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Micro-credit
Microcredit
Microcredit
is the extension of very small loans (microloans) to impoverished borrowers who typically lack collateral, steady employment, or a verifiable credit history. It is designed to support entrepreneurship and alleviate poverty. Many recipients are illiterate, and therefore unable to complete paperwork required to get conventional loans. As of 2009 an estimated 74 million people held microloans that totaled US$38 billion. Grameen Bank
Grameen Bank
reports that repayment success rates are between 95 and 98 percent.[2] Microcredit
Microcredit
is part of microfinance, which provides a wider range of financial services, especially savings accounts, to the poor
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Micropatronage
Peer-to-peer
Peer-to-peer
lending, also abbreviated as P2P lending, is the practice of lending money to individuals or businesses through online services that match lenders with borrowers. Since peer-to-peer lending companies offering these services generally operate online, they can run with lower overhead and provide the service more cheaply than traditional financial institutions.[citation needed] As a result, lenders can earn higher returns compared to savings and investment products offered by banks, while borrowers can borrow money at lower interest rates,[1][2][3] even after the P2P lending company has taken a fee for providing the match-making platform and credit checking the borrower.[4][5][6][7] There is the risk of the borrower defaulting on the loans taken out from peer-lending websites. Also known as crowdlending, many peer-to-peer loans are unsecured personal loans, though some of the largest amounts are lent to businesses
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NABARD
National Bank for Agriculture
Agriculture
and Rural Development (NABARD) is an apex development financial institution in India, headquartered at Mumbai
Mumbai
with branches all over India.[2] The Bank has been entrusted with "matters concerning policy, planning and operations in the field of credit for agriculture and other economic activities in rural areas in India". NABARD is active in developing financial inclusion policy and is a member of the Alliance for Financial Inclusion.[3]Contents1 History 2 Role 3 Rural innovation 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit]NABARD Head Office at MumbaiNABARD was established on the recommendations of B.Sivaraman Committee, (by Act 61, 1981 of Parliament) on 12 July 1982 to implement the National Bank for Agriculture
Agriculture
and Rural Development Act 1981
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Economics Of Scale
In microeconomics, economies of scale are the cost advantages that enterprises obtain due to their scale of operation (typically measured by amount of output produced), with cost per unit of output decreasing with increasing scale. Economies of scale
Economies of scale
apply to a variety of organizational and business situations and at various levels, such as a business or manufacturing unit, plant or an entire enterprise. When average costs start falling as output increases, then economies of scale are occurring
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Non-governmental Organization
Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental[1] organizations, or nongovernment organizations,[2][3] commonly referred to as NGOs,[4] are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations[5] independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments)[6] that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives.[7][8][9][10] They are thus a subgroup of all organizations founded by citizens, which include clubs and other associations that provide services, benefits, and premises only to members. Sometimes the term is used as a synonym of "civil society organization" to refer to any association founded by citizens,[11] but this is not how the term is normally used in the media or everyday language, as recorded by major dictionaries
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Women's World Banking
Women’s World Banking (WWB) is a nonprofit organization that provides strategic support, technical assistance and information to a global network of 40 independent microfinance institutions (MFIs) and banks that offer credit and other financial services to low-income entrepreneurs in the developing world, with a particular focus on women. The WWB network serves 24 million micro-entrepreneurs in 28 countries worldwide, of which 80 percent are women
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Pro Mujer
Pro Mujer (PMI) is a nonprofit development organization founded in 1990 in El Alto, Bolivia, dedicated to providing women in Latin America with microfinance financial, health, and human development services to break the cycle of poverty.[1] The organization has provided women living in impoverished communities in Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, Nicaragua and Peru, with easy and convenient access to a holistic package of services that includes Financial services: Small loans, savings, insurance etc, business, empowerment and health training: Financial literacy, life skills and preventive health education., high-quality, low-cost primary healthcare: Screenings and treatment, particularly for chronic diseases such as diabetes, breast and cervical cancers, hypertension. Pro Mujer's international headquarters are located in New York City. PMI supports the organization's national, regional and local operations in Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, Nicaragua and Peru
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Grameen America
Grameen America is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit microfinance organization based in New York City. It was founded by Nobel Peace Prize recipient Muhammad Yunus in 2008. Grameen America is run by former Avon Chairman and CEO Andrea Jung. The organization provides loans, savings programs, financial education, and credit establishment to women who live in poverty in the United States. All loans must be used to build small businesses.Contents1 Services 2 Lending process 3 Purpose of loans 4 Locations 5 History 6 Statistics 7 Management 8 Affiliation 9 References 10 External linksServices[edit] Grameen America offers four key products.Microloan. The maximum first-time loan is $1,500, though borrowers can return for larger loans once they have repaid their initial loan. Savings program. Grameen America provides no-fee, no minimum balance savings accounts through commercial partner banks. Credit Establishment
