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Microgravity
The term micro-g environment (also µg, often referred to by the term microgravity) is more or less a synonym for weightlessness and zero-g, but indicates that g-forces are not quite zero—just very small.[1] The symbol for microgravity, µg, was used on the insignias of Space Shuttle flights STS-87
STS-87
and STS-107, because these flights were devoted to microgravity research in low Earth
Earth
orbit.Contents1 Absence of gravity 2 Free fall 3 Tidal and inertial acceleration 4 Commercial applications4.1 Metal spheres 4.2 High-quality crystals5 Health effects of the micro-g environment5.1 Space Motion Sickness 5.2 Musculoskeletal Effects 5.3 Cardiovascular Effects6 Impacts to Worker Safety 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksAbsence of gravity[edit] A "stationary" micro-g environment[2] would require travelling far enough into deep space so as to reduce the effect of gravity by attenuation to almost zero
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Fatigue (medical)
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness which is distinct from weakness, and has a gradual onset. Unlike weakness, fatigue can be alleviated by periods of rest. Fatigue can have physical or mental causes. Physical fatigue is the transient inability of a muscle to maintain optimal physical performance, and is made more severe by intense physical exercise.[1][2][3] Mental fatigue is a transient decrease in maximal cognitive performance resulting from prolonged periods of cognitive activity. It can manifest as somnolence, lethargy, or directed attention fatigue.[4] Medically, fatigue is a non-specific symptom, which means that it has many possible causes and accompanies many different conditions. Fatigue is considered a symptom, rather than a sign, because it is a subjective feeling reported by the patient, rather than an objective one that can be observed by others
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Solar Wind
The solar wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun, called the corona. This plasma consists of mostly electrons, protons and alpha particles with thermal energy between 1.5 and 10 keV. Embedded within the solar-wind plasma is the interplanetary magnetic field.[2] The solar wind varies in density, temperature and speed over time and over solar latitude and longitude. Its particles can escape the Sun's gravity because of their high energy resulting from the high temperature of the corona, which in turn is a result of the coronal magnetic field. At a distance of more than a few solar radii from the Sun, the solar wind is supersonic and reaches speeds of 250 to 750 kilometers per second.[3] The flow of the solar wind is no longer supersonic at the termination shock
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Gherman Titov
Gherman Stepanovich Titov (Russian: Герман Степанович Титов; 11 September 1935 – 20 September 2000) was a Soviet cosmonaut who, on 6 August 1961,[1] became the second human to orbit the Earth, aboard Vostok 2, preceded by Yuri Gagarin
Yuri Gagarin
on Vostok 1. He was the fourth person in space, counting suborbital voyages of US astronauts Alan Shepard
Alan Shepard
and Gus Grissom. Titov's flight finally proved that humans could live and work in space. He was the first person to orbit the Earth multiple times (a total of 17), to spend more than a day in space, to sleep in orbit and to suffer from space sickness. In fact, he also holds the record for being the first person to vomit in space.[2] He was the first to pilot a spaceship personally and he made the first manual photographs from orbit, thus setting a record for modern space photography
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Orbit
In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an object,[1] such as the trajectory of a planet around a star or a natural satellite around a planet. Normally, orbit refers to a regularly repeating trajectory, although it may also refer to a non-repeating trajectory. To a close approximation, planets and satellites follow elliptic orbits, with the central mass being orbited at a focal point of the ellipse,[2] as described by Kepler's laws of planetary motion. Current understanding of the mechanics of orbital motion is based on Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity, which accounts for gravity as due to curvature of spacetime, with orbits following geodesics
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Motion Sickness
