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Ming Dynasty
The MING DYNASTY was the ruling dynasty of China
China
– then known as the EMPIRE OF THE GREAT MING – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol -led Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
. The Ming, described by Edwin O. Reischauer , John K. Fairbank and Albert M. Craig as "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history", was the last imperial dynasty in China
China
ruled by ethnic Han Chinese . Although the primary capital of Beijing
Beijing
fell in 1644 to a rebellion led by Li Zicheng (who established the Shun dynasty , soon replaced by the Manchu -led Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
), regimes loyal to the Ming throne – collectively called the Southern Ming – survived until 1683. The Hongwu Emperor (ruled 1368–98) attempted to create a society of self-sufficient rural communities ordered in a rigid, immobile system that would guarantee and support a permanent class of soldiers for his dynasty: the empire's standing army exceeded one million troops and the navy 's dockyards in Nanjing
Nanjing
were the largest in the world
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Ming (other)
MING (明) is a common personal name of the Chinese, the Koreans, and the Vietnamese. In Mandarin pinyin, it is written Míng, in Vietnamese, it is written as Minh , and in Korean it is Myung. It means "bright" or "brilliance". The Chinese character is a conjunction of the words SUN (日) and MOON (月), representing light, and therefore enlightenment. Less common names also pronounced Ming include 茗, 铭, 名, 冥, 暝, and 鸣
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Ming Dynasty (other)
The MING DYNASTY (1368–1644) was a dynasty of China. MING DYNASTY may also refer to: * Southern Ming dynasty (1644–1662), loyalist movement active in southern China following the Ming dynasty's collapse * Ming Dynasty (horse) , Australian Thoroughbred racehorse * Ming Dynasty (TV series) , 2007 Chinese television series This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title MING DYNASTY. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ming_Dynasty_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Nanjing
NANJING ( listen ), formerly romanized as NANKING and NANKIN, is a city situated in the heartland of the lower Yangtze River
Yangtze River
region in China
China
, which has long been a major centre of culture, education, research, politics, economy, transport networks and tourism. It is the capital city of Jiangsu
Jiangsu
province of People\'s Republic of China
China
and the second largest city in the east China
China
region, with acreage about 6600 square kilometers and a total population of 8,230,000. The inner area of Nanjing
Nanjing
enclosed by the city wall is Nanjing
Nanjing
City (南京城), with acreage of 55 km2, while Nanjing
Nanjing
Metropolitan Region includes surrounding cities and areas, with acreage over 60 thousand km2 and population over 30 million. Nanjing
Nanjing
has a prominent place in Chinese history and culture , having served as the capital of various Chinese dynasties, kingdoms and republican governments dating from the 3rd century CE to 1949
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Beijing
BEIJING, formerly romanized as PEKING, is the capital of the People\'s Republic of China and the world's third most populous city proper . It is also one of the world's most populous capital cities. The city, located in northern China , is governed as a direct-controlled municipality under the national government with 16 urban, suburban, and rural districts . Beijing Municipality is surrounded by Hebei Province with the exception of neighbouring Tianjin Municipality to the southeast; together the three divisions form the Jingjinji metropolitan region and the national capital region of China. As a city combining both modern and traditional architecture , Beijing is an ever-changing megacity rich in history but also truly modern, exemplified in its global influence in politics , business "> , the city's subway network is the busiest and second longest in the world , after Shanghai\'s subway system . The city\'s history dates back three millennia . As the last of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China , Beijing has been the political center of the country for much of the past eight centuries. With mountains surrounding the inland city on three sides, in addition to the old inner and outer city walls , Beijing was strategically poised and developed to be the residence of the emperor and thus was the perfect location for the imperial capital
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Mandarin (late Imperial Lingua Franca)
MANDARIN (simplified Chinese : 官话; traditional Chinese : 官話; pinyin : Guānhuà; literally: "official speech") was the common spoken language of administration of the Chinese empire during the Ming and Qing dynasties. It arose as a practical measure, to circumvent the mutual unintelligibility of the varieties of Chinese spoken in different parts of China. Knowledge of this language was thus essential for an official career, but it was never formally defined. The language was a koiné based on Mandarin dialects , initially those spoken around Nanjing but later switching to Beijing , and developed into Standard Chinese in the 20th century. It has also been referred to as the COURT DIALECT. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Phonology * 3 Vocabulary * 4 References * 5 Further reading HISTORYBy the late imperial period, local varieties of Chinese had diverged to the extent that people from different provinces could not understand one another. In order to facilitate communication between officials from different provinces, and between officials and the inhabitants of the areas to which they were posted, imperial administrations adopted a koiné based on various northern dialects. Until well into the 19th century, this language was based on dialects spoken in the area of Nanjing , the first Ming capital and a major cultural centre, though not identical to any single dialect
