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Minister Without Portfolio
A MINISTER WITHOUT PORTFOLIO is either a government minister with no specific responsibilities or a minister who does not head a particular ministry . The sinecure is particularly common in countries ruled by coalition governments and a cabinet with decision-making authority wherein a minister without portfolio, while he or she may not head any particular office or ministry, still receives a ministerial salary and has the right to cast a vote in cabinet decisions. In some countries where the executive branch is not composed of a coalition of parties and, more often, in countries with purely presidential systems of government, such as the United States, the position (or an equivalent position) of minister without portfolio is uncommon
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Government Minister
A MINISTER is a politician who holds public office in a national or regional government , making and implementing decisions on policies in conjunction with the other ministers. In some jurisdictions the head of government is also a minister and is designated the "prime minister ", "premier", "chief minister", "Chancellor" or other title. In Commonwealth realm
Commonwealth realm
jurisdictions which use the Westminster system of government, ministers are usually required to be members of one of the houses of Parliament
Parliament
or legislature , and are usually from the political party that controls a majority in the lower house of the legislature
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Ministry (government Department)
A MINISTRY is a governmental organisation, headed by a minister , that is meant to manage a specific sector of public administration . Ministries have a bureaucratic structure. Different states have different numbers and names of ministries, but the Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary notes that all states have (often under different names) a Ministry of Interior , a Ministry of Foreign Affairs , a Ministry of Defense
Ministry of Defense
(which may be divided into ministries for land forces and the navy), a Ministry of Justice and a Ministry of Finance . Ministries called the Ministry of Education or similar are also common
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Sinecure
A SINECURE (from Latin
Latin
sine = "without" and cura = "care") means an office that requires or involves little or no responsibility, labour, or active service. The term originated in the medieval church, where it signified a post without any responsibility for the "cure of souls ", the regular liturgical and pastoral functions of a cleric, but came to be applied to any post, secular or ecclesiastical, that involved little or no actual work. Sinecures have historically provided a potent tool for governments or monarchs to distribute patronage , while recipients are able to store up titles and easy salaries. A sinecure is not necessarily a figurehead , which generally requires active participation in government, albeit with a lack of power. A sinecure can also be given to an individual whose primary job is in another office, but requires a sinecure title to perform that job
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Coalition
The term "COALITION" is the denotation for a group formed when two or more persons, faction, states, political parties, militaries etc. agree to work together temporarily in a partnership to achieve a common goal. The word coalition connotes a coming together to achieve a goal. Synonyms include alliance , union, partnership , bloc, caucus ; federation , league, association, confederation , consortium , syndicate , combine , amalgamation, or merger
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Presidential System
A PRESIDENTIAL SYSTEM is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch . This head of government is in most cases also the head of state , which is called _president _. In presidential countries, the executive is elected and is not responsible to the legislature, which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. Such dismissal is possible, however, in uncommon cases, often through impeachment . The title "president " has persisted from a time when such person personally presided over the governing body, as with the President of the Continental Congress in the early United States , prior to the executive function being split into a separate branch of government
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Stanley Bruce
STANLEY MELBOURNE BRUCE, 1ST VISCOUNT BRUCE OF MELBOURNE, CH , MC , PC , FRS (15 April 1883 – 25 August 1967) was the eighth Prime Minister of Australia (1923–29). Bruce made wide-ranging reforms and mounted a comprehensive nation-building program in government, but his controversial handling of industrial relations led to his dramatic defeat at the polls in 1929 . He later pursued a long and influential diplomatic career as High Commissioner to the United Kingdom , at the League of Nations
League of Nations
and as Chairman of the Food and Agriculture Organization Council. Born into a wealthy Melbourne
Melbourne
family, Bruce studied at the University of Cambridge and spent his early life tending to the importing and exporting business of his late father
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Suranjit Sengupta
SURANJIT SENGUPTA (5 May 1945 – 5 February 2017) was a Bangladesh Awami League politician, and resigned in 2012 as second Railway Minister of Bangladesh. He was the Member of Parliament from Sunamganj-2 constituency in the Jatiyo Sangshad
Jatiyo Sangshad
and a member of the party's advisory council. He served as the chairman of the parliamentary standing committee on the Law, Justice, and Parliamentary Affairs Ministry. CONTENTS * 1 Early life and education * 2 Career * 2.1 Railway bribery scandal * 2.2 Amar Desh
Amar Desh
allegations of corruption * 3 Personal life and death * 4 References * 5 External links EARLY LIFE AND EDUCATIONSengupta was born in Derai Upazila , Sunamganj District
Sunamganj District
to Devendra Nath Sengupta and Sumati Bala Sengupta. Among four brothers and a sister, he was the youngest
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Bozhidar Dimitrov
