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Mission San Luis Rey
Mission San Luis Rey de Francia
Mission San Luis Rey de Francia
is a former Spanish mission in an unincorporated part of San Diego County, surrounded by the present-day city of Oceanside, California, United States. The mission was founded on June 13, 1798 by Padre Fermín Lasuén, and was the eighteenth of the Spanish missions established in California. Named for Saint Louis, the mission lent its name to the Luiseño tribe of Mission Indians. The current church, built in 1811, is the third church on this location.[15] It is a National Historic Landmark, for its pristine example of a Spanish mission church complex.[14][16][17] Today the mission complex functions as a parish church of the Diocese of San Diego as well as a museum and retreat center
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Mormon Battalion
 United States   United States
United States
Army Army of the WestEngagementsMexican-American WarCalifornia Long March (1846-1847) Capture of Tucson (1846)CommandersNotable commandersGeneral Stephen W. Kearny Lieutenant Colonel James Allen Lieutenant Colonel Philip St. George Cooke Captain Jefferson Hunt Lieutenant George Stoneman Lieutenant SmithAlleged to be the Mormon Battalion
Mormon Battalion
Flag but may have belonged to the Nauvoo Legion
Nauvoo Legion
or both that was used by the U.S. Army during the Mexican-American War
Mexican-American War
(1846-1847)" Mormon Battalion
Mormon Battalion
Monument" by Edward J
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Southern California
Southern California
California
(colloquially known as SoCal) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises California's 10 southernmost counties.[1][2] The region is traditionally described as eight counties, based on demographics and economic ties: Imperial, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Santa Barbara, and Ventura.[3] The more extensive 10-county definition, which includes Kern and San Luis Obispo counties, is also used and is based on historical political divisions.[1] The 8-county and 10-county definitions are not used for the greater Southern California
California
Megaregion, one of the 11 megaregions of the United States
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Cemetery
A cemetery or graveyard is a place where the remains of dead people are buried or otherwise interred. The word cemetery (from Greek κοιμητήριον, "sleeping place")[1][2] implies that the land is specifically designated as a burial ground and originally applied to the Roman underground catacombs.[3] The term graveyard is often used interchangeably with cemetery, but a graveyard primarily refers to a burial ground within a churchyard.[4][5] The intact or cremated remains of people may be interred in a grave, commonly referred to as burial, or in a tomb, an "above-ground grave" (resembling a sarcophagus), a mausoleum, columbarium, niche, or other edifice. In Western cultures, funeral ceremonies are often observed in cemeteries. These ceremonies or rites of passage differ according to cultural practices and religious beliefs
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National Register Of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
(NRHP) is the United States federal government's official list of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property. The passage of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually
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National Historic Landmark
A National Historic Landmark
National Historic Landmark
(NHL) is a building, district, object, site, or structure that is officially recognized by the United States government for its outstanding historical significance. Of over 90,000 places listed on the country's National Register of Historic Places, only some 2,500 are recognized as National Historic Landmarks. A National Historic Landmark
National Historic Landmark
District may include contributing properties that are buildings, structures, sites or objects, and it may include non-contributing properties
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California Historical Landmark
Native languages as of 2007English 57.4%[2] Spanish 28.5%[3] Chinese 2.8%[3] Filipino 2.2%[3]Demonym CalifornianCapital SacramentoLargest city Los AngelesLargest metro Greater Los Angeles
Los Angeles
AreaArea Ranked 3rd • Total 163,696 sq mi (423,970 km2) • Width 250 miles (400 km) • Length 770 miles (1,240 km) • % water 4.7 • Latitude 32°32′ N to 42° N • Longitude 114°8′ W to 124
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Architecture Of The Spanish Renaissance
Renaissance architecture
Renaissance architecture
was that style of architecture which evolved firstly in Florence
Florence
and then
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Sic
The Latin
Latin
