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Middle Persian
Middle Persian
Middle Persian
is the Middle Iranian language or ethnolect of southwestern Iran
Iran
that during the Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
(224–654) became a prestige dialect and so came to be spoken in other regions of the empire as well. Middle Persian
Middle Persian
is classified as a Western Iranian language. It descends from Old Persian
Old Persian
and is the linguistic ancestor of Modern Persian. Traces of Middle Persian, or Parsik, are found in remnants of Sasanian inscriptions and Egyptian papyri, coins and seals, fragments of Manichaean writings, and treatises and Zoroastrian books from the Sasanian era, as well as in the post-Sasanian Zoroastrian variant of the language sometimes known as Pahlavi, which originally referred to the Pahlavi scripts,[2][3] and that was also the preferred writing system for several other Middle Iranian languages
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Preposition
Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions),[1] are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).[2] A preposition or postposition typically combines with a noun or pronoun, or more generally a noun phrase, this being called its complement, or sometimes object. A preposition comes before its complement; a postposition comes after its complement. English generally has prepositions rather than postpositions – words such as in, under and of precede their objects, such as in England, under the table, of Jane – although there are a few exceptions including "ago" and "notwithstanding", as in "three days ago" and "financial limitations notwithstanding". Some languages that use a different word order, have postpositions instead, or have both types
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Prestige Dialect
Prestige is the level of regard normally accorded a specific language or dialect within a speech community, relative to other languages or dialects. The concept of prestige in sociolinguistics provides one explanation for the phenomenon of variation in form, among speakers of a language or languages.[1] Prestige varieties are those varieties which are generally considered, by a society, to be the most correct or otherwise superior variety
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Aramaic Alphabet
Hebrew Palmyrene Mandaic Pahlavi Brāhmī Kharoṣṭhī Syriac  →Sogdian    →Old Uyghur      →Mongolian  →Nabataean alphabet    →Arabic alphabet      →N'Ko alphabetDirection Right-to-leftISO 15924 Armi, 124 Imperial Aramaic Unicode
Unicode
aliasImperial Aramaic Unicode
Unicode
rangeU+10840–U+1085FThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.History of the alphabet Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCEDemotic 7 c. BCEMeroitic 3 c. BCEProto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCEUgaritic 15 c. BCE Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCEGe’ez 5–6 c
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Persis
Persis
Persis
(Greek: Περσίς), better known as Persia (Old Persian: Parsa; Persian: پارس‎, Pars),[1] or "Persia proper", was originally a name of a region near the Zagros
Zagros
mountains at Lake Urmia[citation needed]. The country name Persia was derived directly from the Old Persian Parsa
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Hellenization
Hellenization
Hellenization
or Hellenisation is the historical spread of ancient Greek culture, religion and, to a lesser extent, language, over foreign peoples conquered by Greeks or brought into their sphere of influence, particularly during the Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
following the campaigns of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
in the fourth century BC. The result of Hellenization
Hellenization
was that elements of Greek origin combined in various forms and degrees with local elements; these Greek influences spread from the Mediterranean basin
Mediterranean basin
as far east as modern-day Pakistan
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Aramaic Script
Hebrew Palmyrene Mandaic Pahlavi Brāhmī Kharoṣṭhī Syriac  →Sogdian    →Old Uyghur      →Mongolian  →Nabataean alphabet    →Arabic alphabet      →N'Ko alphabetDirection Right-to-leftISO 15924 Armi, 124 Imperial Aramaic Unicode
Unicode
aliasImperial Aramaic Unicode
Unicode
rangeU+10840–U+1085FThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.History of the alphabet Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCEDemotic 7 c. BCEMeroitic 3 c. BCEProto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCEUgaritic 15 c. BCE Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCEGe’ez 5–6 c
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Achaemenid Empire
The Achaemenid Empire
Empire
(/əˈkiːmənɪd/ c. 550–330 BC), also called the First Persian Empire,[11] was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great. Ranging at its greatest extent from the Balkans
Balkans
and Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
proper in the west to the Indus Valley in the east, it was larger than any previous empire in history, spanning 5.5 million square kilometers. Incorporating various peoples of different origins and faiths, it is notable for its successful model of a centralised, bureaucratic administration (through satraps under the King of Kings), for building infrastructure such as road systems and a postal system, the use of an official language across its territories, and the development of civil services and a large professional army