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List Of Varieties Of Chinese
The following is a list of Chinese languages and dialects , many of which are mutually unintelligible . CONTENTS * 1 Classification * 2 Traditional classification * 3 Modern linguistic classification * 4 Distinction between dialects and languages * 5 List of dialects and languages * 5.1 Gan * 5.2 Mandarin * 5.3 Hui * 5.4 Jin * 5.5 Hakka * 5.6 Min * 5.7 Wu * 5.8 Xiang * 5.9 Yue * 5.10 Pinghua * 5.11 Ba-Shu * 5.12 Other * 5.13 Mixed languages * 6 List in the Atlas * 7 See also * 8 Notes and references CLASSIFICATIONLinguists classify these varieties as the Sinitic branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family . Within this broad classification, there are between seven and fourteen subgroups, depending on the classification. TRADITIONAL CLASSIFICATIONThe traditional Chinese classification lists seven groups, comprising: * Guan (including Beijing and Nanjing variants) * Wu (including the Shanghainese and Suzhounese variants) * Yue (including the Cantonese and Taishanese variants) * Min (including the Hokkien and Fuzhounese variants) * Hakka (Kejia) * Xiang (Hunanese) * Gan (Jiangxinese)(shown here with the romanized Standard Chinese names of the categories, ordered alphabetically)
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Uyghur Language
China * Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region REGULATED BY Working Committee of Ethnic Language and Writing of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 ug Uighur, Uyghur ISO 639-2 uig Uighur, Uyghur ISO 639-3 uig Uighur, Uyghur GLOTTOLOG uigh1240 Uighur Geographical extent of Uyghur in China THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA . THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS UYGHUR TEXT . Without proper rendering support , you may see unjoined letters or other symbols instead of Uyghur script .The UYGHUR or UIGHUR language (/ˈwiːɡər/ ئۇيغۇر تىلى, _Уйғур тили_, Uyghur tili, Uyƣur tili or ئۇيغۇرچە, _Уйғурчә_, Uyghurche, Uyƣurqə), formerly known as EASTERN TURKI, is a Turkic language with 10 to 25 million speakers, spoken primarily by the Uyghur people in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of Western China . Significant communities of Uyghur-speakers are located in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, and various other countries have Uyghur-speaking expatriate communities
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Old Uyghur Language
The OLD UYGHUR LANGUAGE (simplified Chinese : 回鹘语; traditional Chinese : 回鶻語; pinyin : _Huíhú yǔ_) was a Turkic language which was spoken in the Kingdom of Qocho from the 9th–14th centuries and in Gansu . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Features * 3 Literature * 4 Script * 5 References * 6 Further reading HISTORY Uyghur inscription on the east interior wall of the Cloud Platform at Juyong Pass . Uyghur inscription on the west interior wall of the Cloud Platform at Juyong Pass . The Old Uyghur language evolved from Old Turkic after the Uyghur Khaganate broke up and remnants of it migrated to Gansu and Turfan and Hami in the 9th century. The Uyghurs in Turfan and Qomul founded the Kingdom of Qocho and adopted Manichaeism and Buddhism as their religions, while those in Gansu first founded the Gansu Uyghur Kingdom (Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom) and then became subjects of the Western Xia , and their descendants are the Yugur . The Kingdom of Qocho survived as a client state of the Mongol Empire but was conquered by the Muslim Chagatai Khanate which conquered Turfan and Qomul and Islamisized the region. The Old Uyghur language then became extinct in Turfan and Qomul
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Tibetic Languages
The TIBETIC LANGUAGES (Tibetan : བོད་སྐད།) are a cluster of Sino-Tibetan languages spoken primarily by Tibetan peoples , who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering the Indian subcontinent , including the Tibetan Plateau and the northern Indian subcontinent in Baltistan
Baltistan
, Ladakh
Ladakh
, Nepal
Nepal
, Sikkim
Sikkim
, and Bhutan
Bhutan
. Classical Tibetan is a major regional literary language, particularly for its use in Buddhist literature. The Central Tibetan language (the dialects of Ü-Tsang , including Lhasa
Lhasa
), Khams Tibetan , and Amdo Tibetan are generally considered to be dialects of a single language, especially since they all share the same literary language, while Dzongkha , Sikkimese , Sherpa , Ladakhi , and Balti are generally considered to be separate languages. The Tibetic languages
Tibetic languages
are spoken by some 8 million or more people. With the worldwide spread of Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
, the Tibetan language has spread into the western world and can be found in many Buddhist publications and prayer materials; with some western students learning the language for translation of Tibetan texts
