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Military Occupation
MILITARY OCCUPATION is effective provisional control by a certain ruling power over a territory which is not under the formal sovereignty of that entity, without the volition of the actual sovereign. Military occupation
Military occupation
is distinguished from annexation by its intended temporary nature (i.e. no claim for permanent sovereignty), by its military nature, and by citizenship rights of the controlling power not being conferred upon the subjugated population. MILITARY GOVERNMENT may be broadly characterized as the administration or supervision of occupied territory, or as the governmental form of such an administration. Military government is distinguished from martial law , which is the temporary rule by domestic armed forces over disturbed areas
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Morale
MORALE (also known as ESPRIT DE CORPS (French pronunciation: ​ )) is the capacity of a group's members to maintain belief in an institution or goal, particularly in the face of opposition or hardship. Morale is often referenced by authority figures as a generic value judgment of the willpower , obedience , and self-discipline of a group tasked with performing duties assigned by a superior . According to Alexander H. Leighton , "morale is the capacity of a group of people to pull together persistently and consistently in pursuit of a common purpose". Morale is important in the military, because it improves unit cohesion . Without good morale, a force will be more likely to give up or surrender. Morale is usually assessed at a collective, rather than an individual level. In wartime, civilian morale is also important. Esprit de corps is considered to be an important part of a fighting unit
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Cover (military)
In military combat, the concept of COVER refers to anything which is capable of physically protecting an individual from enemy fire. This differentiates it from the similar concept of concealment, in that an object or area of concealment only affords the benefit of stealth, not actual protection from small arms fire or artillery fragments . An example of "cover vs. concealment" would be sandbags vs. tall grass. Cover may be a naturally occurring feature, such as a rock or a tree stump, or it may be a constructed feature, such as a foxhole or a trench. UNIFORMIn some military services (especially in the United States
United States
), a uniform's hat is sometimes referred to officially as a cover, as in "Hey soldier, remove your cover!" or "You're not in uniform without your cover." It is a convention in the U.S. Army that an armed soldier must wear cover while indoors to indicate that they are under arms
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Counterattack
A COUNTERATTACK is a tactic employed in response to an attack, with the term originating in "war games ". The general objective is to negate or thwart the advantage gained by the enemy during attack, while the specific objectives typically seek to regain lost ground or destroy the attacking enemy (this may take the form of an opposing sports team or military units ). A saying, attributed to Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte illustrate the tactical importance of the counterattack : "the greatest danger occurs at the moment of victory". In the same spirit, in his Battle Studies , Ardant du Pic noticed that "he, general or mere captain, who employs every one in the storming of a position can be sure of seeing it retaken by an organised counter-attack of four men and a corporal". A counterattack is a military tactic that occurs when one side successfully defends off the enemy’s attack and begins to push the enemy back with an attack of its own
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Air Combat Manoeuvring
AIR COMBAT MANOEUVRING (also known as ACM or dogfighting ) is the tactical art of moving, turning and/or situating one's fighter aircraft in order to attain a position from which an attack can be made on another aircraft. Air combat manoeuvres rely on offensive and defensive basic fighter manoeuvring (BFM) to gain an advantage over an aerial opponent. CONTENTS * 1 Historical overview * 2 Tactics * 3 Example manoeuvring * 4 See also * 5 Further reading * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORICAL OVERVIEWMilitary aviation appeared in World War I
World War I
where aircraft were initially used to spot enemy troop concentrations, field gun positions and movements. Early aerial combat consisted of aviators shooting at one another with hand held weapons. The first recorded aircraft to be shot down by another aircraft, which occurred on October 5, 1914, was a German Aviatik
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Charge (warfare)
A CHARGE is a maneuver in battle in which combatants advance towards their enemy at their best speed in an attempt to engage in close combat . The charge is the dominant shock attack and has been the key tactic and decisive moment of many battles throughout history. Modern charges usually involve small groups against individual positions (such as a bunker ) instead of large groups of combatants charging another group or a fortified line
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Tactical Objective
A TACTICAL OBJECTIVE is the immediate short term desired result of a given activity, task or mission, usually entrusted to the lower positioned management in a three-tier organisation's structure of field or front desk, middle and executive management. While historically the term had been applied to military operations , in the 20th century it has been increasingly applied in the fields of public safety such as policing and fire-fighting , commerce and trade planning, and political and international relations policy . A tactical objective is often an intermediate step to achieving an operational objective , and as such requires decision making and problem solving skills applied during the execution of the tactical plan as part of the operational plan . Tactical objectives in the commercial use represent performance targets established by the middle management for achieving specific organisational outcomes
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Defensive Fighting Position
A DEFENSIVE FIGHTING POSITION (DFP) is a type of earthwork constructed in a military context , generally large enough to accommodate anything from one man to a small number of soldiers. CONTENTS * 1 Terminology
Terminology
