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Ming Tombs
The MING TOMBS are a collection of mausoleums built by the emperors of the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
of China
China
. The first Ming emperor's tomb is located near his capital Nanjing
Nanjing
. However, the majority of the Ming tombs are located in a cluster near Beijing
Beijing
and collectively known as the Thirteen Tombs of the Ming Dynasty (Chinese : 明十三陵; pinyin : Míng Shísān Líng; literally: "Ming Thirteen Mausoleums"). They are within the suburban Changping District
Changping District
of Beijing
Beijing
Municipality, 42 kilometres (26 mi) north-northwest of Beijing
Beijing
city center. The site, on the southern slope of Tianshou Mountain (originally Huangtu Mountain), was chosen based on the principles of feng shui by the third Ming emperor, the Yongle Emperor
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Necropolis
A NECROPOLIS is a large, designed cemetery with elaborate tomb monuments. The name stems from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
νεκρόπολις nekropolis, literally meaning "city of the dead". The term usually implies a separate burial site at a distance from a city, as opposed to tombs within cities, which were common in various places and periods of history. They are different from grave fields , which did not have remains above the ground. While the word is most commonly used for ancient sites, the name was revived in the early 19th century and applied to planned city cemeteries, such as the Glasgow Necropolis . HISTORY THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (June 2013) Mastabas in the Giza Necropolis with the Pyramid of Khafre in the background
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Jundu Mountains
JUNDU MOUNTAINS (军都山; Jūndūshān) is a mountain range north of Beijing
Beijing
in China
China
. Jundu Mountains
Jundu Mountains
represent the west part of the Yan Mountains . The Great Wall of China
Great Wall of China
passes through Jundu Mountains with famous sections as Badaling
Badaling
. REFERENCESNOTES * ^ Haw, Stephen G. (2008). "The Municipality of Beijing". Beijing - A concise History. Routledge. p. 4. ISBN 978-0415399050 . * ^ Haw, Stephen G. (2008). "At the edge of the North China
China
Plain". Beijing
Beijing
- A concise History. Routledge. p. 10. ISBN 978-0415399050 . * ^ "Badaling". Atlas of World Heritage: China. Reader's Digest Association. 2006. p. 158. ISBN 978-1592650606 . PRINTED REFERENCES * Haw, Stephen G. (2008)
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Spirit Way
A SPIRIT WAY (Chinese : 神道; pinyin : Shéndào) is the ornate road leading to a Chinese tomb of a major dignitary. The term is also sometimes translated as SPIRIT ROAD, SPIRIT PATH or SACRED WAY. The spirit way is lined on both sides by a succession of statues, pillars , and stelae . The statues along the spirit way depict real and mythical animals, as well as civilian and military officials. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Eastern Han Dynasty
Eastern Han Dynasty
* 1.2 Southern Dynasties * 1.3 Ming Dynasty * 2 Notable examples * 3 See also * 4 References HISTORYEASTERN HAN DYNASTYSpirit ways were a well-developed feature of tombs by the time of the Eastern Han Dynasty
Eastern Han Dynasty

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Bixi (mythology)
BIXI or BI XI ( Wade–Giles : PI-HSI), is a figure from Chinese mythology . One of the 9 sons of the Dragon King , he is depicted as a dragon with the shell of a turtle . Stone sculptures of Bixi have been used in Chinese culture
Chinese culture
for centuries as a decorative plinth for commemorative steles and tablets, particularly in the funerary complexes of its later emperors and to commemorate important events, such as an imperial visit or the anniversary of a World War II victory. They are also used at the bases of bridges and archways. Sculptures of Bixi are traditionally rubbed for good luck, which can cause conservation issues. They can be found throughout East Asia in Japan
Japan
, Korea
Korea
, Vietnam
Vietnam
, Mongolia
Mongolia
, and even the Russian Far East
Russian Far East

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Huabiao
HUABIAO (simplified Chinese : 华表; traditional Chinese : 華表; pinyin : huábiǎo) is a type of ceremonial columns used in traditional Chinese architecture . Huabiao
