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Million Instructions Per Second
Instructions per second (IPS) is a measure of a computer's processor speed. Many reported IPS values have represented "peak" execution rates on artificial instruction sequences with few branches, whereas realistic workloads typically lead to significantly lower IPS values. Memory hierarchy
Memory hierarchy
also greatly affects processor performance, an issue barely considered in IPS calculations
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Computer
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers have the ability to follow generalized sets of operations, called programs. These programs enable computers to perform an extremely wide range of tasks. Computers are used as control systems for a wide variety of industrial and consumer devices. This includes simple special purpose devices like microwave ovens and remote controls, factory devices such as industrial robots and computer assisted design, and also general purpose devices like personal computers and mobile devices such as smartphones. Early computers were only conceived as calculating devices. Since ancient times, simple manual devices like the abacus aided people in doing calculations. Early in the Industrial Revolution, some mechanical devices were built to automate long tedious tasks, such as guiding patterns for looms
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Intel 8086
The 8086[1] (also called iAPX 86 )[2] is a 16-bit microprocessor chip designed by Intel
Intel
between early 1976 and mid-1978, when it was released
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Intel 4004
The Intel
Intel
4004 is a 4-bit
4-bit
central processing unit (CPU) released by Intel
Intel
Corporation in 1971. It was the first commercially available microprocessor by Intel.[2] The chip design started in April 1970, when Federico Faggin
Federico Faggin
joined Intel, and it was completed under his leadership in January 1971. The first commercial sale of the fully operational 4004 occurred in March 1971 to Busicom
Busicom
Corp. of Japan for which it was originally designed and built as a custom chip.[3] In mid-November of the same year, with the prophetic ad "Announcing a new era in integrated electronics", the 4004 was made commercially available to the general market
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IBM System/370
The IBM
IBM
System/370 (S/370) was a model range of IBM
IBM
mainframe computers announced on June 30, 1970 as the successors to the System/360 family. The series mostly[NB 1] maintained backward compatibility with the S/360, allowing an easy migration path for customers; this, plus improved performance, were the dominant themes of the product announcement
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Intel 8080
The Intel
Intel
8080 ("eighty-eighty") was the second 8-bit microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel
Intel
and was released in April 1974.[1] It is an extended and enhanced variant of the earlier 8008 design, although without binary compatibility. The initial specified clock frequency limit was 2 MHz, and with common instructions using 4, 5, 7, 10, or 11 cycles this meant that it operated at a typical speed of a few hundred thousand instructions per second
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Cray-1
The Cray-1
Cray-1
was a supercomputer designed, manufactured and marketed by Cray
Cray
Research. Announced in 1975, the first Cray-1
Cray-1
system was installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory
Los Alamos National Laboratory
in 1976. Eventually, over 100 Cray-1's were sold, making it one of the most successful supercomputers in history. It is perhaps best known for its unique shape, a relatively small C-shaped cabinet with a ring of benches around the outside covering the power supplies. The Cray-1
Cray-1
was the first supercomputer to successfully implement the vector processor design. These systems improve the performance of math operations by arranging memory and registers to quickly perform a single operation on a large set of data. Previous systems like the CDC STAR-100 and ASC had implemented these concepts but did so in a way that seriously limited their performance
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MOS Technology 6502
The MOS Technology
MOS Technology
6502 (typically "sixty-five-oh-two" or "six-five-oh-two")[3] is an 8-bit microprocessor that was designed by a small team led by Chuck Peddle for MOS Technology. When it was introduced in 1975, the 6502 was, by a considerable margin, the least expensive microprocessor on the market. It initially sold for less than one-sixth the cost of competing designs from larger companies, such as Motorola
Motorola