Motion sickness is a condition in which a disagreement exists between visually perceived movement and the vestibular system's sense of movement. Depending on the cause, it can also be referred to as seasickness, car sickness, simulation sickness or airsickness.[1] Dizziness, fatigue and nausea are the most common symptoms of motion sickness.[2] Sopite syndrome, in which a person feels fatigue or tiredness, is also associated with motion sickness. "Nausea" in Greek means seasickness (naus means ship).[3][4] If the motion causing nausea is not resolved, the sufferer will usually vomit
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Zero Gravity Corporation
Zero Gravity Corporation
Zero Gravity Corporation
(also known as ZERO-G) is an American company based in Arlington, Virginia, formerly of Fort Lauderdale, Florida, which operates weightless flights from United States airports. Unlike NASA, ZERO-G is governed under Part 121 of FAA regulations (as are all US commercial passenger and cargo airlines) enabling the company to cater to both tourists and researchers alike.Contents1 History 2 Flight experience 3 Fleet 4 Research flights for NASA 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] Founded by entrepreneur Peter Diamandis, astronaut Byron K. Lichtenberg, and NASA
NASA
engineer Ray Cronise, the company has been operating weightless flights since 2004. Over 15000 were clients as for November 2017 [1]
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Tidal Force
The tidal force is an apparent force that stretches a body towards the center of mass of another body due to a gradient (difference in strength) in gravitational field from the other body; it is responsible for the diverse phenomena, including tides, tidal locking, breaking apart of celestial bodies and formation of ring systems within Roche limit, and in extreme cases, spaghettification of objects. It arises because the gravitational force exerted on one body by another is not constant across its parts: the nearest side is attracted more strongly than the farthest side. It is this difference that causes a body to get stretched
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Spaghettification
In astrophysics, spaghettification (sometimes referred to as the noodle effect[1]) is the vertical stretching and horizontal compression of objects into long thin shapes (rather like spaghetti) in a very strong non-homogeneous gravitational field; it is caused by extreme tidal forces. In the most extreme cases, near black holes, the stretching is so powerful that no object can withstand it, no matter how strong its components. Within a small region the horizontal compression balances the vertical stretching so that small objects being spaghettified experience no net change in volume. Stephen Hawking[2] describes the flight of a fictional astronaut who, passing within a black hole's event horizon, is "stretched like spaghetti" by the gravitational gradient (difference in strength) from head to toe. The reason this happens would be because the gravity exerted from the singularity would be much stronger at one end of your body from the other
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Centrifugal Force
In Newtonian mechanics, the centrifugal force is an inertial force (also called a "fictitious" or "pseudo" force) directed away from the axis of rotation that appears to act on all objects when viewed in a rotating frame of reference. The concept of centrifugal force can be applied in rotating devices, such as centrifuges, centrifugal pumps, centrifugal governors, and centrifugal clutches, and in centrifugal railways, planetary orbits and banked curves, when they are analyzed in a rotating coordinate system
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Radiation Pressure
Radiation pressure
Radiation pressure
is the pressure exerted upon any surface due to the exchange of momentum between the object and the electromagnetic field. This includes the momentum of light or electromagnetic radiation of any wavelength which is absorbed, reflected, or otherwise emitted (e.g. black body radiation) by matter on any scale (from macroscopic objects to dust particles to gas molecules). The forces generated by radiation pressure are generally too small to be noticed under everyday circumstances, however they are important in some physical processes. This particularly includes objects in outer space where it is usually the main force acting on objects besides gravity, and where the net effect of a tiny force may have a large cumulative effect over long periods of time
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Insulin
