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Minister Without Portfolio
A MINISTER WITHOUT PORTFOLIO is either a government minister with no specific responsibilities or a minister who does not head a particular ministry . The sinecure is particularly common in countries ruled by coalition governments and a cabinet with decision-making authority wherein a minister without portfolio, while he or she may not head any particular office or ministry, still receives a ministerial salary and has the right to cast a vote in cabinet decisions. In some countries where the executive branch is not composed of a coalition of parties and, more often, in countries with purely presidential systems of government, such as the United States, the position (or an equivalent position) of minister without portfolio is uncommon
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Government Minister
A MINISTER is a politician who holds public office in a national or regional government , making and implementing decisions on policies in conjunction with the other ministers. In some jurisdictions the head of government is also a Minister and is designated the "prime minister ", "premier", "chief minister", "Chancellor" or other title. In Commonwealth realm jurisdictions which use the Westminster system of government, Ministers are usually required to be members of one of the houses of Parliament
Parliament
or legislature , and are usually from the political party that controls a majority in the lower house of the legislature. In other jurisdictions — such as Belgium
Belgium
, Mexico
Mexico
, Netherlands
Netherlands
, Philippines
Philippines
, United States
United States
— the holder of a cabinet-level post or other government official is not permitted to be a member of the legislature. Depending on the administrative arrangements in each jurisdiction, Ministers are usually heads of a government department and members of the government's Ministry, Cabinet and perhaps of a Committee of Cabinet. Some Ministers may be more senior than others, and some may hold the title "Assistant Minister" or "Deputy Minister". Some jurisdictions, with a large number of Ministers, may designate Ministers to be either in the Inner or Outer Ministry or Cabinet
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Ministry (government Department)
A MINISTRY is a governmental organisation, headed by a minister , that is meant to manage a specific sector of public administration . Ministries have a bureaucratic structure. Different states have different numbers and names of ministries, but the Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary notes that all states have (often under different names) a Ministry of Interior
Ministry of Interior
, a Ministry of Foreign Affairs , a Ministry of Defense (which may be divided into ministries for land forces and the navy), a Ministry of Justice and a Ministry of Finance
Ministry of Finance
. Ministries called the Ministry of Education or similar are also common. Ministries are usually immediate subdivisions of the Cabinet (the executive branch of the government), and subordinate to its chief executive who is called Prime Minister
Prime Minister
, chief minister, President
President
, minister-president or (federal) Chancellor
Chancellor
. During the 20th century, many countries increasingly tended to replace the term "ministry" with words such as "department", "office" or "state secretariat". In some countries, these terms may be used with specific meanings: for example, an office may be a subdivision of a department
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Sinecure
A SINECURE (from Latin sine = "without" and cura = "care") means an office that requires or involves little or no responsibility, labour, or active service. The term originated in the medieval church, where it signified a post without any responsibility for the "cure of souls ", the regular liturgical and pastoral functions of a cleric, but came to be applied to any post, secular or ecclesiastical, that involved little or no actual work. Sinecures have historically provided a potent tool for governments or monarchs to distribute patronage , while recipients are able to store up titles and easy salaries. A sinecure is not necessarily a figurehead , which generally requires active participation in government, albeit with a lack of power. A sinecure can also be given to an individual whose primary job is in another office, but requires a sinecure title to perform that job. For example, the Government House Leader in Canada is often given a sinecure ministry position so that he or she may become a member of the Cabinet . Similar examples are the Lord Privy Seal and the Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
in the British cabinet. Other sinecures operate as legal fictions , such as the British office of Crown Steward and Bailiff of the Chiltern Hundreds , used as a legal excuse for resigning from Parliament
Parliament

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Coalition
