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Mile
The mile is an English unit of length of linear measure equal to 5,280 feet, or 1,760 yards, and standardised as exactly 1,609.344 metres by international agreement in 1959. With qualifiers, "mile" is also used to describe or translate a wide range of units derived from or roughly equivalent to the Roman mile, such as the nautical mile (now 1.852 km exactly), the Italian mile (roughly 1.852 km), and the Chinese mile (now 500 m exactly). The Romans divided their mile into 5,000 feet but the greater importance of furlongs in pre-modern England meant that the statute mile was made equivalent to 8 furlongs or 5,280 feet in 1593. This form of the mile then spread to the British-colonized nations who continue to employ the mile. The US Geological Survey now employs the metre for official purposes but legacy data from its 1927 geodetic datum has meant that a separate US survey mile (6336/3937 km) continues to see some use
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Roman Foot
A pes (plural: pedes) is an ancient Roman unit of length that roughly corresponds to a foot. In terms of modern reference, the Roman foot measured 0.97 feet (296 mm).[1] There are twelve uncia in one pes. There are 2.5 pedes in one gradus. See also[edit]Ancient Roman weights and measures History of the foot Passus (length)References[edit]^ Heinrich Glarean The Intellectual World of a Sixteenth-Century Musical Humanist. Chapter 8, Cambridge University Press, 2013.This standards- or measurement-related article is a stub. You can help by expanding it.v t eThis Ancient Rome-related article is a stub
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Pace (unit)
A pace is a unit of length consisting either of one normal walking step (~0.75 m), or of a double step, returning to the same foot (~1.5 m). Like other traditional measurements, paces started as informal units but have since been standardized, often with the specific length set according to a typical brisk or military marching stride. In the US, it is an uncommon customary unit of length denoting a brisk single step and equal to 2½ feet or 30 inches (76.2 cm).[1][2] Pace also refers to the inverse unit of speed, used mainly for walking and running. The most common pace unit is minutes per mile.[3] The term "pace" is also used to translate similar formal units in other systems of measurement
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Middle English
Middle English
Middle English
(ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest
Norman Conquest
(1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.[2] This stage of the development of the English language
English language
roughly followed the High to the Late Middle Ages. Middle English
Middle English
developed out of Late Old English, seeing many dramatic changes in its grammar, pronunciation and orthography. Writing customs during Middle English
Middle English
times varied widely, but by the end of the period, about 1470, aided by the invention of the printing press, a standard based on the London
London
dialect (Chancery Standard) had become established
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Old English
Old English
Old English
(Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon,[2] is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland
Scotland
in the early Middle Ages. It was brought to Great Britain
Great Britain
by Anglo-Saxon settlers probably in the mid-5th century, and the first Old English
Old English
literary works date from the mid-7th century. After the Norman conquest
Norman conquest
of 1066, English was replaced, for a time, as the language of the upper classes by Anglo-Norman, a relative of French
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Cognate
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.[1] For example, the English word dish and the German word Tisch ("table"), are cognates because they both come from Latin discus, which relates to their flat surfaces. Cognates may have evolved similar, different or even opposite meanings. But, in most cases, there are some similar letters in the word. Some words sound similar, but don't come from the same root. These are called false cognates and are described in more detail below. In etymology, the cognate category excludes doublets and loanwords. The word cognate derives from the Latin
Latin
noun cognatus, which means "blood relative".[2]Contents1 Characteristics 2 Across languages 3 Within the same language 4 False cognates 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksCharacteristics[edit] Cognates do not need to have the same meaning, which may have changed as the languages developed separately
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Germanic Languages
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordic Bronze Age Terramare Tumulus
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Apocope
