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Ministry Of Science, Technology And Space
The MINISTRY OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND SPACE is a government ministry in Israel
Israel
, headed by the SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND SPACE MINISTER. The portfolio has been renamed several times since its creation, and has previously included Culture and Sport, which is now the responsibility of the Culture and Sport Ministry
Culture and Sport Ministry
. In April 2013, the Ministry added "Space" to its name to promote space research and technology . The ministry is responsible for defining national policy on issues related to Science and technology in Israel
Israel
, and promoting scientific and technological research, infrastructure and projects. In addition, under its jurisdiction, it acts to develop human capital, increase the social and economic vigor of Israeli society, and maintain equal opportunity in all areas of science and technology. Amongst its goals, the Ministry constitutes a connecting link between basic research, applied research and industrial development. Another central goal of the Ministry is to strengthen as well as initiate international scientific collaborations with other countries and international organization
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Government Of Israel
The GOVERNMENT OF ISRAEL (officially: Hebrew : ממשלת ישראל‎‎ _Memshelet Yisrael_) exercises executive authority in the State of Israel . It consists of ministers who are chosen and led by the prime minister . The composition of the government must be approved by a vote of confidence in the Knesset (the Israeli parliament). Under Israeli law, the prime minister may dismiss members of the government, but must do so in writing, and new appointees must be approved by the Knesset. Most ministers lead ministries , though some are ministers without portfolio . Most ministers are members of the Knesset, though only the Prime Minister and the "designated acting prime minister " are required to be Knesset members. Some ministers are also called deputy and vice prime ministers. Unlike the designated acting prime minister, these roles have no statutory meanings. The government operates in accordance with the Basic Law . It meets on Sundays weekly in Jerusalem . There may be additional meetings if circumstances require it. The prime minister convenes these meetings. CONTENTS * 1 Use of terms * 2 Provisional and first governments of Israel * 3 Current government * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links USE OF TERMSThe body discussed in this article is referred to in Israeli official documents as the _Government of Israel_
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Ofir Akunis
OFIR AKUNIS (Hebrew : אופיר אקוניס‎, born 28 May 1973) is a right-wing Israeli politician. He currently serves as a member of the Knesset on behalf of the Likud party and Minister of Science, Technology and Space . CONTENTS* 1 Biography * 1.1 Early life * 1.2 The 18th Knesset * 1.2.1 Economic Committee Activities * 1.2.2 Legislation * 1.2.3 Additional functions in the Knesset and the Likud * 1.3 The 19th Knesset * 1.3.1 Deputy Minister of Environmental Protection * 1.3.2 "Computer for Every Child" * 1.4 The 20th Knesset * 1.5 Opinions * 1.6 Personal life * 2 References * 3 External links BIOGRAPHYEARLY LIFEAkunis was born in Tel Aviv in 1973 and educated at Herzliya Hebrew High School between 1987 and 1991. He served as youth correspondent for the weekly "Ma\'ariv LaNoar" magazine. During his national service he served as a military correspondent for the Chief Education Officer of the Education and Youth Corps. After his army service he served as music editor of the radio program "Youth Club" on Reshet Gimmel , and on other programs. He completed his bachelor's degree in political science and international relations. In January 1996 he joined the Likud party and began working in the information department at Metzudat Ze'ev in Tel Aviv
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Israel
Coordinates : 31°N 35°E / 31°N 35°E / 31; 35 State of Israel * מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל (Hebrew ) * دَوْلَة إِسْرَائِيل (Arabic ) Flag Emblem ANTHEM: " Hatikvah " (Hebrew for "The Hope") Capital and largest city Jerusalem _(internationally unrecognized )_ 31°47′N 35°13′E / 31.783°N 35.217°E / 31.783; 35.217 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES * Hebrew * Arabic ETHNIC GROUPS (2016) * 74.8% Jewish * 20.8% Arab * 4.4% other RELIGION * 74.8% Jewish * 17.6% Muslim * 2% Christian * 1.6% Druze * 4% other DEMONYM Israeli GOVERNMENT Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic • PRESIDENT Reuven Rivlin • PRIME MINISTER