Huabiao
are traditionally erected in front of palaces and tombs. The prominence of their placement have made them one of the emblems of traditional Chinese culture. When placed outside palaces, they can also be called BANGMU (simplified Chinese: 谤木; traditional Chinese: 謗木; pinyin: Bàng mù; literally: "commentary board"). When placed outside a tomb, they can also be called SHENDAOZHU (Chinese: 神道柱; pinyin: Shéndào zhù; literally: "spirit way columns"). CONTENTS * 1 Structure * 2 History * 3 Notable examples * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links STRUCTUREExtant huabiao are typically made from white marble . A huabiao is typically made up of four components
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Geomancy
GEOMANCY (Greek : γεωμαντεία, "earth divination") is a method of divination that interprets markings on the ground or the patterns formed by tossed handfuls of soil , rocks , or sand . The most prevalent form of divinatory geomancy involves interpreting a series of 16 figures formed by a randomized process that involves recursion followed by analyzing them, often augmented with astrological interpretations. Geomancy
Geomancy
was practiced by people from all social classes . It was one of the most popular forms of divination throughout Africa
Africa
and Europe, particularly during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and the Renaissance
Renaissance

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Feng Shui
FENG SHUI or FENGSHUI (pinyin : fēngshuǐ, pronounced ( listen )) is a Chinese philosophical system of harmonizing everyone with the surrounding environment. It is closely linked to Taoism
Taoism
. The term feng shui literally translates as "wind-water" in English. This is a cultural shorthand taken from the passage of the now-lost Classic of Burial recorded in Guo Pu 's commentary : Feng shui
Feng shui
is one of the Five Arts of Chinese Metaphysics, classified as physiognomy (observation of appearances through formulas and calculations). The feng shui practice discusses architecture in metaphoric terms of "invisible forces" that bind the universe, earth, and humanity together, known as qi . There is no replicable scientific evidence that feng shui's mystical claims are real, and it is considered by the scientific community to be pseudoscience
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House Of Zhu
HOUSE OF ZHU, also known as HOUSE OF CHU (Chinese : 朱; pinyin : Zhū; Wade–Giles : Chu), was the imperial family of the Ming dynasty of China . Zhu was the family name of the emperors of the Ming dynasty. The House of Zhu ruled China from 1368 until the fall of the Ming dynasty in 1644, followed by the rule as the Southern Ming dynasty until 1662, and the last Ming princes, the Prince of Ningjing Zhu Shugui and Prince Zhu Honghuan (朱弘桓) held out until the annexation of the Kingdom of Tungning in 1683
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Eight Banners
Later Jin invasion of Joseon Qing conquest of Ming * Battle of Ningyuan * Battle of Shanhai Pass Qing invasion of Joseon Revolt of the Three Feudatories Ten Great Campaigns First Opium War
First Opium War
Second Opium War
Second Opium War
Taiping Rebellion
Taiping Rebellion
Boxer Rebellion
Boxer Rebellion
Xinhai Revolution
Xinhai Revolution
The EIGHT BANNERS (in Manchu
Manchu
: jakūn gūsa, Chinese : 八旗; pinyin : bāqí) were administrative/military divisions under the Qing dynasty into which all Manchu
Manchu
households were placed
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Qianlong Emperor
The QIANLONG EMPEROR (25 September 1711 – 7 February 1799) was the sixth emperor of the Manchu
Manchu
-led Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China
China
proper . Born AISIN GIORO HONGLI, sometimes referred to simply as HONGLI, the fourth son of the Yongzheng Emperor , he reigned officially from 11 October 1735 to 8 February 1796.1 On 8 February, he abdicated in favour of his son, the Jiaqing Emperor – a filial act in order not to reign longer than his grandfather, the illustrious Kangxi Emperor . Despite his retirement, however, he retained ultimate power as the Emperor Emeritus (or Retired Emperor) until his death in 1799; he thus was the longest-reigning de facto ruler in the history of China, and dying at the age of 87, the longest-living
