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Mitsubishi
The MITSUBISHI GROUP (三菱グループ, _ Mitsubishi Gurūpu_, also known as the MITSUBISHI GROUP OF COMPANIES or MITSUBISHI COMPANIES, and informally as the MITSUBISHI _KEIRETSU _) is a group of autonomous Japanese multinational companies in a variety of industries. Its total revenue is about 1.4% percent of Japan's GDP. It is historically descended from the MITSUBISHI _zaibatsu _, a unified company which existed from 1870 , founded by Yataro Iwasaki , to 1947 and was disbanded during the occupation of Japan following World War II . The former constituents of the company continue to share the Mitsubishi brand , trademark , and legacy. Although the group companies participate in limited business cooperation, most famously through monthly "Friday Conference" executive meetings, they are formally independent and are not under common control. The three main companies in the group are The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ (the largest bank in Japan), Mitsubishi Corporation (a general trading company ) and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (a diversified manufacturing company)
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Uni-ball
UNI-BALL and UNI are brands of pens and pencils , made by the MITSUBISHI PENCIL COMPANY LIMITED (三菱鉛筆株式会社, Mitsubishi Enpitsu Kabushiki Gaisha, TYO : 7976) of Japan
Japan
. The brands currently have several lines of pens including uni Jetstream, Vision Elite, Eye (rollerball pens ); PowerTank (pressurised ink cartridge pen); Signo (gel pens ); and POSCA (markers) among others. Mitsubishi Pencil Company distributes products in over 100 countries through subsidiaries, such as Mitsubishi Pencil Company UK. Sanford distributes uni-ball in the United States
United States
and Canada
Canada
, Faber-Castell does so for Germany
Germany
, and Linc Pen
Pen
and Plastics Limited (LPPL) in India. Despite its naming and the near identical logomarks, Mitsubishi Pencil Company is unrelated to the Mitsubishi Group , and has never been a part of their zaibatsu . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links HISTORYFounded in 1887 by Niroku Masaki, the company then known as Masaki Pencil
Pencil
Manufacturing Company began creating superior wooden pencils. It wasn't until after World War II that the company became The Mitsubishi Pencil
Pencil
Company
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List Of Business Entities
A BUSINESS ENTITY is an entity that is formed and administered as per commercial law in order to engage in business activities, charitable work, or other activities allowable. Most often, business entities are formed to sell a product or a service. There are many types of business entities defined in the legal systems of various countries. These include corporations , cooperatives , partnerships , sole traders , limited liability company and other specifically permitted and labelled types of entities. The specific rules vary by country and by state or province. Some of these types are listed below, by country. For guidance, approximate equivalents in the company law of English-speaking countries are given in most cases, ≈ public limited company (UK, Ireland and the Commonwealth) ≈ Ltd.
Ltd.
(UK, Ireland and the Commonwealth) ≈ limited partnership = unlimited partnership = chartered company = statutory company = holding company = subsidiary company = one man company (sole proprietor ) = NGOs However, the regulations governing particular types of entity, even those described as roughly equivalent, differ from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. When creating or restructuring a business, the legal responsibilities will depend on the type of business entity chosen
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Privately Held Company
A PRIVATELY HELD COMPANY or CLOSE CORPORATION is a business company owned either by non-governmental organizations or by a relatively small number of shareholders or company members which does not offer or trade its company stock (shares ) to the general public on the stock market exchanges, but rather the company's stock is offered, owned and traded or exchanged privately. More ambiguous terms for a privately held company are UNQUOTED COMPANY and UNLISTED COMPANY. Though less visible than their publicly traded counterparts, private companies have major importance in the world's economy . In 2008, the 441 largest private companies in the United States accounted for US$ 1,800,000,000,000 in revenues and employed 6.2 million people, according to Forbes . In 2005, using a substantially smaller pool size (22.7%) for comparison, the 339 companies on Forbes ' survey of closely held U.S. businesses sold a trillion dollars' worth of goods and services (44%) and employed 4 million people. In 2004, the Forbes' count of privately held U.S. businesses with at least $1 billion in revenue was 305. Cargill , Koch Industries , Bechtel , Publix , Pilot Corp. , Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu (one of the members of the Big Four accounting firms), Hearst Corporation , Cox Enterprises , S. C