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Hegemony
Hegemony
Hegemony
(UK: /hɪˈɡɛməni, hɪˈdʒɛməni/, US: /hɪˈdʒɛməni/ ( pronunciation (help·info)) or /ˈhɛdʒəˌmoʊni/) is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others.[1][2][3][4] In ancient Greece (8th century BC – 6th century AD), hegemony denoted the politico–military dominance of a city-state over other city-states.[5] The dominant state is known as the hegemon.[6] In the 19th century, hegemony came to denote the "Social or cultural predominance or ascendancy; predominance by one group within a society or milieu"
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Arabic Script
The Arabic
Arabic
script is the writing system used for writing Arabic language and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.[1] Until the 16th century, it was also used to write some texts in Spanish and prior to the Turkish language
Turkish language
reform was written in Perso- Arabic
Arabic
script.[2] It is the second-most widely used writing system in the world by the number of countries using it and the third by the number of users, after Latin and Chinese characters.[3] The Arabic
Arabic
script is written from right to left in a cursive style. In most cases the letters transcribe consonants, or consonants and a few vowels, so most Arabic
Arabic
alphabets are abjads.[citation needed] The script was first used to write texts in Arabic, most notably the Qurʼān, the holy book of Islam
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Prestige (sociolinguistics)
Prestige is the level of regard normally accorded a specific language or dialect within a speech community, relative to other languages or dialects. The concept of prestige in sociolinguistics provides one explanation for the phenomenon of variation in form, among speakers of a language or languages.[1] Prestige varieties are those varieties which are generally considered, by a society, to be the most correct or otherwise superior variety
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ISO 639
ISO
ISO
639 is a set of standards by the International Organization for Standardization that is concerned with representation of names for languages and language groups. It was also the name of the original standard, approved in 1967 (as ISO
ISO
639/R)[1] and withdrawn in 2002.[2] The ISO
ISO
639 set consists of five parts.Contents1 Current and historical parts of the standard 2 Characteristics of individual codes 3 Relations between the parts 4 Code space4.1 Alpha-2 code space 4.2 Alpha-3 code space 4.3 Alpha-4 code space5 See also 6 Notes and references 7 External linksCurrent and historical parts of the standard[edit]Standard Name (Codes for the representation of names of languages – ...) Registration Authority First edition Current No
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Analytic Language
In linguistic typology, an analytic language is a language that primarily conveys relationships between words in sentences by way of helper words (particles, prepositions, etc.) and word order, as opposed to utilizing inflections (changing the form of a word to convey its role in the sentence). For example, in English the phrase "The cat chases the ball" conveys the fact that the cat is acting on the ball analytically via word order. This can be contrasted to synthetic languages that rely heavily on inflections to convey word relationships (e.g. the phrases "The cat chases the ball" and "The cat chased the ball" convey different time frames via changing the form of the word chase). Most languages are not purely analytic but many rely primarily on analytic syntax. Typically analytic languages have a low morpheme-per-word ratio, especially with respect to inflectional morphemes
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Pronoun
In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun (abbreviated PRO) is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase. It is a particular case of a pro-form. Pronouns have traditionally been regarded as one of the parts of speech, but some modern theorists would not consider them to form a single class, in view of the variety of functions they perform. Subtypes include personal pronouns, reflexive and reciprocal pronouns, possessive pronouns, demonstrative pronouns, relative pronouns, interrogative pronouns, and indefinite pronouns.[1]:1–34[2] The use of pronouns often involves anaphora, where the meaning of the pronoun is dependent on an antecedent. This applies especially to third-person personal pronouns and relative pronouns. For example, in the sentence That poor man looks as if he needs a new coat, the antecedent of the pronoun he is the noun phrase that poor man. The adjective associated with pronoun is pronominal.[A] A pronominal is also a word or phrase that acts as a pronoun
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Adjective
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated adj) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.[1] Adjectives are one of the English parts of speech, although historically they were classed together with the nouns.[2] Certain words that were traditionally considered to be adjectives, including the, this, my, etc., are today usually classed separately, as determiners.Contents1 Etymology 2 Types of use 3 Distribution 4 Adverbs 5 Determiners 6 Adjective phrases 7 Other modifiers of nouns 8 Order 9 Comparison 10 Restrictiveness 11 Agreement 12 See also 13 References 14 Bibliography 15 External linksEtymology[edit] See also:
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