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Marquis Of Extended Grace
A MARQUESS (UK : /ˈmɑːrkwɪs/ ; French : MARQUIS, ; Italian : marchese, Spanish : marqués, Portuguese : marquês) is a nobleman of hereditary rank in various European peerages and in those of some of their former colonies. The term is also used to translate equivalent Asian styles, as in imperial China and Japan
Japan
. In the German lands, a Margrave
Margrave
was a ruler of an immediate Imperial territory (examples include the Margrave
Margrave
of Brandenburg , the Margrave of Baden and the Margrave
Margrave
of Bayreuth ), not simply a nobleman like a marquess or marquis in Western and Southern Europe. German rulers did not confer the title of marquis; holders of marquisates in Central Europe were largely associated with the Italian and Spanish crowns
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Keyhole Markup Language
KEYHOLE MARKUP LANGUAGE (KML) is an XML
XML
notation for expressing geographic annotation and visualization within Internet
Internet
-based, two-dimensional maps and three-dimensional Earth
Earth
browsers. KML was developed for use with Google
Google
Earth
Earth
, which was originally named Keyhole Earth
Earth
Viewer. It was created by Keyhole, Inc , which was acquired by Google
Google
in 2004. KML became an international standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium in 2008. Google
Google
Earth
Earth
was the first program able to view and graphically edit KML files. Other projects such as Marble have also started to develop KML support
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GPS EXchange Format
GPX, or GPS
GPS
EXCHANGE FORMAT, is an XML
XML
schema designed as a common GPS
GPS
data format for software applications. It can be used to describe waypoints , tracks , and routes. The format is open and can be used without the need to pay license fees. Location data (and optionally elevation, time, and other information) is stored in tags and can be interchanged between GPS
GPS
devices and software. Common software applications for the data include viewing tracks projected onto various map sources, annotating maps, and geotagging photographs based on the time they were taken. CONTENTS * 1 Data types * 2 Units * 3 Sample GPX document * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links DATA TYPES Waypoints, routes and tracks recorded by GPS
GPS
receivers. These are the essential data contained in GPX files
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Jiajing Emperor
The JIAJING EMPEROR (Chinese : 嘉靖; pinyin : Jiājìng; Wade–Giles : Chia-ching; 16 September 1507 – 23 January 1567) was the 11th emperor of the Chinese Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
who ruled from 1521 to 1567. Born ZHU HOUCONG, he was the former Zhengde Emperor 's cousin. His father, Zhu Youyuan (1476–1519), the Prince of Xing, was the fourth son of the Chenghua Emperor (r. 1465–1487) and the eldest son of three sons born to the emperor's concubine, Lady Shao. The Jiajing Emperor's regnal name , "Jiajing", means "admirable tranquility". CONTENTS * 1 Early years * 2 Reign as emperor * 2.1 Taoist pursuits * 3 Legacy and death * 4 Portrayal in art * 5 Family * 5.1 Sons * 5.2 Daughters * 6 References EARLY YEARSBorn as heir apparent of a vassal prince, Zhu Houcong was not brought up to succeed to the throne
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Longqing Emperor
The LONGQING EMPEROR (simplified Chinese : 隆庆; traditional Chinese : 隆慶; pinyin : Lóngqìng; 4 March 1537 – 5 July 1572), personal name ZHU ZAIHOU (朱載垕), was the 13th emperor of the Ming dynasty of China
China
from 1567 to 1572. He was initially known as the Prince of Yu (裕王) from 1539 to 1567 before he became the emperor. His era name , Longqing, means "great celebration". CONTENTS * 1 Reign * 2 Death and legacy * 3 Children * 4 References REIGNAfter the death of the Jiajing Emperor , the Longqing Emperor inherited a country in disarray after years of mismanagement and corruption. Realizing the depth of chaos his father's long reign had caused, the Longqing Emperor
Longqing Emperor
set about reforming the government by re-employing talented officials previously banished by his father, such as Hai Rui
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