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Mixing (process Engineering)
In industrial process engineering, mixing is a unit operation that involves manipulation of a heterogeneous physical system with the intent to make it more homogeneous. Familiar examples include pumping of the water in a swimming pool to homogenize the water temperature, and the stirring of pancake batter to eliminate lumps (deagglomeration). Mixing is performed to allow heat and/or mass transfer to occur between one or more streams, components or phases. Modern industrial processing almost always involves some form of mixing.[1] Some classes of chemical reactors are also mixers. With the right equipment, it is possible to mix a solid, liquid or gas into another solid, liquid or gas. A biofuel fermenter may require the mixing of microbes, gases and liquid medium for optimal yield; organic nitration requires concentrated (liquid) nitric and sulfuric acids to be mixed with a hydrophobic organic phase; production of pharmaceutical tablets requires blending of solid powders
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Process Engineering
Process engineering
Process engineering
focuses on the design, operation, control, optimization and intensification of chemical, physical, and biological processes. Process engineering
Process engineering
encompasses a vast range of industries, such as chemical, petrochemical, agriculture, mineral processing, advanced material, food, pharmaceutical, software development, automotive, and biotechnological industries. The application of systematic computer-based methods to process engineering is "process systems engineering".Contents1 Overview 2 Significant accomplishments 3 History of process systems engineer 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksOverview[edit] Process engineering
Process engineering
involves translating the needs of the customer into (typically) production facilities that convert "raw materials" into value-added components
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Agglomerate
Agglomerate
Agglomerate
(from the Latin agglomerare meaning "to form into a ball") is a coarse accumulation of large blocks of volcanic material that contains at least 75% bombs. Volcanic bombs differ from volcanic blocks in that their shape records fluidal surfaces: they may, for example, have ropy, cauliform, scoriaceous, or folded, chilled margins and spindle,[clarification needed] spatter, ribbon, ragged, or amoeboid shapes. Globular masses of lava may have been shot from the crater at a time when partly molten lava was exposed, and was frequently shattered by sudden outbursts of steam. These bombs were viscous at the moment of ejection and by rotation in the air acquired their shape
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Clay
Clay
Clay
is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO4), metal oxides (Al2O3 , MgO etc.) and organic matter. Geologic clay deposits are mostly composed of phyllosilicate minerals containing variable amounts of water trapped in the mineral structure. Clays are plastic due to particle size and geometry as well as water content, and become hard, brittle and non–plastic upon drying or firing.[1][2][3] Depending on the soil's content in which it is found, clay can appear in various colours from white to dull grey or brown to deep orange-red.Electron microscope photograph of smectite clay – magnification 23,500Although many naturally occurring deposits include both silts and clay, clays are distinguished from other fine-grained soils by differences in size and mineralogy
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Plasticity (physics)
In physics and materials science, plasticity describes the deformation of a (solid) material undergoing non-reversible changes of shape in response to applied forces.[1][2] For example, a solid piece of metal being bent or pounded into a new shape displays plasticity as permanent changes occur within the material itself. In engineering, the transition from elastic behavior to plastic behavior is called yield. Plastic
Plastic
deformation is observed in most materials, particularly metals, soils, rocks, concrete, foams, bone and skin.[3][4][5][6][7][8] However, the physical mechanisms that cause plastic deformation can vary widely. At a crystalline scale, plasticity in metals is usually a consequence of dislocations. Such defects are relatively rare in most crystalline materials, but are numerous in some and part of their crystal structure; in such cases, plastic crystallinity can result
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Mold
A mold (US) or mould (UK / NZ / AU / ZA / IN / CA / IE) is a fungus that grows in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae.[1][2] In contrast, fungi that can adopt a single-celled growth habit are called yeasts. Molds are a large and taxonomically diverse number of fungal species in which the growth of hyphae results in discoloration and a fuzzy appearance, especially on food.[3] The network of these tubular branching hyphae, called a mycelium, is considered a single organism. The hyphae are generally transparent, so the mycelium appears like very fine, fluffy white threads over the surface. Cross-walls (septa) may delimit connected compartments along the hyphae, each containing one or multiple, genetically identical nuclei. The dusty texture of many molds is caused by profuse production of asexual spores (conidia) formed by differentiation at the ends of hyphae
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Molten
Melting, or fusion, is a physical process that results in the phase transition of a substance from a solid to a liquid. This occurs when the internal energy of the solid increases, typically by the application of heat or pressure, which increases the substance's temperature to the melting point. At the melting point, the ordering of ions or molecules in the solid breaks down to a less ordered state, and the solid melts to become a liquid. Substances in the molten state generally have reduced viscosity as the temperature increases
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Mass
Mass
Mass
is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.[1] It also determines the strength of its mutual gravitational attraction to other bodies. The basic SI unit
SI unit
of mass is the kilogram (kg). In physics, mass is not the same as weight, even though mass is often determined by measuring the object's weight using a spring scale, rather than balance scale comparing it directly with known masses. An object on the Moon
Moon
