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Milicja Obywatelska
Milicja Obywatelska
Milicja Obywatelska
(Polish pronunciation: [miˈlit͡sja ɔbɨvaˈtɛlska]; Citizens' Militia
Militia
or Civic Militia) was the national police of the People's Republic of Poland. It was created on 7 October 1944 by the Soviet-sponsored Polish Committee of National Liberation, effectively replacing the pre-war police force.[1] On 6 April 1990 it was transformed back into Policja.[2] The term milicja had been adapted from the cognate term, militsiya, used in several communist countries. The term is derived from militia, which in turn claims its etymology from the concept of a military force composed of ordinary citizens. Contrary to implied meaning, in most cases it represented rather a state-controlled force, used to exert political repression on the citizens. Under both communist and post-communist governments, the Polish police system has traditionally operated under the auspices of national authority
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People's Republic Of Poland
The Polish People's Republic
Republic
(Polish: Polska Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
Ludowa, PRL) covers the history of contemporary
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European Solidarity Centre
The European Solidarity Centre (Polish: Europejskie Centrum Solidarności) is a museum and library in Gdańsk, Poland, devoted to the history of Solidarity, the Polish trade union and civil resistance movement, and other opposition movements of Communist Eastern Europe. It opened on 31 August 2014.[1]Contents1 History 2 Collections 3 References 4 External linksHistory[edit] The design of the building, by Polish firm FORT Architects, was the winner of an international competition held in 2007. The walls evoke the hulls of ships built at the Gdańsk Shipyard.[2] Construction started in 2010
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
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Veřejná Bezpečnost
Public Security (Czech: Veřejná bezpečnost
Veřejná bezpečnost
(VB), Slovak: Verejná bezpečnosť (VB)) was the regular police force of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (ČSSR), created in 1945 as a department of the National Security Corps (Sbor národní bezpečnosti), which also included State Security (Státní bezpečnost), Armed Airport Security (Czech: Sbor ozbrojenné ochrany letišť (SOOL)) and Armed Railway Security, (Czech: (Sbor ozbrojené ochrany železnic (SOOŽ)). The VB was divided into the Public Order and Traffic VB (Highway Patrol), Criminal Investigations VB (major crimes, forensics), and an Infrastructure Security section (security of important buildings, installations, etc.). There were regional, district, city and local detachments of the force
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People's Militias (Czechoslovakia)
People's Militias (in Slovak Ľudové milície, in Czech Lidové milice), also called The Armed Fist of the Working Class (in Slovak Ozbrojená päsť robotníckej triedy, in Czech Ozbrojená pěst dělnické třídy) was a militia organisation of Communist Party of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
between 1948 and 1989.[1]Contents1 History 2 Tasks 3 Numbers and armament3.1 Military personnel 3.2 Military equipment at 19894 See also 5 References 6 Sources 7 External links 8 See alsoHistory[edit] The predecessor of militias were armed groups of factory workers (Závodní milice, factory militias) formed in June 1945 to protect the factories during the post-war chaos. In 1946 they were renamed Závodní stráže (factory guards) and their equipment reduced to pistols. In the middle of February 1948 the central committee of the Communist Party decided to form armed units from Communist Party members and supporters
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FSO Polonez
The FSO Polonez
FSO Polonez
was a Polish motor vehicle that was produced from 1978 to 2002. The car's name comes from the Polish dance, polonaise.Contents1 Background 2 Polonez range 3 Polonez history3.1 Development 3.2 Debut 3.3 19904 Export markets4.1 Dongfanghong5 Legacy 6 References 7 External linksBackground[edit] The Polonez was a rebodied Polski Fiat 125p
Polski Fiat 125p
that Fabryka Samochodów Osobowych (FSO) built under license from Fiat. The internal components, including modernized 1.3/1.5 Litre engines, (pistons and carburetor), the chassis, and other mechanicals, were from the Polski Fiat
Fiat
125p, but the body was an entirely new hatchback body designed by Giorgetto Giugiaro. The car was meant to be equipped with Fiat's 2.0 Litre DOHC engines in the 1980s, but financial problems at the time made the purchase of a license from Fiat
Fiat
impossible
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Polski Fiat 125p
The Polski Fiat
Fiat
125p is a motor vehicle manufactured between 1967 and 1991 in the People's Republic of Poland
Poland
(1968–1990) and the Republic of Poland
Poland
(1990–1991) by the state-owned manufacturer Fabryka Samochodów Osobowych ("FSO") under a license agreement with Fiat. It was a simplified variation of the Fiat
Fiat
125, with engines and mechanicals from the Fiat
Fiat
1300/1500. To distinguish between the models, Fiat
Fiat
and FSO revived the marque Polski Fiat
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Polish Committee Of National Liberation
The Polish Committee of National Liberation
Polish Committee of National Liberation
(Polish: Polski Komitet Wyzwolenia Narodowego, PKWN), also known as the Lublin
