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Ministry Of International Trade And Industry
The Ministry of International Trade and Industry (通商産業省 Tsūshō-sangyō-shō or MITI) was one of the most powerful agencies of the Government of Japan. At the height of its influence, it effectively ran much of Japanese industrial policy, funding research and directing investment. In 2001, its role was taken over by the newly created Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry
Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry
(METI).Contents1 History 2 Agencies 3 Deputy ministers 4 See also 5 Sources 6 External linksHistory[edit] MITI was created with the split of the Ministry of Commerce and Industry in May 1949 and given the mission for coordinating international trade policy with other groups, such as the Bank of Japan, the Economic planning
Economic planning
Agency, and the various commerce-related cabinet ministries. At the time it was created, Japan was still recovering from the economic disaster of World War II
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Yen
The yen (Japanese: 円, Hepburn: en, symbol: ¥; code: JPY; also abbreviated as JP¥) is the official currency of Japan. It is the third most traded currency in the foreign exchange market after the United States dollar
United States dollar
and the euro.[4] It is also widely used as a reserve currency after the U.S. dollar, the euro, and the pound sterling. The concept of the yen was a component of the Meiji government's modernization program of Japan's economy; which postulated the pursuit of a uniform currency throughout the country modeled after the European decimal currency system. Before the Meiji Restoration, Japan's feudal fiefs all issued their own money, hansatsu, in an array of incompatible denominations. The New Currency
Currency
Act of 1871 did away with these and established the yen, which was defined as 1.5 g (0.048 troy ounces) of gold, or 24.26 g (0.780 troy ounces) of silver, as the new decimal currency
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Library Of Congress Country Studies
The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the United States
United States
Library of Congress, freely available for use by researchers. No copyright is claimed on them. Therefore, they have been dedicated to the public domain and can be copied freely, though not all the pictures used therein are in the public domain. The Country Studies Series presents a description and analysis of the historical setting and the social, economic, political, and national security systems and institutions of countries throughout the world. The series examines the interrelationships of those systems and the ways they are shaped by cultural factors. The books represent the analysis of the authors and should not be construed as an expression of an official United States
United States
Government position, policy, or decision
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Copyright Status Of Work By The U.S. Government
A work of the United States
United States
government, as defined by the United States copyright law, is "a work prepared by an officer or employee" of the federal government "as part of that person's official duties."[1] In general, under section 105 of the Copyright Act,[2] such works are not entitled to domestic copyright protection under U.S. law and are therefore in the public domain. This act only applies to U.S. domestic copyright as that is the extent of U.S. federal law. The U.S. government asserts that it can still hold the copyright to those works in other countries.[3][4] Publication of an otherwise protected work by the U.S. government does not put that work in the public domain. For example, government publications may include works copyrighted by a contractor or grantee; copyrighted material assigned to the U.S
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Economy Of Japan
The economy of Japan
Japan
is a highly developed and market-oriented economy. It is the third-largest in the world by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity (PPP).[17][18] and is the world's second largest developed economy.[19] Japan
Japan
is a member of the G7
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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Japan Patent Office
Coordinates: 35°40′15.56″N 139°44′45.15″E / 35.6709889°N 139.7458750°E / 35.6709889; 139.7458750 The Japan
Japan
Patent
Patent
Office (特許庁, Tokkyochō, JPO) is a Japanese governmental agency in charge of industrial property right affairs, under the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. The Japan
Japan
Patent Office is located in Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda, Tokyo
Chiyoda, Tokyo
and is one of the world's largest patent offices. The Japan
Japan
Patent
Patent
Office's mission is to promote the growth of the Japanese economy
Japanese economy
and industry by administering the laws relating to patents, utility models, designs, and trademarks
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National Institute Of Advanced Industrial Science And Technology
The National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (産業技術総合研究所, Sangyō Gijutsu Sōgō Kenkyū-sho), or AIST, is a Japanese research facility headquartered in Tokyo, and most of the workforce is located in Tsukuba Science City, Ibaraki, and in several cities throughout Japan. The institute is managed to integrate scientific and engineering knowledge to address socio-economic needs. It became a newly designed legal body of independent administrative institution in 2001, remaining under the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry.Contents1 History 2 Three missions of AIST 3 Type-I and Type-II basic research 4 Employees 5 Geological Survey of Japan 6 Notable scientists 7 Products 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksHistory[edit] In its present form AIST was established in 2001. However its predecessor institutes have been operating since 1882
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United States
Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of AmericaFlagGreat SealMotto:  "In God
God
We Trust"[1][fn 1]Other traditional mottos  "E pluribus unum" (Latin)
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Government Of Japan
The government of Japan
Japan
is a constitutional monarchy in which the power of the Emperor is limited and is relegated primarily to ceremonial duties. As in many other states, the Government
Government
is divided into three branches: the Executive branch, the Legislative branch
Legislative branch
and the Judicial branch. The Government
Government
runs under the framework established by the Constitution of Japan, adopted in 1947. It is a unitary state, containing forty-seven administrative divisions, with the Emperor as its head of state.[1] His role is ceremonial and he has no powers related to Government.[2] Instead, it is the Cabinet, composing of the Ministers of State and the Prime Minister, that directs and controls the Government
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United States Dollar
 United States  East Timor[2][Note 1]  Ecuador[3][Note 2]  El Salvador[4]  Federated States of Micronesia  Marshall Islands  Palau  Panama[Note 3]  Zimbabwe[Note 4]3 non-U.S
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Floating Exchange Rate
A floating exchange rate (also called a fluctuating or flexible exchange rate) is a type of exchange-rate regime in which a currency's value is allowed to fluctuate in response to foreign-exchange market mechanisms. A currency that uses a floating exchange rate is known as a floating currency. A floating currency is contrasted with a fixed currency whose value is tied to that of another currency, material goods or to a currency basket. In the modern world, most of the world's currencies are floating; such currencies include the most widely traded currencies: the United States dollar, the Indian rupee, the euro, the Japanese yen, the British pound, and the Australian dollar. However, central banks often participate in the markets to attempt to influence the value of floating exchange rates
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Prime Minister
A prime minister, also known as a premier, is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system. In many systems, the prime minister selects and may dismiss other members of the cabinet, and allocates posts to members within the government. In most systems, the prime minister is the presiding member and chairman of the cabinet. In a minority of systems, notably in semi-presidential systems of government, a prime minister is the official who is appointed to manage the civil service and execute the directives of the head of state. In parliamentary systems fashioned after the Westminster system, the prime minister is the presiding and actual head of government and head of the executive branch
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Planned Economy
A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment and the allocation of capital goods is performed through economy-wide economic and production plans
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Industrial Policy Of Japan
The industrial policy of Japan was a complicated system devised by the Japanese government after World War II and especially in the 1950s and 1960s. The goal was to promote industrial development by co-operating closely with private firms. The objective of industrial policy was to shift resources to specific industries in order to gain international competitive advantage for Japan. The policies and methods were used primarily to increase the productivity of inputs and to influence, directly or indirectly, industrial investment. Administrative guidance (gyōsei shidō 行政指導) is a principal instrument of enforcement used extensively throughout the Japanese government to support a wide range of policies. Influence, prestige, advice, and persuasion are used to encourage both corporations and individuals to work in directions judged desirable
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