The term "COALITION" is the denotation for a group formed when two or more persons, faction, states, political parties, militaries etc. agree to work together temporarily in a partnership to achieve a common goal. The word coalition connotes a coming together to achieve a goal. SYNONYMS: alliance , union, partnership , bloc, caucus ; federation , league, association, confederation , consortium , syndicate , combine , amalgamation or merger CONTENTS * 1 Formation * 2 Function * 3 History * 3.1 Government and Politics * 3.2 International relations * 3.3 Economics * 3.4 Civil society * 3.5 Military * 3.6 Mathematics * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links FORMATIONAccording to _A Guide for Political Parties_ published by National Democratic Institute and The Oslo Center for Peace and Human Rights, there are five steps of coalition-building: * DEVELOPING A PARTY STRATEGY: The first step in coalition-building involves developing a party strategy that will lay the ground for successful negotiation. The more effort parties place on this step, the more likely they are to identify strategic partners, negotiate a good deal and avoid some of the common pitfalls associated with coalition-building. * NEGOTIATING A COALITION: Based on the strategy that each party has prepared, in Step 2 the parties come together to negotiate and hopefully reach agreement on the terms for the coalition
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Presidential System
A PRESIDENTIAL SYSTEM is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch . This head of government is in most cases also the head of state , which is called _president _. In presidential countries, the executive is elected and is not responsible to the legislature, which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. Such dismissal is possible, however, in uncommon cases, often through impeachment . The title "president " has persisted from a time when such person personally presided over the governing body, as with the President of the Continental Congress in the early United States , prior to the executive function being split into a separate branch of government. A presidential system contrasts with a parliamentary system , where the head of government is elected to power through the legislative . There is an intermediary system called semi-presidentialism . Countries that feature a presidential or semi-presidential system of government are not the exclusive users of the title of president. Heads of state of parliamentary republics , largely ceremonial in most cases, are called presidents. Dictators or leaders of one-party states , popularly elected or not, are also often called presidents
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Stanley Bruce
STANLEY MELBOURNE BRUCE, 1ST VISCOUNT BRUCE OF MELBOURNE, CH , MC , PC , FRS (15 April 1883 – 25 August 1967) was the eighth Prime Minister of Australia (1923–29). Bruce made wide-ranging reforms and mounted a comprehensive nation-building program in government, but his controversial handling of industrial relations led to his dramatic defeat at the polls in 1929 . He later pursued a long and influential diplomatic career as High Commissioner to the United Kingdom , at the League of Nations
League of Nations
and as Chairman of the Food and Agriculture Organization Council. Born into a wealthy Melbourne
Melbourne
family, Bruce studied at the University of Cambridge and spent his early life tending to the importing and exporting business of his late father. He served on the front lines of the Gallipoli Campaign in World War I and returned to Australia wounded in 1917, becoming a spokesperson for government recruitment efforts. He gained the attention of the Nationalist Party and Prime Minister Billy Hughes , who encouraged a political career. He was elected to parliament in 1918, becoming treasurer in 1921 and then prime minister in 1923. In office Bruce pursued an energetic and diverse agenda. He comprehensively overhauled federal government administration and oversaw its transfer to the new capital city of Canberra
Canberra

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Suranjit Sengupta
SURANJIT SENGUPTA (5 May 1945 – 5 February 2017) was a Bangladesh Awami League politician, and resigned in 2012 as second Railway Minister of Bangladesh. He was the Member of Parliament from Sunamganj-2 constituency in the Jatiyo Sangshad and a member of the party's advisory council. He served as the chairman of the parliamentary standing committee on the Law, Justice, and Parliamentary Affairs Ministry. CONTENTS * 1 Early life and education * 2 Career * 2.1 Railway bribery scandal * 2.2 Amar Desh allegations of corruption * 3 Personal life and death * 4 References * 5 External links EARLY LIFE AND EDUCATIONSengupta was born in Derai Upazila , Sunamganj District to Devendra Nath Sengupta and Sumati Bala Sengupta. Among four brothers and a sister, he was the youngest. He completed his bachelor's and master's degrees at the University of Dhaka
Dhaka