In phonology, apocope (/əˈpɒkəpiː/[1][2]) is the loss (elision) of one or more sounds from the end of a word, especially the loss of an unstressed vowel.Contents1 Etymology 2 Historical sound change2.1 Loss of an unstressed vowel (with nasal) 2.2 Loss of other sounds 2.3 Case marker3 Grammatical rule 4 Informal speech 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksEtymology[edit] Apocope comes from the Greek ἀποκοπή apokopḗ from ἀποκόπτειν apokóptein "cutting off", from ἀπο- apo- "away from" and κόπτειν kóptein "to cut". Historical sound change[edit] In historical linguistics, apocope is often the loss of an unstressed vowel. Loss of an unstressed vowel (with nasal)[edit]Vulgar Latin pan[em] → Spanish pan (bread) Vulgar Latin lup[um] → French lou[p] (wolf)Loss of other
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Clipping (morphology)
In linguistics, clipping is the word formation process which consists in the reduction of a word to one of its parts (Marchand: 1969). Clipping is also known as "truncation" or "shortening".[1] According to Marchand (1969),[2] clippings are not coined as words belonging to the standard vocabulary of a language. They originate as terms of a special group like schools, army, police, the medical profession, etc., in the intimacy of a milieu where a hint is sufficient to indicate the whole. For example, exam(ination), math(ematics), and lab(oratory) originated in school slang; spec(ulation) and tick(et = credit) in stock-exchange slang; and vet(eran) and cap(tain) in army slang. Clipped forms can pass into common usage when they are widely useful, becoming part of standard English, which most speakers would agree has happened with math/maths, lab, exam, phone (from telephone), fridge (from refrigerator), and various others
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British English
British English
British English
is the standard dialect of English language
English language
as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.[3] Variations exist in formal, written English in the United Kingdom. For example, the adjective wee is almost exclusively used in parts of Scotland
Scotland
and Ireland, and occasionally Yorkshire, whereas little is predominant elsewhere. Nevertheless, there is a meaningful degree of uniformity in written English within the United Kingdom, and this could be described by the term British English. The forms of spoken English, however, vary considerably more than in most other areas of the world where English is spoken,[4] so a uniform concept of British English
British English
is more difficult to apply to the spoken language
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International System Of Units
The International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement. It comprises a coherent system of units of measurement built on seven base units (ampere, kelvin, second, metre, kilogram, candela, mole) and a set of twenty decimal prefixes to the unit names and unit symbols that may be used when specifying multiples and fractions of the units. The system also specifies names for 22 derived units for other common physical quantities like lumen, watt, etc. The base units, except for one, are derived from invariant constants of nature, such as the speed of light and the triple point of water, which can be observed and measured with great accuracy
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National Institute Of Standards And Technology
The National Institute of Standards and Technology
Technology
(NIST) is a measurement standards laboratory, and a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce
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Millilitre
The litre (SI spelling) or liter (American spelling) (symbols L or l,[1] sometimes abbreviated ltr) is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3) or 1/1,000 cubic metre. A cubic decimetre (or litre) occupies a volume of 10 cm×10 cm×10 cm (see figure) and is thus equal to one-thousandth of a cubic metre. The original French metric system used the litre as a base unit. The word litre is derived from an older French unit, the litron, whose name came from Greek — where it was a unit of weight, not volume [2] — via Latin, and which equalled approximately 0.831 litres. The litre was also used in several subsequent versions of the metric system and is accepted for use with the SI,[3] although not an SI unit — the SI unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3)
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BBC
The British Broadcasting
Broadcasting
Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House
Broadcasting House
in Westminster, London
London
and it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation[3] and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees
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Roman Road Network
The cursus publicus (Latin: "the public way"; Ancient Greek: δημόσιος δρόμος, dēmósios drómos) was the state-run courier and transportation service of the Roman Empire, later inherited by the Byzantine Empire. The Emperor Augustus
Augustus
created it to transport messages, officials, and tax revenues between the provinces and Italy. The service was still fully functioning in the first half of the sixth century in the Byzantine Empire, when the historian Procopius accuses Emperor Justinian
Justinian
of dismantling most of its sections, except for the route leading to the Persian border
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