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Ming Tombs
The Ming tombs
Ming tombs
are a collection of mausoleums built by the emperors of the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
of China. The first Ming emperor's tomb is located near his capital Nanjing. However, the majority of the Ming tombs
Ming tombs
are located in a cluster near Beijing
Beijing
and collectively known as the Thirteen Tombs of the Ming Dynasty (Chinese: 明十三陵; pinyin: Míng Shísān Líng; literally: "Ming Thirteen Mausoleums"). They are within the suburban Changping District
Changping District
of Beijing
Beijing
Municipality, 42 kilometres (26 mi) north-northwest of Beijing
Beijing
city center. The site, on the southern slope of Tianshou Mountain (originally Huangtu Mountain), was chosen based on the principles of feng shui by the third Ming emperor, the Yongle Emperor
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Jiajing Emperor
The Jiajing Emperor
Jiajing Emperor
(Chinese: 嘉靖; pinyin: Jiājìng; Wade–Giles: Chia-ching; 16 September 1507 – 23 January 1567) was the 12th emperor of the Chinese Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
who ruled from 1521 to 1567. Born Zhu Houcong, he was the former Zhengde Emperor's cousin. His father, Zhu Youyuan
Zhu Youyuan
(1476–1519), the Prince of Xing, was the fourth son of the Chenghua Emperor
Chenghua Emperor
(r. 1465–1487) and the eldest son of three sons born to the emperor's concubine, Lady Shao
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UNESCO
The United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO;[2] French: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris
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Eight Banners
Later Jin invasion of Joseon Qing conquest of MingBattle of Ningyuan Battle of Shanhai PassQing invasion of Joseon Revolt of the Three Feudatories Ten Great Campaigns First Opium War Second Opium War Taiping Rebellion Boxer Rebellion Xinhai RevolutionThis article contains Manchu
Manchu
text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Manchu alphabets.The Eight Banners
Eight Banners
(in Manchu: ᠵᠠᡴᡡᠨ ᡤᡡᠰᠠ jakūn gūsa, Chinese: 八旗; pinyin: bāqí) were administrative/military divisions under the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
into which all Manchu
Manchu
households were placed. In war, the Eight Banners functioned as armies, but the banner system was also the basic organizational framework of all of Manchu
Manchu
society
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Qianlong Emperor
The Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
(25 September 1711 – 7 February 1799) was the sixth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing
Qing
dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China
China
proper. Born Hongli, the fourth son of the Yongzheng Emperor, he reigned officially from 11 October 1735 to 8 February 1796.1 On 8 February, he abdicated in favour of his son, the Jiaqing Emperor
Jiaqing Emperor
– a filial act in order not to reign longer than his grandfather, the illustrious Kangxi Emperor.[1] Despite his retirement, however, he retained ultimate power as the Emperor Emeritus (or Retired Emperor) until his death in 1799; he thus was the longest-reigning de facto ruler in the history of China, and dying at the age of 87, the longest-living
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Marquis Of Extended Grace
Marquis of Extended GraceCreation date 1725 created as Marquis, 1750 created as Marquis of Extended GracePeerage Chinese nobilityFirst holder Zhu ZhilianLast holder Zhu YuxunPresent holder None; title abolishedSeat(s) Small street, Yangguan Alley, Dongzhimen 明裔延恩侯朱煜勳炳南東直門北小街羊管胡同[1]Marquis of Extended Grace was a title held by a descendant of the imperial family of the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) during the subsequent Qing dynasty (1644–1912). Holders of this title were also called the Marquis of Zhu from the surname of the Ming imperial clan.[2] The marquis presided at memorial ceremonies held twice a year at the Ming tombs near Beijing.[3] The Ming dynasty was Han Chinese while the Qing dynasty was dominated by the Manchus, a people from the northeast. Many Chinese remained loyal to the Ming dynasty long after it collapsed
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Feng Shui
[fə́ŋ.ʂwèi] hanja =風水WuRomanization fon平 sy上GanRomanization Fung1 sui3HakkaRomanization fung24 sui31Yue: CantoneseYale Romanization fùngséui or fūngséuiIPA [fôŋ.sɵ̌y] or [fóŋ.sɵ̌y]Jyutping fung1seoi2Southern Min Hokkien
Hokkien
POJ hong-suíEastern MinFuzhou BUC hŭng-cūiVietnamese nameVietnamese phong thủyThai nameThai ฮวงจุ้ย (Huang Jui)Korean nameHangul 풍수TranscriptionsRevised Romanization pungsuMcCune–Reischauer p'ungsuJapanese name
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Geomancy
Geomancy
Geomancy
(Greek: γεωμαντεία, "earth divination") is a method of divination that interprets markings on the ground or the patterns formed by tossed handfuls of soil, rocks, or sand. The most prevalent form of divinatory geomancy involves interpreting a series of 16 figures formed by a randomized process that involves recursion followed by analyzing them, often augmented with astrological interpretations. Geomancy
Geomancy
was practiced by people from all social classes
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Jundu Mountains
Jundu Mountains
Jundu Mountains
(军都山; Jūndūshān) is a mountain range north of Beijing
Beijing
in China.[1] Jundu Mountains
Jundu Mountains
represent the west part of the Yan Mountains.[2] The Great Wall of China
Great Wall of China
passes through Jundu Mountains with famous sections as Badaling.[3] References[edit] Notes[edit]^ Haw, Stephen G. (2008). "The Municipality of Beijing". Beijing
Beijing
- A concise History. Routledge. p. 4. ISBN 978-0415399050.  ^ Haw, Stephen G. (2008). "At the edge of the North China