. He earned his LLB at the Central Law College and practised law for a while. CAREERSengupta started his career as a lawyer. He became a member of Supreme Court Bar Council. He started his political career with leftist parties. In 1970's National Election of Pakistan, he was elected from the Sylhet
Sylhet
District as a candidate of the National Awami Party in the Provincial Assembly. He participated in the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971 as a sub-commander of the Sector-5
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Bozhidar Dimitrov
BOZHIDAR DIMITROV STOYANOV (Bulgarian : Божидар Димитров Стоянов, born 3 December 1945) is a Bulgarian historian working in the sphere of Medieval Bulgarian history , the Ottoman rule of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and the Macedonian Question
Macedonian Question
. He is the director of the National Historical Museum , formerly a Bulgarian Socialist Party member, and later a politician affiliated with the Citizens for European Development of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
(GERB) political party. Currently Bozhidar Dimitrov
Bozhidar Dimitrov
is not engaged in political activity. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Controversy * 3 The Ten Lies of Macedonism * 4 Publications * 5 Honours * 6 References * 7 Notes BIOGRAPHYBorn in Sozopol
Sozopol
to a family of Bulgarian refugees from Eastern Thrace (now part of Turkey
Turkey
), he was given access to the Vatican Secret Archives in the 1980s, regarded as a great achievement considered the political situation of the time. As the director of the National Historical Museum, he had an indirect conflict in 1997–1998 with the President Petar Stoyanov regarding whether to return the Istoriya Slavyanobolgarskaya rough copy to the Zograf Monastery
Zograf Monastery
or leave it in Bulgaria
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Jean Chrétien
JOSEPH JACQUES JEAN CHRéTIEN PC OM CC QC (born January 11, 1934), known commonly as JEAN CHRéTIEN (French pronunciation: ​ ), is a Canadian politician and statesman who served as the 20th Prime Minister of Canada from November 4, 1993 to December 12, 2003. Born and raised in Shawinigan, Quebec , Chrétien is a law graduate from Université Laval . He was first elected to the Canadian House of Commons in 1963. He served in various cabinet posts under prime minister Pierre Trudeau , most prominently as Minister of Justice , Minister of Finance , and Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development . He also served as deputy prime minister in John Turner 's short-lived government. He became leader of the Liberal Party of Canada in 1990, and led the party to a majority government in the 1993 federal election . He was re-elected with further majorities in 1997 and 2000 . Chrétien was strongly opposed to the Quebec sovereignty movement and supported official bilingualism and multiculturalism. He won a narrow victory as leader of the federalist camp in the 1995 Quebec Referendum , and then pioneered the Clarity Act to avoid ambiguity in future referendum questions. He also advanced the Youth Criminal Justice Act in Parliament
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Lester Pearson
LESTER BOWLES "MIKE" PEARSON PCc OM CC OBE
OBE
(23 April 1897 – 27 December 1972) was a Canadian scholar, statesman, soldier and diplomat, who won the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
in 1957 for organizing the United Nations Emergency Force to resolve the Suez Canal Crisis . He was the 14th Prime Minister of Canada from 22 April 1963 to 20 April 1968, as the head of two back-to-back Liberal minority governments following elections in 1963 and 1965 . During Pearson's time as Prime Minister, his Liberal minority governments introduced universal health care , student loans , the Canada Pension Plan , the Order of Canada , and the Maple Leaf flag . His Liberal government also unified Canada's armed forces. Pearson convened the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism , and he kept Canada
Canada
out of the Vietnam War . In 1967, his government passed Bill C-168, which _de facto _ abolished capital punishment in Canada by restricting it to a few capital offenses for which it was never used, and which themselves were abolished in 1976
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John Turner
JOHN NAPIER WYNDHAM TURNER, PC , CC , QC (born June 7, 1929) is an English-born Canadian lawyer and politician, who served as the 17th Prime Minister of Canada from June 30 to September 17, 1984. In his political career, Turner held several prominent Cabinet posts, including minister of justice and minister of finance, under Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau from 1968 to 1975. Amid a global recession and the prospect of having to implement the unpopular wage and price controls, Turner surprisingly resigned his position in 1975. After a hiatus from politics from 1975 to 1984, Turner returned and successfully contested the Liberal leadership. Turner held the office of prime minister for 79 days (the second shortest tenure in Canadian history after Sir Charles Tupper ), as he advised the Governor General to dissolve parliament immediately after being sworn in as prime minister, and went on to lose the 1984 election in a landslide. Turner stayed on as Liberal leader and headed the Official Opposition for the next six years, leading his party to a modest recovery in the 1988 campaign; he resigned as Liberal leader in 1990 and stepped down as an MP at the 1993 election. Turner was Canada's first prime minister born in the United Kingdom since Mackenzie Bowell in 1896