* 2 History * 2.1 Tobruk * 3 Modern * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links TERMINOLOGYTOBRUK type positions are named after the system of defensive positions constructed, initially, by the Italian Army at Tobruk , Libya. After Tobruk fell to the Allies in January 1941, the existing positions were modified and significantly expanded by the Australian Army which, along with other Allied forces, reused them in the Siege of Tobruk . A FOXHOLE is one type of defensive strategic position
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Operational Manoeuvre Group
The OPERATIONAL MANOEUVRE GROUP (OMG) was a Soviet Army organisational maneuver warfare concept created during the early 1950s to replace the Cavalry mechanized group which performed the deep operations on the Eastern Front during the Second World War
Second World War
. The deep operations theory developed in cooperation between the Red Army and Wehrmacht theorists in the 1930s later influenced the Blitzkrieg
Blitzkrieg
operations and echelon-based doctrine. In the Soviet Army doctrine the Operational Manoeuvre Groups would be inserted to exploit a breakthrough by a Front during a potential war against NATO
NATO
in Europe
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Military Tactics
MILITARY TACTICS are the science and art of organizing a military force, and the techniques for combining and using weapons and military units to engage and defeat an enemy in battle . Changes in philosophy and technology have been reflected in changes to military tactics. In contemporary military science , tactics are the lowest of three planning levels: (i) strategic, (ii) operational, and (iii) tactical. The highest level of planning is strategy : how force is translated into political objectives by bridging the means and ends of war. The intermediate level, operational , the conversion of strategy into tactics, deals with formations of units. In the vernacular, tactical decisions are those made to achieve the greatest immediate value; strategic decisions are those made to achieve the greatest overall value, irrespective of the immediate results of a tactical decision
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Military Strategy
MILITARY STRATEGY is a set of ideas implemented by military organizations to pursue desired strategic goals . Derived from the Greek word strategos , the term strategy, when it appeared in use during the 18th century, was seen in its narrow sense as the "art of the general ", or "'the art of arrangement" of troops. Military strategy deals with the planning and conduct of campaigns, the movement and disposition of forces, and the deception of the enemy. The father of Western modern strategic studies , Carl von Clausewitz (1780-1831), defined military strategy as "the employment of battles to gain the end of war." B. H. Liddell Hart
B. H. Liddell Hart
's definition put less emphasis on battles, defining strategy as "the art of distributing and applying military means to fulfill the ends of policy". Hence, both gave the pre-eminence to political aims over military goals
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Unconventional Warfare
UNCONVENTIONAL WARFARE (abbreviated UW) is the opposite of conventional warfare . Whereas conventional warfare is used to reduce the opponent's military capability using conventional weapons (rifles , grenades , etc.) and battlefield tactics , unconventional warfare is an attempt to achieve military victory through acquiescence , capitulation , or clandestine support for one side of an existing conflict . On the surface, UW contrasts with conventional warfare in that forces or objectives are covert or not well-defined, tactics and weapons intensify environments of subversion or intimidation , and the general or long-term goals are coercive or subversive to a political body. CONTENTS * 1 Objectives * 2 Methods and organization * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links OBJECTIVESThe general objective of unconventional warfare is to instill a belief that peace and security are not possible without compromise or concession
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Psychological Warfare
PSYCHOLOGICAL WARFARE (PSYWAR), or the basic aspects of modern PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS (PSYOP), have been known by many other names or terms, including MISO , Psy Ops, political warfare , "Hearts and Minds", and propaganda . The term is used "to denote any action which is practiced mainly by psychological methods with the aim of evoking a planned psychological reaction in other people". Various techniques are used, and are aimed at influencing a target audience's value system, belief system, emotions , motives , reasoning , or behavior . It is used to induce confessions or reinforce attitudes and behaviors favorable to the originator's objectives, and are sometimes combined with black operations or false flag tactics. It is also used to destroy the morale of enemies through tactics that aim to depress troops' psychological states. Target audiences can be governments , organizations , groups , and individuals , and is not just limited to soldiers
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Military Rank
MILITARY RANKS are a system of hierarchical relationships in armed forces , police , intelligence agencies or other institutions organized along military lines. Military ranks and the military rank system define among others dominance, authority, as well as roles and responsibility in a military hierarchy. The military rank system incorporates the principles of exercising power and authority, and the military chain of command – the succession of commanders superior to subordinates through which command is exercised – constructs an important component for organized collective action. Usually, uniforms denote the bearer's rank by particular insignia affixed to the uniforms
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Nuclear Warfare
NUCLEAR WARFARE (sometimes ATOMIC WARFARE or THERMONUCLEAR WARFARE) is a military conflict or political strategy in which nuclear weaponry is used to inflict damage on the enemy. Nuclear weapons are weapons of mass destruction ; in contrast to conventional warfare , nuclear warfare can produce destruction in a much shorter time-frame and can have a long-lasting radiological warfare dimension. A major nuclear exchange would have long-term effects, primarily from the fallout released, and could also lead to a "nuclear winter " that could last for decades, centuries, or even millennia after the initial attack. Some activists had claimed in the 1980s that with this potential nuclear winter side-effect of a nuclear war, almost every human on Earth could starve to death
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