adverb sic ("thus", "just as"; in full: sic erat scriptum, "thus was it written")[1] inserted after a quoted word or passage indicates that the quoted matter has been transcribed exactly as found in the source text, complete with any erroneous or archaic spelling, surprising assertion, faulty reasoning, or other matter that might otherwise be taken as an error of transcription. The usual usage is to inform the reader that any errors or apparent errors in quoted material do not arise from errors in the course of the transcription, but are intentionally reproduced, exactly as they appear in the source text
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California
Native languages as of 2007English 57.4%[2] Spanish 28.5%[3] Chinese 2.8%[3] Filipino 2.2%[3]Demonym CalifornianCapital SacramentoLargest city Los AngelesLargest metro Greater Los Angeles
Los Angeles
AreaArea Ranked 3rd • Total 163,696 sq mi (423,970 km2) • Width 250 miles (400 km) • Length 770 miles (1,240 km) • % water 4.7 • Latitude 32°32′ N to 42° N • Longitude 114°8′ W to 124
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Parish
A parish is a church territorial entity constituting a division within a diocese. A parish is under the pastoral care and clerical jurisdiction of a parish priest, who might be assisted by one or more curates, and who operates from a parish church. Historically, a parish often covered the same geographical area as a manor. Its association with the parish church remains paramount.[1] By extension the term parish refers not only to the territorial entity but to the people of its community or congregation as well as to church property within it
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United States
Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of America Flag Coat of arms Motto: "In God
God
We Trust"[1] .mw-parser-output .nobold f
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Franciscan
The Franciscans
Franciscans
are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic
Catholic
Church, founded in 1209 by Francis of Assisi. These orders include the Order of Friars Minor, the Order of Saint Clare, and the Third Order
Third Order
of Saint Francis. These orders adhere to the teachings and spiritual disciplines of the founder and of his main associates and followers, such as Clare of Assisi, Anthony of Padua, and Elizabeth of Hungary, among many others.[2] Francis began preaching around 1207 and traveled to Rome
Rome
to seek approval from Pope Innocent III
Pope Innocent III
in 1209 to form a new religious order. The original Rule of Saint Francis approved by the Pope
Pope
disallowed ownership of property, requiring members of the order to beg for food while preaching
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Portola Expedition
The Portolá expedition
Portolá expedition
was the first recorded Spanish (or any European) land entry and exploration of the present-day state of California, in 1769–1770, that led to the founding of Alta California.Contents1 Background 2 Gaspar de Portolá
Gaspar de Portolá
i Rovira 3 Decision to send expedition 4 Expedition4.1 Baja California
California
to San Diego4.1.1 Two groups by sea 4.1.2 Two groups by land 4.1.3 Arrival in San Diego4.2 San Diego to San Francisco, flummoxed at Monterey (1769)4.2.1 Earthquakes around future Los Angeles 4.2.2 Monterey Bay
Monterey Bay
hidden in plain sight 4.2.3 Rounding San Francisco Bay 4.2.4 Return trip4.3 Take 2: San Diego to Monterey (1770)5 Interactions with Native Americans 6 Legacy 7 See also 8 Notes and references 9 Further reading 10 External linksBackground[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification
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Juan Crespi
Joan Crespí
Joan Crespí
or Juan Crespí (March 1, 1721 – January 1, 1782) was a Franciscan
Franciscan
missionary and explorer of Las Californias.[1] Biography[edit] A native of Majorca, Crespí entered the Franciscan
Franciscan
order at the age of seventeen.[2] He came to New Spain
Spain
in 1749, and accompanied explorers Francisco Palóu
Francisco Palóu
and Junípero Serra. In 1767 he went to the Baja California Peninsula
Baja California Peninsula
and was placed in charge of the Misión La Purísima Concepción de Cadegomó. In 1769, Crespí joined the expedition led by Gaspar de Portolá
Gaspar de Portolá
and Junípero Serra
Junípero Serra
(see Timeline of the Portolá expedition)
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Population Of Native California
Estimates of the Population of Native Californians prior to and after European contact have varied substantially. Pre-contact estimates range from 133,000 to 705,000 with some recent scholars concluding that these estimates are low. Following the arrival of Europeans in California, disease and violence reduced the population to as low as 25,000. During and after the California
California
Gold Rush, it is estimated that miners and others killed about 4,500 Indigenous people of California
California
between 1849 and 1870.[1] As of 2005, California
California
is the state with the largest self-identified Native American population according to the U.S
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