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Conglomerate (company)
A CONGLOMERATE is the combination of two or more corporations engaged in entirely different businesses that fall under one corporate group , usually involving a parent company and many subsidiaries . Often, a conglomerate is a MULTI-INDUSTRY COMPANY. Conglomerates are often large and multinational . Conglomerates were popular in the 1960s due to a combination of low interest rates and a repeating bear/bull market , which allowed the conglomerates to buy companies in leveraged buyouts , sometimes at temporarily deflated values. Famous examples from the 1960s include Ling-Temco-Vought , ITT
ITT
Corporation
Corporation
, Litton Industries , Textron , Teledyne
Teledyne
. Because of low interest on the loans, the overall return on investment of the conglomerate appeared to grow. Also, the conglomerate had a better ability to borrow in the money market , or capital market , than the smaller firm at their community bank . For many years this was enough to make the company's stock price rise, as companies were often valued largely on their return on investment. The aggressive nature of the conglomerators themselves was enough to make many investors, who saw a "powerful" and seemingly unstoppable force in business, buy their stock. High stock prices allowed them to raise more loans, based on the value of their stock, and thereby buy even more companies
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Iwasaki Yatarō
IWASAKI YATARō (岩崎 弥太郎, January 9, 1835 – February 7, 1885) was a Japanese financier and shipping industrialist , and the founder of Mitsubishi
Mitsubishi
. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Mitsubishi
Mitsubishi
* 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links EARLY LIFEIwasaki was born in a provincial farming family in Aki , Tosa province (now Kōchi Prefecture ), the great-grandson of a man who had sold his family's samurai status in obligation of debts. Iwasaki began his career as an employee of the Tosa clan. The clan had business interests in many parts of Japan. Iwasaki left for Edo (now Tokyo
Tokyo
) aged nineteen for his education. He interrupted his studies a year later when his father was seriously injured in a dispute with the village headman. When the local magistrate refused to hear his case, Iwasaki accused him of corruption. Iwasaki was sent to prison for seven months. After his release, Iwasaki was without a job for a time before finding work as a teacher. Returning to Edo, he socialised with political activists and studied under the reformist Yoshida Toyo , who influenced him with ideas of opening and developing the then-closed nation through industry and foreign trade. Through Yoshida, he found work as a clerk for the Tosa government, and bought back his family's samurai status
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Tokyo
TOKYO (Japanese: (_ listen ), English: /ˈtoʊki.oʊ/ ), officially TOKYO METROPOLIS, is the capital of Japan and one of its 47 prefectures . The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world. It is the seat of the Emperor of Japan and the Japanese government . Tokyo is in the Kantō region on the southeastern side of the main island Honshu and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands . Formerly known as Edo , it has been the de facto seat of government since 1603 when Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters. It officially became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from the old capital of Kyoto in 1868; at that time Edo was renamed Tokyo. Tokyo Metropolis was formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture (東京府, Tōkyō-fu_) and the city of Tokyo (東京市, _Tōkyō-shi_). Tokyo is often referred to as a city, but is officially known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo
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Japan
Coordinates : 35°N 136°E / 35°N 136°E / 35; 136 Japan 日本国 _Nippon-koku_ _Nihon-koku_ _ Flag Imperial Seal ANTHEM: * " Kimigayo _" * 君が代 "His Imperial Majesty's Reign" GOVERNMENT SEAL OF JAPAN * _ * Go-Shichi no Kiri_ (五七桐) Area controlled by Japan shown in green; claimed but uncontrolled shown in light green
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Mining
MINING is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually from an orebody , lode , vein , seam , reef or placer deposits. These deposits form a mineralized package that is of economic interest to the miner. Ores recovered by mining include metals , coal , oil shale , gemstones , limestone , chalk , dimension stone , rock salt , potash , gravel , and clay . Mining is required to obtain any material that cannot be grown through agricultural processes, or created artificially in a laboratory or factory. Mining in a wider sense includes extraction of any non-renewable resource such as petroleum, natural gas, or even water . Mining of stones and metal has been a human activity since pre-historic times. Modern mining processes involve prospecting for ore bodies, analysis of the profit potential of a proposed mine, extraction of the desired materials, and final reclamation of the land after the mine is closed. Mining operations usually create a negative environmental impact, both during the mining activity and after the mine has closed. Hence, most of the world's nations have passed regulations to decrease the impact. Work safety has long been a concern as well, and modern practices have significantly improved safety in mines. Levels of metals recycling are generally low