would weigh less than it does on Earth
Earth
because of the lower gravity, but it would still have the same mass. This is because weight is a force, while mass is the property that (along with gravity) determines the strength of this force. In Newtonian physics, mass can be generalized as the amount of matter in an object
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Eddy Diffusion
Eddy diffusion, eddy dispersion, multipath, or turbulent diffusion is any diffusion process by which substances are mixed in the atmosphere or in any fluid system due to eddy motion.[1][2] In another definition[3] it is mixing that is caused by eddies that can vary in size from the small Kolmogorov microscales to subtropical gyres. Because the microscopic processes responsible for atmospheric mixing are too complex to model in detail, atmospheric modelers generally treat atmospheric mixing as a macroscopic "eddy" diffusion process
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Boundary Layer
In physics and fluid mechanics, a boundary layer is an important concept and refers to the layer of fluid in the immediate vicinity of a bounding surface where the effects of viscosity are significant. In the Earth's atmosphere, the atmospheric boundary layer is the air layer near the ground affected by diurnal heat, moisture or momentum transfer to or from the surface
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Titanium Dioxide
3.78 g/cm3 (Anatase)Melting point 1,843 °C (3,349 °F; 2,116 K)Boiling point 2,972 °C (5,382 °F; 3,245 K)Solubility in waterinsolubleBand gap 3.05 eV (rutile)[1] Magnetic susceptibility (χ)+5.9·10−6 cm3/mol Refractive index
Refractive index
(nD)2.488 (anatase) 2.583 (brookite) 2.609 (rutile)
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Spray Drying
Spray drying
Spray drying
is a method of producing a dry powder from a liquid or slurry by rapidly drying with a hot gas. This is the preferred method of drying of many thermally-sensitive materials such as foods and pharmaceuticals. A consistent particle size distribution is a reason for spray drying some industrial products such as catalysts. Air is the heated drying medium; however, if the liquid is a flammable solvent such as ethanol or the product is oxygen-sensitive then nitrogen is used.[1] All spray dryers use some type of atomizer or spray nozzle to disperse the liquid or slurry into a controlled drop size spray. The most common of these are rotary disk and single-fluid high pressure swirl nozzles. Atomizer wheels are known to provide broader particle size distribution, but both methods allow for consistent distribution of particle size.[2] Alternatively, for some applications two-fluid or ultrasonic nozzles are used
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Wetting
Wetting
Wetting
is the ability of a liquid to maintain contact with a solid surface, resulting from intermolecular interactions when the two are brought together. The degree of wetting (wettability) is determined by a force balance between adhesive and cohesive forces. Wetting
Wetting
deals with the three phases of materials: gas, liquid, and solid. It is now a center of attention in nanotechnology and nanoscience studies due to the advent of many nanomaterials in the past two decades (e.g. graphene,[1] carbon nanotube, boron nitride nanomesh[2]). Wetting
Wetting
is important in the bonding or adherence of two materials.[3] Wetting
Wetting
and the surface forces that control wetting are also responsible for other related effects, including capillary effects. There are two types of wetting: non-reactive wetting and active wetting.[4][5]Contents1 Explanation 2 High-energy vs
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Molding (process)
Molding or moulding (see spelling differences) is the process of manufacturing by shaping liquid or pliable raw material using a rigid frame called a mold or matrix.[1] This itself may have been made using a pattern or model of the final object. A mold or mould is a hollowed-out block that is filled with a liquid or pliable material such as plastic, glass, metal, or ceramic raw material.[2] The liquid hardens or sets inside the mold, adopting its shape. A mold is the counterpart to a cast. The very common bi-valve molding process uses two molds, one for each half of the object. Articulated moulds have multiple pieces that come together to form the complete mold, and then disassemble to release the finished casting; they are expensive, but necessary when the casting shape has complex overhangs.[3][better source needed] Piece-molding uses a number of different molds, each creating a section of a complicated object
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Coalescence (chemistry)
In chemistry, coalescence is a process in which two phase domains of the same composition come together and form a larger phase domain. In other words, the process by which two or more separate masses of miscible substances seem to "pull" each other together should they make the slightest contact.IUPAC definitionDisappearance of the boundary between two particles in contact, or between a particle and a polymer macrophase followed by changes of shape leading to a reduction of the total surface area. Note 1: Definition modified from that in ref.[1] Note 2: The coagulation of an emulsion, viz. the formation of aggregates, may be followed by coalescence. If coalescence is extensive it leads to the breaking of an emulsion.[2]References[edit]^ Alan D. MacNaught, Andrew R. Wilkinson, ed. (1997). Compendium of Chemical Terminology: IUPAC Recommendations (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell Science
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Milkshake
A milkshake is a sweet, cold beverage that is usually made from milk, ice cream, or iced milk, and flavorings or sweeteners such as butterscotch, caramel sauce, chocolate syrup, or fruit syrup. Outside of the United States, milkshakes using ice cream or iced milk are sometimes called a thick milkshake or thick shake; in New England, the term frappe may be used to differentiate it from thinner forms of flavored milk. Full-service restaurants, soda fountains, and diners usually prepare and mix the shake "by hand" from scoops of ice cream and milk in a blender or drink mixer using a stainless steel cup. Many fast food outlets do not make shakes by hand with ice cream; instead, they make shakes in automatic milkshake machines which freeze and serve a pre-made milkshake mixture consisting of milk, a sweetened flavoring agent, and a thickening agent
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