and Intel, and caused rapid decreases in pricing across the entire processor market. Along with the Zilog Z80, it sparked a series of projects that resulted in the home computer revolution of the early 1980s. Popular home video game consoles and computers, such as the Atari 2600, Atari 8-bit family, Apple II, Nintendo
Nintendo
Entertainment System, Commodore 64, and others, used the 6502 or variations of the basic design
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Zilog Z80
The Z80 CPU is an 8-bit based microprocessor. It was introduced by Zilog
Zilog
in 1976 as the startup company's first product. The Z80 was conceived by Federico Faggin
Federico Faggin
in late 1974 and developed by him and his then-11 employees at Zilog
Zilog
from early 1975 until March 1976, when the first fully working samples were delivered
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Motorola 6809
The Motorola
Motorola
6809 ("sixty-eight-oh-nine") is an 8-bit microprocessor CPU with some 16-bit features from Motorola. It was designed by Terry Ritter and Joel Boney and introduced in 1978. It was a major advance over both its predecessor, the Motorola
Motorola
6800, and the related MOS Technology 6502. Among the systems to use the 6809 are the Dragon home computers, TRS-80 Color Computer, the Vectrex
Vectrex
home console, and early 1980s arcade machines including Defender, Robotron: 2084, Joust, and Gyruss. The 6809 was, by design, the first microprocessor for which it was possible to write fully position-independent code and fully reentrant code in a simple and straightforward way, without using difficult programming tricks
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Motorola 6800
The 6800 ("sixty-eight hundred") is an 8-bit microprocessor designed and first manufactured by Motorola
Motorola
in 1974. The MC6800 microprocessor was part of the M6800 Microcomputer System that also included serial and parallel interface ICs, RAM, ROM and other support chips. A significant design feature was that the M6800 family of ICs required only a single five-volt power supply at a time when most other microprocessors required three voltages. The M6800 Microcomputer System was announced in March 1974 and was in full production by the end of that year.[1][2] The 6800 has a 16-bit address bus that can directly access 64 kB of memory and an 8-bit bi-directional data bus. It has 72 instructions with seven addressing modes for a total of 197 opcodes. The original MC6800 could have a clock frequency of up to 1 MHz
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VAX-11
The VAX-11
VAX-11
is a discontinued family of minicomputers developed and manufactured by Digital Equipment Corporation
Digital Equipment Corporation
(DEC) using processors implementing the VAX
VAX
instruction set architecture (ISA)
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Fujitsu
Fujitsu
Fujitsu
Ltd
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UNIVAC I
The UNIVAC I
UNIVAC I
(Universal Automatic Computer I) was the first commercial computer produced in the United States.[1] It was designed principally by J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly, the inventors of the ENIAC. Design work was started by their company, Eckert–Mauchly Computer Corporation (EMCC), and was completed after the company had been acquired by Remington Rand
Remington Rand
(which later became part of Sperry, now Unisys). In the years before successor models of the UNIVAC I appeared, the machine was simply known as "the UNIVAC".[2] The first Univac was accepted by the United States
United States
Census Bureau on March 31, 1951, and was dedicated on June 14 that year.[3][4] The fifth machine (built for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission) was used by CBS
CBS
to predict the result of the 1952 presidential election
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Intel 8088
The Intel 8088
Intel 8088
("eighty-eighty-eight", also called iAPX 88)[1][2][3] microprocessor is a variant of the Intel 8086. Introduced on July 1, 1979, the 8088 had an eight-bit external data bus instead of the 16-bit bus of the 8086. The 16-bit registers and the one megabyte address range were unchanged, however. In fact, according to the Intel documentation, the 8086
8086
and 8088 have the same execution unit (EU)—only the bus interface unit (BIU) is different
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Motorola 68000
The Motorola
Motorola
68000 ("'sixty-eight-thousand'"; also called the m 68k
68k
or Motorola
Motorola
68k, "sixty-eight-kay") is a 16/ 32-bit
32-bit
CISC microprocessor, which implements a 32-bit
32-bit
instruction set, with 32-bit
32-bit
registers and 32-bit
32-bit
internal data bus, but with a 16-bit main ALU and a 16-bit external data bus,[1] designed and marketed by Motorola
Motorola
Semiconductor Products Sector
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