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Culture And Sport Ministry
The CULTURE AND SPORT MINISTRY (Hebrew : משרד התרבות והספורט‎‎, Misrad HaTarbut VeHaSport) is a new and relatively minor ministry in the Israeli cabinet . Previously culture and sport had been part of other ministerial portfolios. Between 1949 and 1999, and again from 2003 until 2006, culture was part of the Education Minister portfolio. Similarly, sport was part of the Education Minister post between 1994 and 1999 and 2003 and 2006. Both culture and sport were combined with the Science and Technology post between 2006 and 2009, before being split into a separate post upon the formation of the Netanyahu government in March 2009
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Israel Space Agency
The ISRAEL SPACE AGENCY (ISA; Hebrew : סוכנות החלל הישראלית‎‎, Sochnut HaChalal HaYisraelit) is a governmental body, a part of Israel's Ministry of Science and Technology , that coordinates all Israeli space research programs with scientific and commercial goals. The agency was founded by the theoretical physicist Professor Yuval Ne\'eman in 1983 to replace the National Committee for Space
Space
Research which was established in 1960 to set up the infrastructure required for space missions. The agency is currently headed by Professor Isaac Ben Israel
Israel
as Chairman and Avi Blasberger as Director General. Today, Israel
Israel
is the smallest country with indigenous launch capabilities
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Science And Technology In Israel
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN ISRAEL is one of the country's most developed sectors. Israel
Israel
spent 4.2% of its gross domestic product (GDP) on civil research and development in 2013, one of the highest ratios in the world . Israel
Israel
ranks fifth among the most innovative countries in the Bloomberg Innovation Index . It ranks thirteenth in the world for scientific output as measured by the number of scientific publications per million citizens. In 2014, Israel's share of scientific articles published worldwide (0.9%) was much higher than its share of the global population (0.1%). It also has one of the highest per capita rates of filed patents. Israel
Israel
counts 140 scientists and technicians per 10,000 employees, one of the highest ratios in the world. In comparison, there are 85 per 10,000 in the United States
United States
and 83 per 10,000 in Japan
Japan
. In 2012, Israel
Israel
counted 8,337 full-time equivalent researchers per million inhabitants. This compares with 3,984 in the USA, 6,533 in the Republic of Korea and 5,195 in Japan. Israel's high technology industry has benefited from both the country's skilled workforce and the strong presence of foreign high-tech firms and research centres
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Yuval Ne'eman
YUVAL NE\'EMAN (Hebrew : יובל נאמן‎‎‎, 14 May 1925 – 26 April 2006) was an Israeli theoretical physicist , military scientist, and politician . He was Minister of Science and Development in the 1980s and early 1990s. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Scientific career * 3 Awards and honours * 4 Political career * 5 Death * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links BIOGRAPHY Yuval Ne'eman
Yuval Ne'eman
was born in Tel Aviv during the Mandate era , graduated from high school at the age of 15, and studied mechanical engineering at the Technion
Technion
. At the age of 15, Ne'eman also joined the Haganah . During the 1948 Arab-Israeli War Ne'eman served in the Israel
Israel
Defense Forces (IDF) as battalion deputy commander, then as Operations Officer of Tel Aviv, and commander of Givati Brigade
Givati Brigade
. Later (1952–54) he served as Deputy Commander of Operations Department of General Staff, Commander of the Planning Department of the IDF. In this role, he helped organize the IDF into a reservist -based army, developed the mobilization system, and wrote the first draft of Israel's defense doctrine
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Likud