1A7F, 1AI0, 1AIY, 1B9E, 1BEN, 1EFE, 1EV3, 1EV6, 1EVR, 1FU2, 1FUB, 1G7A, 1G7B, 1GUJ, 1HIQ, 1HIS, 1HIT, 1HLS, 1HTV, 1HUI, 1IOG, 1IOH, 1J73, 1JCA, 1JCO, 1K3M, 1KMF, 1LKQ, 1LPH, 1MHI, 1MHJ, 1MSO, 1OS3, 1OS4, 1Q4V, 1QIY, 1QIZ, 1QJ0, 1RWE, 1SF1, 1SJT, 1SJU, 1T0C, 1T1K, 1T1P, 1T1Q, 1TRZ, 1TYL, 1TYM, 1UZ9, 1VKT, 1W8P, 1XDA, 1XGL, 1XW7, 1ZEG, 1ZEH, 1ZNJ, 2AIY, 2C8Q, 2C8R, 2CEU, 2G54, 2G56, 2H67, 2HH4, 2HHO, 2HIU, 2JMN, 2JUM, 2JUU, 2JUV, 2JV1, 2JZQ, 2K91, 2K9R, 2KJJ, 2KJU, 2KQP, 2KQQ, 2KXK, 2L1Y, 2L1Z, 2LGB, 2M1D, 2M1E, 2M2M, 2M2N, 2M2O, 2M2P, 2OLY, 2OLZ, 2OM0, 2OM1, 2OMG, 2OMH, 2OMI, 2QIU, 2R34, 2R35, 2R36, 2RN5, 2VJZ, 2VK0, 2W44, 2WBY, 2WC0, 2WRU, 2WRV, 2WRW, 2WRX, 2WS0, 2WS1, 2WS4, 2WS6, 2WS7, 3AIY, 3BXQ, 3E7Y, 3E7Z, 3EXX, 3FQ9, 3HYD, 3I3Z, 3I40, 3ILG, 3INC, 3IR0, 3Q6E, 3ROV, 3TT8, 3U4N, 3UTQ, 3UTS, 3UTT, 3V19, 3V1G, 3W11, 3W12, 3W13, 3W7Y, 3W7Z, 3W80, 3ZI3, 3ZQR, 3ZS2, 3ZU1, 4AIY, 4AJX, 4AJZ, 4AK0, 4AKJ, 4EFX, 4EWW, 4EWX, 4EWZ, 4EX0, 4EX1, 4EXX, 4EY1, 4EY9, 4EYD, 4EYN, 4EYP, 4F0N, 4F0O, 4F1A
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Shot Tower
A shot tower is a tower designed for the production of small diameter shot balls by freefall of molten lead, which is then caught in a water basin. The shot is primarily used for projectiles in shotguns, and also for ballast, radiation shielding and other applications where small lead balls are useful.Contents1 Shot making1.1 Process 1.2 History2 Examples 3 See also 4 Further reading 5 References 6 External linksShot making[edit] Process[edit] In a shot tower, lead is heated until molten, then dropped through a copper sieve high in the tower. The liquid lead forms tiny spherical balls by surface tension, and solidifies as it falls. The partially cooled balls are caught at the floor of the tower in a water-filled basin.[1] The now fully cooled balls are checked for roundness and sorted by size; those that are "out of round" are remelted. A slightly inclined table is used for checking roundness.[2] To make larger shot sizes, a copper sieve with larger holes is used
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Lead
Lead
Lead
is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin
Latin
plumbum) and atomic number 82. It is a heavy metal that is denser than most common materials. Lead
Lead
is soft and malleable, and has a relatively low melting point. When freshly cut, lead is bluish-white; it tarnishes to a dull gray color when exposed to air. Lead
Lead
has the highest atomic number of any stable element and three of its isotopes each conclude a major decay chain of heavier elements. Lead
Lead
is a relatively unreactive post-transition metal. Its weak metallic character is illustrated by its amphoteric nature; lead and lead oxides react with acids and bases, and it tends to form covalent bonds. Compounds of lead
Compounds of lead
are usually found in the +2 oxidation state rather than the +4 state common with lighter members of the carbon group
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Steel
Steel
Steel
is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements. Because of its high tensile strength and low cost, it is a major component used in buildings, infrastructure, tools, ships, automobiles, machines, appliances, and weapons. Iron
Iron
is the base metal of steel. Iron
Iron
is able to take on two crystalline forms (allotropic forms), body centered cubic (BCC) and face centered cubic (FCC), depending on its temperature. In the body-centred cubic arrangement, there is an iron atom in the centre of each cube, and in the face-centred cubic, there is one at the center of each of the six faces of the cube
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Shotgun
A shotgun (also known as a scattergun,[1] or historically as a fowling piece) is a firearm that is usually designed to be fired from the shoulder, which uses the energy of a fixed shell to fire a number of small spherical pellets called shot, or a solid projectile called a slug. Shotguns come in a wide variety of sizes, ranging from 5.5 mm (.22 inch) bore up to 5 cm (2.0 in) bore, and in a range of firearm operating mechanisms, including breech loading, single-barreled, double or combination gun, pump-action, bolt-, and lever-action, semi-automatic, and even fully automatic variants. A shotgun is generally a smoothbore firearm, which means that the inside of the barrel is not rifled. Preceding smoothbore firearms, such as the musket, were widely used by armies in the 18th century. The direct ancestor to the shotgun, the blunderbuss, was also used in a similar variety of roles from self-defense to riot control
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