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Shipbuilding
SHIPBUILDING is the construction of ships and other floating vessels . It normally takes place in a specialized facility known as a shipyard . SHIPBUILDERS, also called SHIPWRIGHTS, follow a specialized occupation that traces its roots to before recorded history . Shipbuilding and ship repairs, both commercial and military, are referred to as "naval engineering ". The construction of boats is a similar activity called boat building . The dismantling of ships is called ship breaking . CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Prehistory * 1.2 4th millennium BC * 1.3 3rd millennium BC * 1.4 2nd millennium BC * 1.5 1st millennium BC * 1.6 Early 1st millennium AD * 1.7 Medieval Europe, Song China, Abbasid Caliphate, Pacific Islanders * 1.8 Early modern * 1.9 Industrial Revolution * 2 Worldwide shipbuilding industry * 2.1 Present day shipbuilding * 2.2 Modern shipbuilding manufacturing techniques * 2.3 Ship repair industry * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYPREHISTORYArchaeological evidence indicates that humans arrived on Borneo at least 120,000 years ago, probably by sea from the Asian mainland during an ice age period when the sea was lower and distances between islands shorter (See History of Borneo and Papua New Guinea )
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Telecommunication
TELECOMMUNICATION is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or intelligence of any nature by wire , radio , optical or other electromagnetic systems. Telecommunication
Telecommunication
occurs when the exchange of information between communication participants includes the use of technology . It is transmitted either electrically over physical media, such as cables , or via electromagnetic radiation . Such transmission paths are often divided into communication channels which afford the advantages of multiplexing . Since the Latin
Latin
term communicatio is considered the social process of information exchange, the term, TELECOMMUNICATIONS, is often used in its plural form because it involves many different technologies. Early means of communicating over a distance included visual signals, such as beacons , smoke signals , semaphore telegraphs , signal flags , and optical heliographs . Other examples of pre-modern long-distance communication included audio messages such as coded drumbeats , lung-blown horns , and loud whistles. 20th and 21st century technologies for long-distance communication usually involve electrical and electromagnetic technologies, such as telegraph , telephone , and teleprinter , networks , radio , microwave transmission , fiber optics , and communications satellites
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Financial Services
FINANCIAL SERVICES are the economic services provided by the FINANCE INDUSTRY, which encompasses a broad range of businesses that manage money, including credit unions , banks , credit-card companies, insurance companies, accountancy companies, consumer-finance companies, stock brokerages , investment funds , individual managers and some government-sponsored enterprises . Financial services companies are present in all economically developed geographic locations and tend to cluster in local, national, regional and international financial centers such as London , New York City , and Tokyo . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Banks * 2.1 Commercial banking services * 2.2 Investment banking services * 3 Foreign exchange services * 4 Investment services * 5 Insurance * 6 Other financial services * 7 Financial exports * 8 Financial crime * 9 Market share * 9.1 US * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 Further reading * 13 External links HISTORY See also: Global financial system § History of international financial architecture The term "financial services" became more prevalent in the United States partly as a result of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of the late 1990s, which enabled different types of companies operating in the U.S. financial services industry at that time to merge. Companies usually have two distinct approaches to this new type of business
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Insurance