LIKUD (Hebrew : הַלִּיכּוּד‎, translit. _HaLikud_, lit. _The Consolidation_), officially the LIKUD–NATIONAL LIBERAL MOVEMENT, is a center-right to right-wing political party in Israel . A secular party, it was founded in 1973 by Menachem Begin and Ariel Sharon in an alliance with several right-wing and liberal parties. Likud's landslide victory in the 1977 elections was a major turning point in the country's political history, marking the first time the left had lost power. In addition, it was the first time in Israel that a right-wing party won the plurality of the votes. However, after ruling the country for most of the 1980s, the party lost the Knesset election in 1992. Nevertheless, Likud's candidate Benjamin Netanyahu did win the vote for Prime Minister in 1996 and was given the task of forming a government after the 1996 elections . Netanyahu's government fell apart after a vote of no confidence, which led to elections being called in 1999 and Likud losing power to the One Israel coalition led by Ehud Barak . In 2001, Likud's Ariel Sharon , who replaced Netanyahu following the 1999 election, defeated Barak in an election called by the Prime Minister following his resignation. After the party recorded a convincing win in the 2003 elections , Likud saw a major split in 2005 when Sharon left to form the Kadima party
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Gideon Patt
GIDEON PATT (Hebrew : גדעון פת‎, born 22 February 1933) is a former Israeli politician who served in several ministerial positions between the late 1970s and early 1980s. BIOGRAPHYBorn in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
during the Mandate era , Patt served in the Nahal brigade and studied economics at New York University , gaining a BA. For the 1969 elections he was placed 27th on the Gahal list, but missed out on a seat when the alliance won only 26 seats. However, he entered the Knesset on 29 January 1970 as a replacement for the deceased Aryeh Ben-Eliezer . He was re-elected in 1973 and 1977, and was appointed Minister of Housing and Construction in Menachem Begin 's government . In January 1979 he switched to the Industry, Trade and Tourism portfolio. Following the 1981 elections the Tourism and Industry and Trade portfolios were separated, though Patt continued to hold both until August 1981 when he gave up the Tourism post. After the 1984 elections he became Minister of Science and Development , and reverted to Minister of Tourism after the 1988 elections . Although he retained his seat in the 1992 elections , the government was formed by Labor , and Patt lost his place in the cabinet. He was not re-elected in 1996
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Ezer Weizman
EZER WEIZMAN _ listen (help ·info ) (Hebrew : עזר ויצמן‎‎ Ezer Vaytsman_; 15 June 1924 – 24 April 2005) was the seventh President of Israel , first elected in 1993 and re-elected in 1998. Before the presidency, Weizman was commander of the Israeli Air Force and Minister of Defense . CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Military career * 3 Political career * 4 Presidency * 5 Death * 6 Honours and awards * 7 Published works * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links EARLY LIFEWeizman was born in Tel Aviv in the British Mandate of Palestine on 15 June 1924. His father, Yechiel, was an agronomist. Weizman was a nephew of Israel's first president, Chaim Weizmann . He grew up in Haifa , and attended the Hebrew Reali School . He married Reuma Schwartz, sister of Ruth Dayan , wife of Moshe Dayan , and they had two children, Shaul and Michal. Weizman was a combat pilot . He received his training in the British Army in which he enlisted in 1942 during World War II. He served as a truck driver in the Western Desert campaigns in Egypt and Libya . In 1943, he joined the British Royal Air Force (RAF) and attended aviation school in Rhodesia . He served with the RAF in India in early 1944. Weizman ended his service in the RAF as a sergeant pilot
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Alignment (political Party)
The ALIGNMENT (Hebrew : המערך‎, translit. HaMa'arakh) is the name of two political alliances in Israel . Each of these Alignment parties later merged into what is now the Israeli Labor Party . The first Alignment was a 1965 alliance of Mapai and Ahdut HaAvoda . The two parties continued to exist independently, but submitted joint electoral lists. Often called the Labor Alignment, the alliance lasted three years until a merger with Rafi in 1968 created the unitary Israeli Labor Party . The following year the Labor Party formed an alliance with Mapam , adopting the Alignment name. The two constituent parties remained separate, but with combined electoral campaigns and candidate lists. The second version of the Alignment lasted for more than two decades. At its formation in 1969, the second Alignment had 63 of 120 Knesset seats, the only time a parliamentary group in Israel has ever held a parliamentary majority. Although their majority was lost in the 1969 elections , the 56 seats won by the Alignment remains the highest seat total won in an Israeli election
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Amnon Rubinstein
