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Modern Standard Arabic
MODERN STANDARD ARABIC (MSA; Arabic
Arabic
: اللغة العربية الفصحى‎‎ _al-lughat ul-ʻArabīyat ul-fuṣḥá_ 'the most eloquent Arabic
Arabic
language'), STANDARD ARABIC, or LITERARY ARABIC is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic
Arabic
used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication. It is considered a pluricentric language . Most Western scholars distinguish two standard _(al-)fuṣḥá_ (الفصحى) varieties of Arabic: the CLASSICAL ARABIC (CA) (اللغة العربية التراثية _al-lughah al-ʻArabīyah al-turāthīyah_) of the Quran
Quran
and early Islamic (7th to 9th centuries) literature , and MODERN STANDARD ARABIC (MSA) (اللغة العربية المعيارية الحديثة _al-lughah al-ʻArabīyah al-miʻyārīyah al-ḥadīthah_), the standard language in use today. MSA is based on classical Arabic, and differences between the two varieties of the language are directly related to modernizing and simplification, both in speaking and writing styles. Most Arabic
Arabic
speakers consider the two varieties to be two registers of one language, although the two registers can be referred to in Arabic
Arabic
as فصح ى العصر _fuṣḥá l-ʻaṣr_ (MSA) and فصح ى التراث _fuṣḥá t-turāth_ (CA)
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Classical Arabic
CLASSICAL ARABIC is the form of the Arabic language
Arabic language
used in Umayyad and Abbasid
Abbasid
literary texts from the 7th century AD to the 9th century AD. The orthography of the Qurʾān was not developed for the standardized form of Classical Arabic; rather, it shows the attempt on the part of writers to record an archaic form of Old Higazi . Modern Standard Arabic
Modern Standard Arabic
(MSA) is its direct descendant used today throughout the Arab world in writing and in formal speaking, for example, prepared speeches, some radio broadcasts, and non-entertainment content; it is also used in modernized versions of Quran
Quran
and revised editions of poetries and novels from Umayyad
Umayyad
and Abbasid
Abbasid
times (7th to 9th centuries). While the lexis and stylistics of Modern Standard Arabic
Modern Standard Arabic
are different from Classical Arabic, the morphology and syntax have remained basically unchanged (though MSA uses a subset of the syntactic structures available in CA). In the Arab world, little distinction is made between CA and MSA, and both are normally called _al-fuṣḥá_ (الفصحى‎) in Arabic, meaning 'the most eloquent ( Arabic
Arabic
language)'
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Arabic Language
THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS ARABIC TEXT . Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols .ARABIC ( Arabic
Arabic
: العَرَبِيَّة‎‎, _al-ʻarabiyyah_ (_ listen ) or Arabic
Arabic
: عَرَبِيّ‎‎ ʻarabī_ (_ listen ) or ) is a Central Semitic language complex that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca _ of the Arab world . It is named after the Arabs
Arabs
, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. The modern written language ( Modern Standard Arabic ) is derived from Classical Arabic . It is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic
Arabic
(_fuṣḥā_), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam
Islam
. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary
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Fusha (other)
The term FUSHA may refer to: * FUS·HA, also AL-FUS·HA or THE FUS·HA, الفصحى, is the Arabic name for literary Arabic, which covers both what is referred to in English as Modern Standard Arabic font-style: italic;">This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title FUSHA. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fusha_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Naskh (script)
NASKH ( Arabic
Arabic
: نسخ‎‎ nasḫ/nasḵ; also known as NASKHI or by its Turkish name NESIH) is a specific calligraphic style for writing in the Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet
, thought to have been invented by the calligrapher Ibn Muqlah Shirazi (Persian : ابن مقلهٔ شیرازی‎‎). The root of this Arabic
Arabic
term nasakh-a (نسخ) means "to copy". It either refers to the fact that it replaced its predecessor, Kufic
Kufic
script, or that this style allows faster copying of texts. With small modifications, it is the style most commonly used for printing Arabic
Arabic
, Persian , Pashto and Sindhi languages. This type of script was derived from Thuluth
Thuluth
by introducing a number of modifications resulting in smaller size and greater delicacy. It is written using a small, very fine pen known as a cava pen , which makes the script eminently suitable for use in book production. Naskhi was used in copying Qur\'ans , Delails, En-ams and Hadiths . It was also used in commentaries on the Qur'an ( Tafsir ) and in collections of poetry ( Divan
Divan
). It was and is a very widely used form of script
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Arab League
The ARAB LEAGUE ( Arabic
Arabic
: الجامعة العربية‎‎ _al-Jāmiʻah al-ʻArabīyah_), formally the LEAGUE OF ARAB STATES ( Arabic
Arabic
: جامعة الدول العربية‎‎ _Jāmiʻat ad-Duwal al-ʻArabīyah_), is a regional organization of Arab countries in and around North Africa
North Africa
, the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
and Arabia
Arabia
. It was formed in Cairo
Cairo
on 22 March 1945 with six members: Kingdom of Egypt
Egypt
, Kingdom of Iraq
Iraq
, Transjordan (renamed Jordan
Jordan
in 1949), Lebanon
Lebanon
, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
, and Syria
Syria
. Yemen
Yemen
joined as a member on 5 May 1945. Currently, the League has 22 members , but Syria
Syria
