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Migration Period
The Migration Period
Migration Period
was a time of widespread migrations of peoples, notably the Germanic tribes
Germanic tribes
and the Huns, within or into Europe
Europe
in the middle of the first millennium AD
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Human Migration
Human migration
Human migration
is the movement by people from one place to another with the intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily in a new location. The movement is often over long distances and from one country to another, but internal migration is also possible; indeed, this is the dominant form globally. People may migrate as individuals, in family units or in large groups.[1] A person who moves from their home to another place because of natural disaster or civil disturbance may be described as a refugee or, especially within the same country, a displaced person. A person seeking refuge from political, religious or other forms of persecution is usually described as an asylum seeker. Nomadic movements are normally not regarded as migrations as there is no intention to settle in the new place and because the movement is generally seasonal. Only a few nomadic people have retained this form of lifestyle in modern times
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Slavic People
Slavs
Slavs
are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages
Slavic languages
of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group. They are native to Eurasia, stretching from Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe
Europe
all the way north and westwards to Northeast Europe
Europe
, Northern Asia (Siberia), the Caucasus, and Central Asia (especially Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Turkmenistan) as well as historically in Western Europe
Europe
(particularly in East Germany) and Western Asia (including Anatolia)
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Turkic Peoples
(Sunni · Nondenominational Muslims · Cultural Muslim · Quranist Muslim · Alevi · Twelver Shia · Ja'fari) Christianity (Eastern Orthodox Christianity · Eastern Catholic Christianity) Judaism (Djudios Turkos · Sabbataists · Karaites) Irreligion (Agnosticism · Atheism)Buddhism, Animism, Tengrism, Shamanism, Manichaeism, Burkhanism The Turkic peoples
Turkic peoples
are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia
Western Asia
as well as parts of Europe and North Africa. The origins of the Turkic people
Turkic people
are a matter of contention among scholars
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Moors
The term "Moors" refers primarily to the Muslim
Muslim
inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, and Malta
Malta
during the Middle Ages
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Hungarian People
Hungarians, also known as Magyars
Magyars
(Hungarian: magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary
Hungary
(Hungarian: Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and language. Hungarians
Hungarians
belong to the Uralic-speaking peoples
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Normans
The Normans
Normans
(Norman: Normaunds; French: Normands; Latin: Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France
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Slavs
Slavs
Slavs
are Indo-European peoples who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group. They are native to Eurasia, stretching from Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe
Europe
all the way north and eastwards to Northeast Europe, Northern Asia (Siberia), and Central Asia
Central Asia
(especially Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan), as well as historically in Western Europe
Europe
(particularly in East Germany) and Western Asia (including Anatolia). From the early 6th century they spread to inhabit the majority of Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe
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Fall Of Constantinople
Ottomans Land forces: [e] 50,000–80,000[6]:101 [7]:49[8]:52[9]:618[10][page needed][11][page needed][f]100,000[12]:755–160,000[13][page needed][14][page needed]–200,000[3][page needed]70 cannons[15]:139–14014 large and 56 small caliber)[16]:179Naval forces:70 ships,[10]:4420 galleys[17] 90 – 126 ships [18]Byzantines Land forces:7,000–10,000[5]:85[12]:755[19]:343[12]:755[20]:46[21][page needed]-12,000,[18] 600 Ottoman defectors[22]Naval forces:26 ships[10]:45[g]Casualties and lossesUnknown but heavy[24][4][page needed]4,000 killed in total (including combatants and civilians)[10]:37–8 30,000 enslaved or deported[24]^ More specifically, the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
under the Palaiologos dynasty ^ The Venetians decided to make a peace treaty with the Ottomans in September 1451, because they were on good terms already with the Ottomans and they did not want to ruin a relationship
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Gaul
Gaul
Gaul
(Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe
Western Europe
during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands
Netherlands
and Germany
Germany
on the west bank of the Rhine. It covered an area of 494,000 km2 (191,000 sq mi).[1] According to the testimony of Julius Caesar, Gaul
Gaul
was divided into three parts: Gallia Celtica, Belgica and Aquitania
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Foederati
Foederatus (/ˌfɛdəˈreɪtəs/ in English; pl. foederati /ˌfɛdəˈreɪtaɪ/) was any one of several outlying nations to which ancient Rome provided benefits in exchange for military assistance. The term was also used, especially under the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
for groups of "barbarian" mercenaries of various sizes, who were typically allowed to settle within the Roman Empire.Contents1 History1.1 The Republic 1.2 The Empire1.2.1 4th century 1.2.2 5th century 1.2.3 6th century2 See also 3 References3.1 Primary sources4 External linksHistory[edit] The Republic[edit] Early in the history of the Roman Republic, a foederatus identified one of the tribes bound by treaty (foedus /ˈfiːdəs/), who were neither Roman colonies nor beneficiaries of Roman citizenship (civitas) but were expected to provide a contingent of fighting men when trouble arose, thus were allies
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Scientific Consensus
Scientific consensus is the collective judgment, position, and opinion of the community of scientists in a particular field of study. Consensus
Consensus
implies general agreement, though not necessarily unanimity.[1] Consensus
Consensus
is normally achieved through communication at conferences, the publication process, replication (reproducible results by others), and peer review. These lead to a situation in which those within the discipline can often recognize such a consensus where it exists, but communicating to outsiders that consensus has been reached can be difficult, because the 'normal' debates through which science progresses may seem to outsiders as contestation.[2](subscription required) On occasion, scientific institutes issue position statements intended to communicate a summary of the science from the "inside" to the "outside" of the scientific community
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North Africa
North Africa
Africa
is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries situated in the northern-most region of the African continent. The term "North Africa" has no single accepted definition. It is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic
Atlantic
shores of Morocco
Morocco
in the west, to the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
and the Red Sea
Red Sea
in the east. Others have limited it to the countries of Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia, a region known by the French during colonial times as “Afrique du Nord” and by the Arabs
Arabs
as the Maghreb
Maghreb
(“West”). The most commonly accepted definition includes Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia, as well as Libya
Libya
and Egypt
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Seasonal Human Migration
Seasonal human migration
Seasonal human migration
is very common in agricultural cycles. It includes migrations such as moving sheep or cattle to higher elevations during summer to escape the heat and find more forage. Human labor often moves with fruit harvest or to other crops that require manual picking. Seasonal agricultural migration[edit] While the culture of many crops (especially "dry" crops) has become entirely mechanized, others, such as fruits and vegetables, still require manual labor, at least for harvest, and some, such as tobacco, still need manual labor for its culture. Much of the work was once provided by family members or boarding students, but they are less available now, and farms are larger. Now, migratory workers provide much of the hand labor required in agriculture in the US and other countries
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English Language
English is a West Germanic language
West Germanic language
that was first spoken in early medieval England
England
and is now a global lingua franca.[4][5] Named after the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to England, it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia (Angeln) peninsula in the Baltic Sea. It is closely related to the Frisian languages, but its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages, particularly Norse (a North Germanic
North Germanic
language), as well as by Latin
Latin
and Romance languages, especially French.[6] English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. The earliest forms of English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are called Old English
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Tribe
A tribe is viewed developmentally, economically, and/or historically, as a social group existing outside of or before the development of states. A tribe is a group of distinct people, dependent on their land for their livelihood, who are largely self-sufficient, and not integrated into the national society. It is perhaps the term most readily understood and used by the general public to describe such communities
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