INSURANCE is a means of protection from financial loss. It is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent, uncertain loss. An entity which provides insurance is known as an insurer, insurance company, or insurance carrier. A person or entity who buys insurance is known as an insured or policyholder. The insurance transaction involves the insured assuming a guaranteed and known relatively small loss in the form of payment to the insurer in exchange for the insurer's promise to compensate the insured in the event of a covered loss. The loss may or may not be financial, but it must be reducible to financial terms, and must involve something in which the insured has an insurable interest established by ownership, possession, or preexisting relationship. The insured receives a contract , called the insurance policy , which details the conditions and circumstances under which the insured will be financially compensated. The amount of money charged by the insurer to the insured for the coverage set forth in the insurance policy is called the premium. If the insured experiences a loss which is potentially covered by the insurance policy, the insured submits a claim to the insurer for processing by a claims adjuster
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Electronics
ELECTRONICS is the science of controlling electrical energy electrically, in which the electrons have a fundamental role. Electronics deals with electrical circuits that involve active electrical components such as vacuum tubes , transistors , diodes , integrated circuits , optoelectronics , sensors etc. associated passive electrical components, and interconnection technologies. Commonly, electronic devices contain circuitry consisting primarily or exclusively of active semiconductors supplemented with passive elements; such a circuit is described as an electronic circuit . The science of electronics is also considered to be a branch of physics and electrical engineering . The nonlinear behaviour of active components and their ability to control electron flows makes amplification of weak signals possible, and electronics is widely used in information processing , telecommunication , and signal processing . The ability of electronic devices to act as switches makes digital information processing possible. Interconnection technologies such as circuit boards , electronics packaging technology, and other varied forms of communication infrastructure complete circuit functionality and transform the mixed components into a regular working system
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Automotive Industry
The AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design , development , manufacturing , marketing , and selling of motor vehicles , some of them are called automakers. It is one of the world's most important economic sectors by revenue . The automotive industry does not include industries dedicated to the maintenance of automobiles following delivery to the end-user, such as automobile repair shops and motor fuel filling stations . The term _automotive_ was created from Greek _autos_ (self), and Latin _motivus_ (of motion) to represent any form of self-powered vehicle. This term was proposed by Elmer Sperry . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Safety * 3 Economy * 4 World motor vehicle production * 4.1 By year * 4.2 By country * 4.3 By manufacturer * 5 Company Relationships * 5.1 Stake Holding * 5.2 Joint Ventures * 6 Top Vehicle Manufacturing Groups By Volume * 7 Car Makes "> Thomas B. Jeffery automobile factory in Kenosha, Wisconsin, c.1916 Citroën assembly line in 1918 The automotive industry began in the 1890s with hundreds of manufacturers that pioneered the horseless carriage . For many decades, the United States led the world in total automobile production. In 1929, before the Great Depression , the world had 32,028,500 automobiles in use, and the U.S. automobile industry produced over 90% of them. At that time the U.S
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Heavy Industries
HEAVY INDUSTRY is industry that involves one or more characteristics such as large and heavy products; large and heavy equipment and facilities (such as heavy equipment , large machine tools , and huge buildings ); or complex or numerous processes . Because of those factors, heavy industry involves higher capital intensity than light industry does, and it is also often more heavily cyclical in investment and employment . Transportation and construction along with their upstream manufacturing supply businesses have been the bulk of heavy industry throughout the industrial age, along with some capital-intensive manufacturing. Traditional examples from the mid-19th century through the early 20th included steelmaking , artillery production, locomotive erection, machine tool building , and the heavier types of mining . From the late 19th century through the mid-20th, as the chemical industry and electrical industry developed, they involved components of both heavy industry and light industry, which was soon also true for the automotive industry and the aircraft industry . Modern shipbuilding (since steel replaced wood) is considered heavy industry. Large systems are often characteristic of heavy industry such as the construction of skyscrapers and large dams during the post–World War II era, and the manufacture/deployment of large rockets and giant wind turbines through the 21st century
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