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Richard Bedford Bennett
RICHARD BEDFORD BENNETT, 1ST VISCOUNT BENNETT, PC , KC (3 July 1870 – 26 June 1947), was a Canadian politician who served as the 11th Prime Minister of Canada , in office from 1930 to 1935. He led the Conservative Party from 1927 to 1938. Bennett was born in Hopewell Hill, New Brunswick , and grew up in nearby Hopewell Cape . He studied law at Dalhousie University , graduating in 1893, and in 1897 moved to Calgary to establish a law firm in partnership with James Lougheed . Bennett served in the Legislative Assembly of the Northwest Territories from 1898 to 1905, and later in the Alberta Legislature from 1909 to 1911. He was the inaugural leader of the Alberta Conservative Party from 1905, resigning upon his election to the House of Commons in 1911. From 1920 to 1921, Bennett was Minister of Justice under Arthur Meighen . He also served briefly as Minister of Finance in Meighen's second government in 1926, which lasted just a month. Meighen resigned the Conservative Party's leadership after its defeat at the 1926 election , with Bennett elected as his replacement (and thus Leader of the Opposition ). Bennett became prime minister after the 1930 election , where the Conservatives won a landslide victory over Mackenzie King 's Liberal Party . He was the first prime minister to represent a constituency in Alberta
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Arthur Meighen
ARTHUR MEIGHEN PC , QC (/ˈmiːən/ ; 16 June 1874 – 5 August 1960) was a Canadian lawyer and politician who served as the ninth Prime Minister of Canada , in office from July 1920 to December 1921 and again from June to September 1926. He led the Conservative Party from 1920 to 1926 and from 1941 to 1942. Meighen was born in rural Perth County, Ontario . He studied mathematics at the University of Toronto
Toronto
, and then went on to Osgoode Hall Law School . After qualifying to practise law, Meighen moved to Portage la Prairie
Portage la Prairie
, Manitoba
Manitoba
. He entered the Canadian House of Commons in 1908, aged 34, and in 1913 was appointed to cabinet under Robert Borden . In Borden's government, Meighen served as Solicitor General (1913–1917), Secretary of State for Canada (1917), Minister of Mines (1917; 1919–1920), Minister of the Interior (1917–1920), and Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs (1917–1920). In 1920, Meighen succeeded Robert Borden as leader of the Conservatives, thus becoming prime minister – the first born after Confederation , and the only prime minister from a Manitoba
Manitoba
riding. He attempted to broaden his party's appeal by renaming the National Liberal and Conservative Party , but at the 1921 election suffered a heavy defeat to Mackenzie King and the Liberal Party
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Gilles Lamontagne
JOSEPH-GEORGES-GILLES-CLAUDE LAMONTAGNE, PC OC CQ CD (French pronunciation: ​ ; April 17, 1919 – June 14, 2016) was a Canadian politician and the 24th Lieutenant Governor of Quebec . CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Career * 2.1 Lieutenant-Governor of Quebec (1984–90) * 3 Personal life * 4 Arms * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links EARLY LIFEHe was born in Montreal
Montreal
. During World War II
World War II
, Lamontagne served as a bomber pilot in the Royal Canadian Air Force and was later on shot down over the Netherlands
Netherlands
in 1943 being detained as a prisoner of war until May 1945. He ended his air force service in the rank of flight lieutenant . In 1946, he settled in Quebec City
Quebec City
and entered the importing business. He became a member of the Rotary Club of Quebec City with his partner and neighbour Jean Poliquin. CAREERHe entered politics and was elected mayor of Quebec City
Quebec City
in 1965. He held that post until he won a seat in the Canadian House of Commons as a Liberal Party candidate in a 1977 by-election . In 1978, he entered the Cabinet of Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau as Postmaster General . He served in that position until the defeat of the government in the 1979 election
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Postmaster General Of Canada
The POSTMASTER GENERAL OF CANADA was the Canadian cabinet minister responsible for the Post Office Department ( Canada Post ). In 1851, management of the post office was transferred from Britain (Royal Mail ) to the provincial governments of the Province of Canada , New Brunswick , Newfoundland , Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island . The position of Postmaster General was established in each province. With