BOZHIDAR DIMITROV STOYANOV (Bulgarian : Божидар Димитров Стоянов, born 3 December 1945) is a Bulgarian historian working in the sphere of Medieval Bulgarian history , the Ottoman rule of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and the Macedonian Question . He is the director of the National Historical Museum , formerly a Bulgarian Socialist Party member, and later a politician affiliated with the Citizens for European Development of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
(GERB) political party. Currently Bozhidar Dimitrov
Bozhidar Dimitrov
is not engaged in political activity
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Jean Chrétien
JOSEPH JACQUES JEAN CHRéTIEN PC OM CC QC (born January 11, 1934), known commonly as JEAN CHRéTIEN (French pronunciation: ​ ), is a Canadian politician who served as the 20th Prime Minister of Canada from November 4, 1993, to December 12, 2003. Born and raised in Shawinigan, Quebec
Shawinigan, Quebec
, Chrétien is a law graduate from Université Laval
Université Laval
. He was first elected to the Canadian House of Commons in 1963. He served in various cabinet posts under prime minister Pierre Trudeau , most prominently as Minister of Justice , Minister of Finance , and Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development . He also served as deputy prime minister in John Turner 's short-lived government. He became leader of the Liberal Party of Canada
Canada
in 1990, and led the party to a majority government in the 1993 federal election . He was re-elected with further majorities in 1997 and 2000
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Lester Pearson
LESTER BOWLES "MIKE" PEARSON PC OM CC OBE
OBE
(23 April 1897 – 27 December 1972) was a Canadian scholar, statesman, soldier, prime minister, and diplomat, who won the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
in 1957 for organizing the United Nations Emergency Force
United Nations Emergency Force
to resolve the Suez Canal Crisis . He was the 14th Prime Minister of Canada
Prime Minister of Canada
from 22 April 1963 to 20 April 1968, as the head of two back-to-back Liberal minority governments following elections in 1963 and 1965 . During Pearson's time as Prime Minister, his Liberal minority governments introduced universal health care , student loans , the Canada Pension Plan , the Order of Canada
Order of Canada
, and the Maple Leaf flag . His Liberal government also unified Canada's armed forces
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John Turner
JOHN NAPIER WYNDHAM TURNER, PC , CC , QC (born June 7, 1929) is an English-born Canadian
Canadian
lawyer and politician, who served as the 17th Prime Minister of Canada
Prime Minister of Canada
from June 30 to September 17, 1984. In his political career, Turner held several prominent Cabinet posts, including minister of justice and minister of finance, under Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau
Pierre Trudeau
from 1968 to 1975. Amid a global recession and the prospect of having to implement the unpopular wage and price controls, Turner surprisingly resigned his position in 1975. After a hiatus from politics from 1975 to 1984, Turner returned and successfully contested the Liberal leadership
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Richard Bedford Bennett
RICHARD BEDFORD BENNETT, 1ST VISCOUNT BENNETT, PC , KC (3 July 1870 – 26 June 1947), was a Canadian politician who served as the 11th Prime Minister of Canada
Prime Minister of Canada
, in office from 1930 to 1935. He led the Conservative Party from 1927 to 1938. Bennett was born in Hopewell Hill, New Brunswick , and grew up in nearby Hopewell Cape . He studied law at Dalhousie University
Dalhousie University
, graduating in 1893, and in 1897 moved to Calgary
Calgary
to establish a law firm in partnership with James Lougheed . Bennett served in the Legislative Assembly of the Northwest Territories from 1898 to 1905, and later in the Alberta Legislature from 1909 to 1911. He was the inaugural leader of the Alberta Conservative Party from 1905, resigning upon his election to the House of Commons in 1911
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Arthur Meighen
ARTHUR MEIGHEN PC , QC (/ˈmiːən/ ; 16 June 1874 – 5 August 1960) was a Canadian lawyer and politician who served as the ninth Prime Minister of Canada , in office from July 1920 to December 1921 and again from June to September 1926. He led the Conservative Party from 1920 to 1926 and from 1941 to 1942. Meighen was born in rural Perth County, Ontario
Perth County, Ontario
. He studied mathematics at the University of Toronto
Toronto
, and then went on to Osgoode Hall Law School . After qualifying to practise law, Meighen moved to Portage la Prairie , Manitoba
Manitoba
. He entered the Canadian House of Commons in 1908, aged 34, and in 1913 was appointed to cabinet under Robert Borden
Robert Borden

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Gilles Lamontagne
JOSEPH-GEORGES-GILLES-CLAUDE LAMONTAGNE, PC OC CQ CD (French pronunciation: ​ ; April 17, 1919 – June 14, 2016) was a Canadian politician and the 24th Lieutenant Governor of Quebec . CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Career * 2.1 Lieutenant-Governor of Quebec (1984–90) * 3 Personal life * 4 Arms * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links EARLY LIFEHe was born in Montreal
Montreal
. During World War II
World War II
, Lamontagne served as a bomber pilot in the Royal Canadian Air Force
Royal Canadian Air Force
and was later on shot down over the Netherlands
Netherlands
in 1943 being detained as a prisoner of war until May 1945. He ended his air force service in the rank of flight lieutenant . In 1946, he settled in Quebec City
Quebec City
and entered the importing business
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Postmaster General Of Canada
The POSTMASTER GENERAL OF CANADA was the Canadian cabinet
Canadian cabinet
minister responsible for the Post Office Department ( Canada
Canada
Post ). In 1851, management of the post office was transferred from Britain (Royal Mail ) to the provincial governments of the Province of Canada
Canada
, New Brunswick , Newfoundland , Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
and Prince Edward Island
Prince Edward Island
. The position of Postmaster General was established in each province. With Canadian Confederation
Canadian C