Lublin
Committee, was a puppet provisional government of Poland,[1][2][3][4] officially proclaimed on 22 July 1944, allegedly in Chełm
Chełm
allegedly under the direction of State National Council
State National Council
(Krajowa Rada Narodowa, or KRN) in opposition to the Polish government in exile
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Highway Patrol
A highway patrol is either a police unit created primarily for the purpose of overseeing and enforcing traffic safety compliance on roads and highways, or a detail within an existing local or regional police agency that is primarily concerned with such duties
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FSO Warszawa
Warszawa was a Polish automobile manufactured from 1951 to 1973 by the Fabryka Samochodów Osobowych
Fabryka Samochodów Osobowych
of Warsaw.1957 Warszawa M20 (200)The Warszawa was the first new-design Polish car built after the Second World War. Warszawas were popular as taxis because of their sturdiness and ruggedness. However, due to their weight they were underpowered and had high fuel consumption. In total, 254,471 cars were made.Contents1 Original M20 model 2 Later 223 model 3 Other models3.1 Commercial vehicles 3.2 Prototypes4 References 5 External linksOriginal M20 model[edit]1951 Warszawa front1951 Warszawa rearNamed after the city of Warsaw, the Warszawa was until 1957 identical to the Soviet Pobeda, built under license, which was given to the Polish by GAZ, as Stalin's present. The first major modernisation took place in 1957
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Legionowo
Legionowo
Legionowo
[lɛɡʲɔˈnɔvɔ] ( listen) is a town in Masovia (Polish: Mazowsze). According to the 2004 Census estimate the town has a total population of 50,759. Legionowo
Legionowo
is located 23 kilometres (14 miles) to the north-east of the center of Warsaw
Warsaw
and only 7 kilometres (4 miles) to the south of Zegrze Reservoir
Zegrze Reservoir
(Jezioro Zegrzyńskie or Zalew Zegrzyński), near the Warsaw- Gdańsk
Gdańsk
railroad and Warsaw- Suwałki
Suwałki
road. Situated in the Masovian Voivodeship
Masovian Voivodeship
(województwo mazowieckie, created in 1999 as a result of Local Government Reorganization Act), previously in Warsaw
Warsaw
Voivodeship (województwo warszawskie or województwo stołeczne warszawskie, 1975–1998) and old Masovian Voivodeship (before 1975)
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Political Repression
Political repression is the persecution of an individual or group within society for political reasons, particularly for the purpose of restricting or preventing their ability to take part in the political life of a society thereby reducing their standing among their fellow citizens.[1][2] Political repression is sometimes used synonymously with the term political discrimination (also known as politicism). It often is manifested through discriminatory policies, such as human rights violations, surveillance abuse, police brutality, imprisonment, involuntary settlement, stripping of citizen's rights, lustration and violent action or terror such as the murder, summary executions, torture, forced disappearance and other extrajudicial punishment of political activists, dissidents, or general population
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Cognate
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.[1] Cognates are often inherited from a shared parent language, but they may also involve borrowings from some other language. For example, the English words dish and desk and the German word Tisch ("table") are cognates because they all come from Latin discus, which relates to their flat surfaces. Cognates may have evolved similar, different or even opposite meanings, but in most cases there are some similar sounds or letters in the words, in some cases appearing to be dissimilar
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Etymology
Etymology
Etymology
(/ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/)[1] is the study of the history of words, their origins, and how their form and meaning have changed over time.[1] By extension, the term "the etymology (of a word)" means the origin of the particular word. For a language such as Greek with a long written history, etymologists make use of texts in these languages and texts about the languages to gather knowledge about how words were used during earlier periods of their history and when they entered the languages in question. Etymologists also apply the methods of comparative linguistics to reconstruct information about languages that are too old for any direct information to be available. By analyzing related languages with a technique known as the comparative method, linguists can make inferences about their shared parent language and its vocabulary
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Militia
A militia /mɪˈlɪʃə/[1] is generally an army or some other fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a nation, or subjects of a state, who can be called upon for military service during a time of need, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel, or historically, members of a warrior nobility class (e.g., knights or samurai). Generally unable to hold ground against regular forces, it is common for militias to be used for aiding regular troops by skirmishing, holding fortifications, or irregular warfare, instead of being used in offensive campaigns by themselves
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