AMNON RUBINSTEIN (Hebrew : אמנון רובינשטיין‎‎, born 5 September 1931) is an Israeli law scholar, politician, and columnist. A member of the Knesset between 1977 and 2002, he served in several ministerial positions. He is currently dean of the Interdisciplinary Center
Interdisciplinary Center
(IDC) in Herzliya and a patron of Liberal International . CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Political career * 3 Academics and journalism * 4 Awards * 5 Published works * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links EARLY LIFERubinstein was born in Tel Aviv during the Mandate era . His family belonged to the Revisionist Zionist movement. Rubinstein would later split from Revisionism but remain impacted by the classical liberalism that influenced Revisionist founder Ze\'ev Jabotinsky . After serving as a captain in the IDF, he studied economics , international relations, and law at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and was called to the bar in 1963. He received a PhD in law from the London School of Economics in 1966. Between 1961 and 1975 he worked as a professor of law at Tel Aviv University , serving as faculty dean from 1968 until 1973. POLITICAL CAREERRubinstein's political career began when he founded Shinui after the Yom Kippur War . Shinui joined Yigael Yadin 's Democratic Movement to form Dash
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Meretz
MERETZ (Hebrew : מֶרֶצ‎, lit. "Vigour") is a left-wing , social-democratic , green , and Zionist political party in Israel . The party was originally formed in 1992 with the union of Ratz , Mapam , and Shinui and was at its peak in the 13th Knesset between 1992 and 1996, during which it held 12 seats. At the 2015 legislative elections the party won five seats. Meretz
Meretz
is a secular party emphasising a two-state solution to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict , social justice , human rights (especially for ethnic and sexual minorities ), religious freedom , and environmentalism . The party is a member of the Progressive Alliance and Socialist International , and is an observer member of the Party of European Socialists . CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 1999–2009 * 1.2 2009–present * 2 Ideology * 2.1 Stated principles * 3 Chairpersons (leaders) * 4 Knesset Members * 5 Meretz
Meretz
supporters abroad * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORY Meretz
Meretz
was formed in 1992 prior to the 1992 legislative elections by an alliance of three left-wing political parties; Ratz , Mapam and Shinui , and was initially led by Ratz's chairwoman and long-time Knesset member Shulamit Aloni
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Shimon Sheetrit
Professor SHIMON SHETREET (Hebrew : שמעון שטרית‎, born 1 March 1946) is a former Israeli politician who held several ministerial portfolios between 1992 and 1996. He is currently the Greenblatt Chair of Public and International Law at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Legal career * 3 Political career * 4 Academic career * 5 References * 6 External links EARLY LIFEBorn in Erfoud
Erfoud
in Morocco, Shetreet's family made aliyah to Israel
Israel
in 1949 when he was three years old. He attended a religious elementary school, before studying at a yeshiva , winning the International Bible Contest at the age of 13. He went on to study law at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, gaining an LLB in 1968 and LLM in 1970. He then went on to the University of Chicago
University of Chicago
, where he gained an LLD in 1973. LEGAL CAREERShetreet began working as a clerk to Supreme Court judge Alfred Witkon in 1967, and was admitted to the Bar Association in 1969. In 1980 he was a member of the Commission on the Israeli Court System, and was involved in founding the Public Law Association in 1987
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Israeli Labor Party
The ISRAELI LABOR PARTY (Hebrew : מִפְלֶגֶת הָעֲבוֹדָה הַיִּשְׂרְאֵלִית‎, translit. Mifleget HaAvoda HaYisrelit (help ·info )), commonly known as HAAVODA (Hebrew : הָעֲבוֹדָה‎), is a social democratic and Zionist political party in Israel
Israel
. The Israeli Labor Party was established in 1968 by a merger of Mapai , Ahdut HaAvoda and Rafi . Until 1977, all Israeli Prime Ministers were affiliated with the Labor movement. The current party leader (since July 2017) is Avi Gabbay . The Labor Party is associated with supporting the Israeli–Palestinian peace process , pragmatic foreign affairs policies and social democratic economic policies. The party is a member of the Socialist International
Socialist International
and Progressive Alliance , and is an observer member of the Party of European Socialists
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