China
Plain". Beijing
Beijing
- A concise History. Routledge. p. 10. ISBN 978-0415399050.  ^ "Badaling". Atlas of World Heritage: China. Reader's Digest Association. 2006. p. 158. ISBN 978-1592650606. Printed References[edit]Haw, Stephen G. (2008)
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Necropolis
A necropolis (pl. necropoleis) is a large, designed cemetery with elaborate tomb monuments. The name stems from the Ancient Greek νεκρόπολις nekropolis, literally meaning "city of the dead". The term usually implies a separate burial site at a distance from a city, as opposed to tombs within cities, which were common in various places and periods of history. They are different from grave fields, which did not have remains above the ground. While the word is most commonly used for ancient sites, the name was revived in the early 19th century and applied to planned city cemeteries, such as the Glasgow Necropolis. History[edit]This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it
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Spirit Way
A spirit way (Chinese: 神道; pinyin: Shéndào) is the ornate road leading to a Chinese tomb of a major dignitary. The term is also sometimes translated as spirit road,[1] spirit path or sacred way. The spirit way is lined on both sides by a succession of statues, pillars, and stelae. The statues along the spirit way depict real and mythical animals, as well as civilian and military officials.Contents1 History1.1 Eastern Han Dynasty 1.2 Southern Dynasties 1.3 Ming Dynasty2 Notable examples 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] Eastern Han Dynasty[edit] Spirit ways were a well-developed feature of tombs by the time of the Eastern Han Dynasty.[2][3] A traditional burial site of an emperor or a high official of that era would be typically arranged along the north-south axis; the spirit road would lead from the south to the southern gate of the enclosure within which the tomb itself and the associated buildings were located
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Bixi (mythology)
Bixi, or Bi Xi (Wade–Giles: Pi-hsi), is a figure from Chinese mythology. One of the 9 sons of the Dragon King, he is depicted as a dragon with the shell of a turtle. Stone sculptures of Bixi
Bixi
have been used in Chinese culture
Chinese culture
for centuries as a decorative plinth for commemorative steles and tablets,[1] particularly in the funerary complexes of its later emperors and to commemorate important events, such as an imperial visit or the anniversary of a World War II victory
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Huabiao
Huabiao
Huabiao
(simplified Chinese: 华表; traditional Chinese: 華表; pinyin: huábiǎo) is a type of ceremonial columns used in traditional Chinese architecture. Huabiao
Huabiao
are traditionally erected in front of palaces and tombs. The prominence of their placement have made them one of the emblems of traditional Chinese culture. When placed outside palaces, they can also be called bangmu (simplified Chinese: 谤木; traditional Chinese: 謗木; pinyin: Bàng mù; literally: "commentary board"). When placed outside a tomb, they can also be called shendaozhu (Chinese: 神道柱; pinyin: Shéndào zhù; literally: "spirit way columns").Contents1 Structure 2 History 3 Notable examples 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksStructure[edit] Extant huabiao are typically made from white marble. A huabiao is typically made up of four components
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Empress Xu (Ming Dynasty)
Empress Xu (徐皇后) (1362 – July 1407), formally Empress Renxiaowen (仁孝文皇后), birth name Xu Yihua (徐儀華), was the empress consort to the Yongle Emperor
Yongle Emperor
and the third empress of China's Ming dynasty. She was well educated, compiling bibliographies of virtuous women, an activity connected with court politics.[1]Contents1 Biography 2 Family2.1 Sons 2.2 Daughters3 NotesBiography Xu Yihua was born in 1362, as the eldest daughter of Xu Da
Xu Da
and Lady Xie (謝氏). She had four brothers—Xu Huizu (徐輝祖), Xu Tianfu (徐添福), Xu Yingxu (徐膺緒), and Xu Zengshou (徐增壽)—and two younger sisters, who were the wives of Zhu Gui, Prince Jian of Dai (thirteenth son of the Hongwu Emperor) and Zhu Ying, Prince Hui of An (twenty-second son of the Hongwu Emperor)
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Qing Dynasty
Tael
Tael
(liǎng)Preceded by Succeeded byLater JinShunSouthern MingDzungarRepublic of ChinaMongoliaThe Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing (English: /tʃɪŋ/), was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
and succeeded by the Republic of China. The Qing multi-cultural empire lasted almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for the modern Chinese state. It was the fourth largest empire in world history. The dynasty was founded by the Jurchen Aisin Gioro
Aisin Gioro
clan in Manchuria. In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci, originally a Ming vassal, began organizing "Banners", military-social units that included Jurchen, Han Chinese, and Mongol elements
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Hongxi Emperor
Emperor Jingtian Tidao Chuncheng Zhide Hongwen Qinwu Zhangsheng Daxiao Zhao 敬天體道純誠至德弘文欽武章聖達孝昭皇帝 Respecter of Heaven, Embodiment of the Way, Pure in Sincerity, Perfect in Virtue, Extensive in Culture, Dominant in Militancy, Standard of Sageliness, Thorough in Filial Piety, Luminous EmperorTemple nameMing Renzong 明仁宗House House of ZhuFather Yongle EmperorMother Empress RenxiaowenThe Hongxi Emperor
Hongxi Emperor
(洪熙 [xʊ̌ŋɕí]; 16 August 1378 – 29 May 1425), personal name Zhu Gaochi (朱高熾), was the fourth emperor of the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
of China. He succeeded his father, the Yongle Emperor, in 1424
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