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Modern Irish
The Irish language
Irish language
(Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language,[5] is a Goidelic
Goidelic
language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland
Ireland
and historically spoken by the Irish people. Irish is spoken as a first language by a small minority of Irish people, and as a second language by a larger group of non-native speakers. Irish has been the predominant language of the Irish people
Irish people
for most of their recorded history, and they have brought it with them to other regions, notably Scotland
Scotland
and the Isle of Man, where Middle Irish gave rise to Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
and Manx respectively
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Irish Language (other)
The Irish language
Irish language
is a modern Goidelic language spoken in Ireland, also known as Irish Gaelic
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Irish People
The Irish (Irish: Muintir na hÉireann or Na hÉireannaigh) are a Celtic[14][15] nation and ethnic group native to the island of Ireland, who share a common Irish ancestry, identity and culture. Ireland
Ireland
has been inhabited for about 12,500 years according to archaeological studies (see Prehistoric Ireland). For most of Ireland's recorded history, the Irish have been primarily a Gaelic people (see Gaelic Ireland). Viking
Viking
invasions of Ireland
Ireland
during the 8th to 11th centuries[16] established the cities of Dublin, Wexford, Waterford, Cork and Limerick
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ISO 639-2
ISO 639-2:1998, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code, is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. The three-letter codes given for each language in this part of the standard are referred to as "Alpha-3" codes. There are 487 entries in the list of ISO 639-2 codes. The US Library of Congress
Library of Congress
is the registration authority for ISO 639-2 (referred to as ISO 639-2/RA)
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ISO 639-3
ISO 639-3:2007, Codes for the representation of names of languages – Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages, is an international standard for language codes in the ISO 639 series. It defines three-letter codes for identifying languages. The standard was published by ISO on 1 February 2007.[1] ISO 639-3 extends the ISO 639-2 alpha-3 codes with an aim to cover all known natural languages
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Glottolog
Glottolog
Glottolog
is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and maintained first at the former Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, and since 2015 at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany. Glottolog
Glottolog
provides a catalogue of the world's languages and language families, and a bibliography on the world's less-spoken languages
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Linguasphere Observatory
The Linguasphere Observatory (or "Observatoire", based upon its original French and legal title: Observatoire Linguistique) is a transnational linguistic research network.Contents1 History 2 The Lingua sphere Register and Linguascale referential framework2.1 Examples 2.2 Languages of London 2.3 See also3 "Langues de la Liberté/Languages of Liberty" 4 "In the galaxy of languages, each person's voice is a star" 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] It was created in Quebec
Quebec
in 1983 and was subsequently established and registered in Normandy
Normandy
as a non-profit association under the honorary presidency of the late Léopold Sédar Senghor, a French-language poet and the first president of Senegal
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International Phonetic Alphabet
The International
International
Phonetic Alphabet
Alphabet
(IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet
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Replacement Character
Specials is a short Unicode
Unicode
block allocated at the very end of the Basic Multilingual Plane, at U+FFF0–FFFF. Of these 16 code points, five are assigned as of Unicode
Unicode
10.0:U+FFF9 INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION ANCHOR, marks start of annotated text U+FFFA INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION SEPARATOR, marks start of annotating character(s) U+FFFB INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION TERMINATOR, marks end of annotation block U+FFFC  OBJECT REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, placeholder in the text for another unspecified object, for example in a compound document. U+FFFD � REPLACEMENT CHARACTER used to replace an unknown, unrecognized or unrepresentable character U+FFFE <noncharacter-FFFE> not a character. U+FFFF <noncharacter-FFFF> not a character.FFFE and FFFF are not unassigned in the usual sense, but guaranteed not to be a Unicode
Unicode
character at all
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Unicode
Unicode
Unicode
is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems. The latest version contains a repertoire of 136,755 characters covering 139 modern and historic scripts, as well as multiple symbol sets
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First Language
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1), is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth[1] or within the critical period. In some countries, the term native language or mother tongue refers to the language of one's ethnic group rather than one's first language.[2] Children brought up speaking more than one language can have more than one native language, and be bilingual or multilingual
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Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Ireland
(Irish: Tuaisceart Éireann [ˈt̪ˠuəʃcəɾˠt̪ˠ ˈeːɾʲən̪ˠ] ( listen);[8] Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in the north-east of the island of Ireland,[9][10] variously described as a country, province or region.[11][12][13] Northern Ireland
Ireland
shares a border to the south and west with the Republic of Ireland. In 2011, its population was 1,810,863,[4] constituting about 30% of the island's total population and about 3% of the UK's population
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Scotland
Scotland
Scotland
(/ˈskɒtlənd/; Scots: [ˈskɔtlənd]; Scottish Gaelic: Alba
Alba
[ˈal̪ˠapə] ( listen)) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.[16][17][18] It shares a border with England
England
to the south, and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea
North Sea
to the east and the North Channel and Irish Sea
Irish Sea
to the south-west. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands,[19] including the Northern Isles
Northern Isles
and the Hebrides. The Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Scotland
emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
and continued to exist until 1707
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Isle Of Man
The Isle of Man
Isle of Man
(Manx: Ellan Vannin [ˈɛlʲən ˈvanɪn]), also known simply as Mann (/mæn/; Manx: Mannin [ˈmanɪn]), is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea
Irish Sea
between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland. The head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who holds the title of Lord of Mann
Lord of Mann
and is represented by a Lieutenant Governor. Defence is the responsibility of the United Kingdom. Ranked by the World Bank
World Bank
as the 5th richest nation in the world by GDP per capita,[6] the largest sectors are insurance and eGaming with 17% of GNP each, followed by ICT and banking with 9% each.[7] The island has been inhabited since before 6500 BC. Gaelic cultural influence began in the 5th century and the Manx language, a branch of the Gaelic languages, emerged
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Constitution Of Ireland
The Constitution
Constitution
of Ireland
Ireland
(Irish: Bunreacht na hÉireann, pronounced [ˈbˠɔnrʲaxt̪ˠ n̪ˠə ˈheːrʲən̪ˠ]) is the fundamental law of the Republic of Ireland. It asserts the national sovereignty of the Irish people. The constitution falls broadly within the tradition of liberal democracy being based on a system of representative democracy. It guarantees certain fundamental rights, along with a popularly elected non-executive president, a bicameral parliament based on the Westminster system, a separation of powers and judicial review. It is the second constitution of the Irish state since independence, replacing the 1922 Constitution
Constitution
of the Irish Free State.[1] It came into force on 29 December 1937 following a statewide plebiscite held on 1 July 1937
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Languages Of Ireland
There are a number of languages used in Ireland. Since the late nineteenth century, English has been the predominant first language, displacing Irish. A large minority claims some ability to use Irish, and it is the first language for a small percentage of the population. In the Republic of Ireland, under the Constitution of Ireland, both languages have official status, with Irish being the national and first official language
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