's participation has been suspended since November 2011, as a consequence of government repression during the Syrian Civil War
Syrian Civil War
. The League's main goal is to "draw closer the relations between member States and co-ordinate collaboration between them, to safeguard their independence and sovereignty, and to consider in a general way the affairs and interests of the Arab
Arab
countries"
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Middle East And North Africa
MENA is an English-language acronym referring to the MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA region. The term MENA covers an extensive region, extending from Morocco to Iran , including all Middle Eastern Mashriq and Maghreb countries. This toponym is roughly synonymous with the term the Greater Middle East . The population of the MENA region at its least extent is estimated to be around 381 million people. This constitutes about 6% of the total world population. The MENA acronym is often used in academia , military planning, disaster relief, and business writing. CONTENTS * 1 Controversy * 2 List of countries * 3 Economy * 4 Religion * 5 Other terms * 5.1 MENAP * 5.2 MENAT * 6 Instability in the region * 7 See also * 8 References CONTROVERSYDue to the geographic ambiguity and Eurocentric nature of the term "Middle East", some people prefer use of the terms ARAB WORLD, WANA ( West Asia and North Africa) or the less common NAWA (North Africa-West Asia). Both the Arab World and MENA region remain the most common terms and are used by most organizations, academia, and political entities flexibly, including those in the region itself. The World Bank , UNDP and even the UNSC all use both terms
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Horn Of Africa
The HORN OF AFRICA (Somali : Geeska Afrika, Oromo : _Gaaffaa Afriikaa_, Amharic : የአፍሪካ ቀንድ? _yäafrika qänd_, Arabic : القرن الأفريقي‎‎ _al-qarn al-'afrīqī_, Tigrinya : ቀርኒ ኣፍሪቃ? ) (shortened to HOA) is a peninsula in Northeast Africa . It juts hundreds of kilometers into the Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
, lying along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden . The area is the easternmost projection of the African continent . The Horn of Africa
Africa
denotes the region containing the countries of Djibouti
Djibouti
, Eritrea
Eritrea
, Ethiopia
Ethiopia
, and Somalia
Somalia
. It covers approximately 2,000,000 km2 (770,000 sq mi) and is inhabited by roughly 115 million people (Ethiopia: 96.6 million, Somalia: 12.3 million, Eritrea: 6.4 million, and Djibouti: 0.81 million). Regional studies on the Horn of Africa
Africa
are carried out, among others, in the fields of Ethiopian Studies as well as Somali Studies
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Liturgical Language
A SACRED LANGUAGE, "HOLY LANGUAGE" (in religious context) or LITURGICAL LANGUAGE is any language that is cultivated and used primarily in religious service or for other religious reasons by people who speak another language in their daily life. CONTENTS * 1 Concept * 2 Buddhism * 3 Christianity * 4 Hinduism * 5 Islam * 6 Judaism * 6.1 Donmeh * 7 Lingayatism * 8 List of sacred languages * 9 References CONCEPT This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (May 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )A sacred language is often the language which was spoken and written in the society in which a religion's sacred texts were first set down; however, thereafter these texts, becoming fixed and holy, remain frozen and immune to later linguistic developments. Once a language becomes associated with religious worship, its believers may ascribe virtues to the language of worship that they would not give to their native tongues. In the case of sacred texts, there is a fear of losing authenticity and accuracy by a translation or re-translation, and difficulties in achieving acceptance for a new version of a text. A sacred language is typically vested with a solemnity and dignity that the vernacular lacks
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Islam
ISLAM (/ˈɪslɑːm/ ) is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion which professes that there is only one and incomparable God ( Allah ) and that Muhammad is the last messenger of God. It is the world\'s second-largest religion and the fastest-growing major religion in the world , with over 1.8 billion followers or 24.1% of the global population, known as Muslims . Muslims make up a majority of the population in 49 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful , all-powerful , unique , and has guided mankind through prophets , revealed scriptures and natural signs . The primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran , viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, and the teachings and normative example (called the _sunnah _, composed of accounts called _hadith _) of Muhammad (c. 570–8 June 632 CE). Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that was revealed many times before through prophets including Adam , Abraham , Moses , and Jesus . As for the Quran, Muslims consider it to be the unaltered and final revelation of God. Like other Abrahamic religions , Islam also teaches a final judgment with the righteous rewarded paradise and unrighteous are punished in hell
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Language Family
