romans to devise the concept of municipium, a distinct state under the jurisdiction of Rome. It was necessary to distinguish various types of municipia and other settlements, such as the colony
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Diocese Of Syracuse
The DIOCESE OF SYRACUSE is a Catholic
Catholic
diocese headquartered in Syracuse, New York
Syracuse, New York
, United States. The current bishop is the Most Rev. Robert J. Cunningham . The Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Diocese
Diocese
of Syracuse includes 237,546 Catholics residing in seven counties of Central and South Central New York
Central New York
State. The seven counties are Broome, Chenango, Cortland, Madison, Oneida, Onondaga and Oswego. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Bishops * 3 High schools * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORYWithin the area that now makes up the Diocese
Diocese
of Syracuse, missionary activity was first recorded in 1654
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Belisarius
FLAVIUS BELISARIUS (Greek : Βελισάριος, c. 505 – 565) was a general of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
. He was instrumental to Emperor Justinian 's ambitious project of reconquering much of the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
territory of the former Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
, which had been lost less than a century previously. One of the defining features of Belisarius' career was his success despite varying levels of support from Justinian. His name is frequently given as one of the so-called " Last of the Romans "
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Ostrogoths
The OSTROGOTHS ( Latin : Ostrogothi or Austrogothi; Italian : Ostrogoti) were the eastern branch of the later Goths (the other major branch being the Visigoths ). The Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
traced their origins to the Greutungi – a branch of the Goths who had migrated southward from th