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Mongolian Language
монгол хэл ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ PRONUNCIATION /mɔŋɢɔ̆ɮ xeɮ/ NATIVE TO Mongolia , REGION All of Mongolia and Inner Mongolia ; parts of Liaoning , Jilin , Heilongjiang , Xinjiang and Gansu provinces in China NATIVE SPEAKERS 5.2 million (200
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Jurchen Language
JURCHEN LANGUAGE (Chinese : 女真語; pinyin : Nǚzhēn Yǔ) is the Tungusic language of the Jurchen people of eastern Manchuria
Manchuria
, the founders of the Jin Empire in northeastern China
China
of the 12th–13th centuries. It is ancestral to Manchu . In 1635 Hong Taiji
Hong Taiji
renamed the Jurchen people and Jurchen language
Jurchen language
as "Manchu". CONTENTS * 1 Writing * 2 Ming-dynasty Jurchen dictionaries * 3 Jurchen words in Chinese texts * 4 Writing Jurchen names in English * 5 References * 6 Literature WRITING Main article: Jurchen script A silver pass with the Jurchen inscription gurun ni xada-xun, meaning "Trust of the Country". A writing system for Jurchen language
Jurchen language
was developed in 1119 by Wanyan Xiyin . A number of books were translated into Jurchen, but none have survived, even in fragments. Surviving samples of Jurchen writing are quite scarce. One of the most important extant texts in Jurchen is the inscription on the back of "the Jin Victory Memorial Stele
Stele
" (Chinese : 大金得勝陀頌碑; pinyin : Dà jīn déshèngtuó sòngbēi), which was erected in 1185, during the reign of Emperor Shizong . It is apparently an abbreviated translation of the Chinese text on the front of the stele
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Languages Of China
English , Portuguese (in Macau ) SIGN LANGUAGES Chinese Sign Language Tibetan Sign Language COMMON KEYBOARD LAYOUTS Chinese input methods Part of a series on the CULTURE OF CHINA HISTORY PEOPLE LANGUAGES Traditions * Values * Etiquette * Marriage * Funerals * Tea ceremony * Clothing * Games Mythology and folklore * Mythology * folklore CUISINE FESTIVALS Religion * New religions * Taoism Art * Ikebana * Bonsai * Gardens * Pottery Literature * Poetry Music and performing arts * Music * Performing arts Media * Radio * Television * Cinema * Mobile phone culture * Anime Sport * Martial arts Monuments * World Heritage Sites * Architecture Symbols * Flag * Coat of arms Organisations * Museums * * China portal * v * t * e The LANGUAGES OF CHINA are the languages that are spoken by China's 56 recognized ethnic groups . The predominant language in China, which is divided into seven major dialect groups (often classified as distinct languages by foreign linguists), is known as _Hanyu_ (simplified Chinese : 汉语; traditional Chinese : 漢語; pinyin : _Hànyǔ_). and its study is considered a distinct academic discipline in China
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Heaven Worship
HEAVEN WORSHIP is a Chinese religious belief that predates Taoism and Confucianism , but was later incorporated into both. Shangdi is the supreme unknowable god of Chinese folk religion . Over time, namely following the conquests of the Zhou dynasty who worshipped Tian (天 _lit. "sky"_), Shangdi became synonymous with Tian, or Heaven. In the Han dynasty the worship of Heaven would be highly ritualistic and require that the emperor hold official sacrifices and worship at an altar of Heaven, the most famous of which is the Temple of Heaven in Beijing . Heaven worship is closely linked with ancestor veneration and polytheism , as the ancestors and the gods are seen as a medium between Heaven and man. The Emperor of China , also known as the "Son of Heaven ", derived the Mandate of Heaven , and thus his legitimacy as ruler, from his supposed ability to commune with Heaven on behalf of his nation. Early Abrahamic missionaries saw similarities between Shangdi/Tian and the Abrahamic God , and therefore rendered "God" as "Shangdi" in Chinese. ESTABLISHMENTWorship of Heaven in the southern suburb of the capital was initiated in 31 BCE and firmly established in the first century CE (Western Han)
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Taoism
TAOISM (/ˈdaʊɪzəm/ or /ˈtaʊɪzəm/ ), also known as DAOISM, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao
Tao
(道, literally "Way", also romanized as Dao ). The Tao
Tao
is a fundamental idea in most Chinese philosophical schools; in Taoism, however, it denotes the principle that is the source, pattern and substance of everything that exists. Taoism
Taoism
differs from Confucianism by not emphasizing rigid rituals and social order. Taoist ethics vary depending on the particular school, but in general tend to emphasize wu wei (effortless action), "naturalness", simplicity, spontaneity, and the Three Treasures : 慈 "compassion", 儉 "frugality", and 不敢為天下先 "humility". The roots of Taoism
Taoism
go back at least to the 4th century BCE. Early Taoism
Taoism
drew its cosmological notions from the School of Yinyang (Naturalists), and was deeply influenced by one of the oldest texts of Chinese culture, the Yijing , which expounds a philosophical system about how to keep human behavior in accordance with the alternating cycles of nature
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Confucianism
HERMENEUTIC SCHOOLS: * Old Texts * New Text Confucianism Confucianism by country * Confucianism in Indonesia * Korean Confucianism * Japanese Confucianism Confucian texts * Ruzang FOUR BOOKS: *
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