A LANGUAGE FAMILY is a group of languages related through descent from a common _ancestral language_ or _parental language_, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics , which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree , or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy . Linguists therefore describe the _daughter languages_ within a language family as being _genetically related_. Estimates of the number of living languages vary from 5,000 to 8,000, depending on the precision of one's definition of "language", and in particular on how one classifies dialects . The 2013 edition of Ethnologue catalogs just over 7,000 living human languages. A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people. There are also many dead and extinct languages, as well as some that are still insufficiently studied to be classified, or are even unknown outside their respective speech communities. Membership of languages in a language family is established by comparative linguistics . Sister languages are said to have a "genetic" or "genealogical" relationship. The latter term is older
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Afroasiatic Languages
AFROASIATIC (AFRO-ASIATIC), also known as AFRASIAN and traditionally as HAMITO-SEMITIC (CHAMITO-SEMITIC), is a large language family of several hundred related languages and dialects. It comprises about 300 or so living languages and dialects, according to the 2009 Ethnologue estimate. It includes languages spoken predominantly in West Asia , North Africa
North Africa
, the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
, and parts of the Sahel
Sahel
. Afroasiatic languages
Afroasiatic languages
have over 350 million native speakers, the fourth largest number of any language family (after Indo-European , Sino-Tibetan and Niger–Congo ). The phylum has six branches: Berber , Chadic , Cushitic , Egyptian , Omotic and Semitic . By far the most widely spoken Afroasiatic language is Arabic
Arabic
. It is also the most widely spoken language within the Semitic branch, and includes Modern Standard Arabic
Arabic
and spoken colloquial varieties . Arabic
Arabic
has around 290 million native speakers, who are concentrated primarily in West Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, and Malta
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Semitic Languages
The SEMITIC LANGUAGES are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East
Middle East
. Semitic languages
Semitic languages
are spoken by more than 330 million people across much of Western Asia
Western Asia
, North Africa and the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
, as well as in often large expatriate communities in North America
North America
and Europe
Europe
, with smaller communities in the Caucasus
Caucasus
and Central Asia
Central Asia
. The terminology was first used in the 1780s by members of the Göttingen School of History , who derived the name from Shem , one of the three sons of Noah in the Book of Genesis . The most widely spoken Semitic languages
Semitic languages
today are (numbers given are for native speakers only) Arabic
Arabic
(300 million), Amharic (22 million), Tigrinya (7 million), Hebrew
Hebrew
(unknown; 5 million native and non-native L1 speakers), Aramaic (575,000 to 1 million largely Assyrian fluent speakers) and Maltese (520,000 speakers)
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Central Semitic Languages
The CENTRAL SEMITIC LANGUAGES are a proposed intermediate group of Semitic languages
Semitic languages
, comprising the Late Iron Age, modern dialect of Arabic (prior to which Arabic was a Southern Semitic language), and older Bronze Age Northwest Semitic languages
Semitic languages
(which include Aramaic , Ugaritic , and the Canaanite languages of Hebrew and Phoenician ). In this reckoning, Central Semitic itself is one of three divisions of Semitic along with East Semitic ( Akkadian
Akkadian
and Eblaite ) and South Semitic (South Arabian and the Ethiopian Semitic languages
Semitic languages
)
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Old Arabic
OLD ARABIC is the earliest attested stage of the Arabic
Arabic
language, beginning with the first attestation of personal names in the 9th century BC , and culminating in the codification of Classical Arabic beginning in the 7th century . Originally the primary language of the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions, it came to be expressed primarily in a modified Nabataean script after the demise of the Nabataean Kingdom . In addition, inscriptions in Old Arabic
Arabic
are attested in the Dadanitic script and the Greek alphabet , the latter of which have proved indispensable in the reconstruction of the language's phonology
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Writing System
A WRITING SYSTEM is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication . While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages , writing differs in also being a reliable form of information storage and transfer . The processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing
Writing
is usually recorded onto a durable medium , such as paper or electronic storage , although non-durable methods may also be used, such as writing on a computer display , in sand, or by skywriting . The general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets , syllabaries , or logographies . Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category. In the alphabetic category, there is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes ) of consonants and vowels that encode based on the general principle that the letters (or letter pair/groups) represent speech sounds . In a syllabary, each symbol correlates to a syllable or mora . In a logography, each character represents a word, morpheme , or other semantic units. Other categories include abjads , which differ from alphabets in that vowels are not indicated, and abugidas or alphasyllabaries, with each character representing a consonant–vowel pairing
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