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Accion USA
The Accion U.S. Network
Accion U.S. Network
is an American nonprofit microfinance organization headquartered in New York, NY. It is the largest and only nationwide nonprofit microfinance network in the U.S.[1]Contents1 About 2 Member Offices 3 20th Anniversary 4 Operational Statistics 5 Awards and acknowledgements 6 References 7 External linksAbout[edit] The Accion U.S. Network
Accion U.S. Network
is part of Accion International, a U.S.-based nonprofit organization operating globally, with the mission of giving people the financial tools they need to create or grow healthy businesses.[2] The domestic Accion programs started in Brooklyn, NY, and grew from there to become the first nationwide network microlender. Member Offices[edit] In addition to having lending offices in nearly 30 cities, Accion also offers online lending
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Accion International
Accion International is a global nonprofit organization that supports microfinance institutions in their work to provide financial services to low-income clients.[1] Over more than 50 years, Accion has helped build 63 microfinance institutions in 32 countries on four continents. Accion also engages in impact investing initiatives to support start-ups that are working to create models for improving the efficiency, reach and scope of financial services for the poor.[2] Today, Accion works with an active network of 29 microfinance institutions in 23 countries found in North America, Latin America, the Caribbean, Africa, and Asia.[3] As of March, 2014 those institutions were collectively serving 4.96 million people with microloans and 3.64 million people with savings products.[4] Accion provides man
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Solidarity Lending
Solidarity lending
Solidarity lending
is a lending practice where small groups borrow collectively and group members encourage one another to repay. It is an important building block of microfinance.Contents1 Operations 2 Distinctiveness 3 Grameen Bank 4 Application 5 Criticisms 6 See also 7 ReferencesOperations[edit] Solidarity lending
Solidarity lending
takes place through 'solidarity groups'. These groups are a distinctive banking distribution channel used primarily to deliver microcredit to poor people. Solidarity lending
Solidarity lending
lowers the costs to a financial institution related to assessing, managing and collecting loans, and can eliminate the need for collateral
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India
India, officially the Republic
Republic
of India
India
(IAST: Bhārat Gaṇarājya),[e] is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan
Pakistan
to the west;[f] China, Nepal, and Bhutan
Bhutan
to the northeast; and Myanmar
Myanmar
and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India
India
is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and the Maldives
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National Bank For Agriculture And Rural Development
National Bank for Agriculture
Agriculture
and Rural Development (NABARD) is an apex development financial institution in India, headquartered at Mumbai
Mumbai
with branches all over India.[2] The Bank has been entrusted with "matters concerning policy, planning and operations in the field of credit for agriculture and other economic activities in rural areas in India". NABARD is active in developing financial inclusion policy and is a member of the Alliance for Financial Inclusion.[3]Contents1 History 2 Role 3 Rural innovation 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit]NABARD Head Office at MumbaiNABARD was established on the recommendations of B.Sivaraman Committee, (by Act 61, 1981 of Parliament) on 12 July 1982 to implement the National Bank for Agriculture
Agriculture
and Rural Development Act 1981
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Caste
Caste
Caste
is a form of social stratification characterized by endogamy, hereditary transmission of a lifestyle which often includes an occupation, status in a hierarchy, and customary social interaction and exclusion.[1][2] Although caste systems exist in various regions, its paradigmatic ethnographic example is the division of Indian society into rigid social groups, with roots in India's ancient history and persisting until today.[3] However, the economic significance of the caste system in India has been declining as a result of urbanization and affirmative action programs. A subject of much scholarship by sociologists and anthropologists, the Indian caste system is sometimes used as an analogical basis for the study of caste-like social divisions existing outside India
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Neoliberal Economics
Neoliberalism
Neoliberalism
or neo-liberalism[1] refers primarily to the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism.[2]:7 Those ideas include economic liberalization policies such as privatization, austerity, deregulation, free trade[3] and reductions in government spending in order to increase the role of the private sector in the economy and society.[11] These market-based ideas and the policies they inspired constitute a paradigm shift away from the post-war Keynesian consensus which lasted from 1945 to 1980.[12][13] English-speakers have use
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IFAD
The International Fund for Agricultural Development
International Fund for Agricultural Development
(IFAD) (French: Fonds international de développement agricole; FIDA) (Italian: Fondo Internazionale per lo Sviluppo Agricolo) is an international financial institution and a specialised agency of the United Nations dedicated to eradicating poverty and hunger in rural areas of developing countries. It was established as an international financial institution in 1977 as one of the major outcomes of the 1974 World Food Conference. Seventy-five percent of the world's poor live in rural areas in developing countries, yet only 4% of official development assistance goes to agriculture. The strategic policy of IFAD is detailed in Strategic Framework for IFAD 2011–2015: Enabling the Rural Poor to Overcome Poverty. Its headquarters is in Rome, Italy, and is a member of the United Nations Development Group.[1] The President of the IFAD is Gilbert F
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