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Michel Adanson
Michel Adanson
Michel Adanson
(7 April 1727 – 3 August 1806) was an 18th-century French botanist and naturalist, of Scottish descent.Contents1 Personal history 2 Familles naturelles des plantes 3 Evolution 4 Later life 5 Death and legacy 6 In literature 7 Taxa named by Adanson 8 See also 9 References 10 BibliographyPersonal history[edit] Adanson was born at Aix-en-Provence. His family moved to Paris on 1730. After leaving the Collège Sainte-Barbe
Collège Sainte-Barbe
he was employed in the cabinets of R. A. F. Réaumur and Bernard de Jussieu, as well as in the Jardin des Plantes, Paris.[1] He attended lectures at the Jardin du Roi and the Collège Royal in Paris from 1741 to 1746. At the end of 1748, funded by a director of the Compagnie des Indes, he left France on an exploring expedition to Senegal. He remained there for five years, collecting and describing numerous animals and plants
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Aix-en-Provence
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.Aix-en- Provence
Provence
(French pronunciation: ​[ɛksɑ̃pʁɔvɑ̃s]; Provençal Occitan: Ais de Provença in classical norm, or Ais de Prouvènço in Mistralian norm,[1] pronounced [ˈajz de pʀuˈvɛⁿsɔ], Latin: Aquae Sextiae), or simply Aix (pronounced [ɛks]; medieval Occitan
Occitan
Aics), is a city-commune in the south of France, about 30 km (19 mi) north of Marseille. A former capital of Provence, it is in the region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, in the department of Bouches-du-Rhône, of which it is a subprefecture. The population of Aix numbers approximately 143,000
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Stephen Maturin
Stephen Maturin, FRS, /ˈmætʃʊərɪn/ is a fictional character in the Aubrey-Maturin series
Aubrey-Maturin series
of novels by Patrick O'Brian. The series portrays his career as a physician, naturalist and spy in the Royal Navy during the Napoleonic Wars, and the long pursuit of his beloved Diana Villiers. Maturin was played by Paul Bettany
Paul Bettany
in the 2003 film Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World[1] and by Richard Dillane in the BBC Radio 4
BBC Radio 4
adaptations of the O'Brian novels.Contents1 Biography1.1 Early life 1.2 Naval career2 Personal characteristics 3 Film Treatment of Maturin 4 References 5 BibliographyBiography[edit] Early life[edit] Stephen Maturin, called by his Catalan family Esteban Maturin y Domanova, a Roman Catholic, is the illegitimate son of an Irish officer serving in the Spanish Army and a Catalan lady
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Transmutation Of Species
Transmutation of species
Transmutation of species
and transformism are 19th-century evolutionary ideas for the altering of one species into another that preceded Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection.[1] The French Transformisme was a term used by Jean Baptiste Lamarck
Jean Baptiste Lamarck
in 1809 for his theory, and other 19th century proponents of pre-Darwinian evolutionary ideas included Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Robert Grant, and Robert Chambers, the anonymous author of the book Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation. Opposition in the scientific community to these early theories of evolution, led by influential scientists like the anatomists Georges Cuvier
Georges Cuvier
and Richard Owen
Richard Owen
and the geologist Charles Lyell, was intense
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French Institute
The Institut de France
France
(French pronunciation: ​[ɛ̃stity də fʁɑ̃s], Institute of France) is a French learned society, grouping five académies, the most famous of which is the Académie française. The Institute, located in Paris, manages approximately 1,000 foundations, as well as museums and châteaux open for visit
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Georges Cuvier
Jean Léopold Nicolas Frédéric, Baron Cuvier (French: [kyvje]; 23 August 1769 – 13 May 1832), known as Georges Cuvier, was a French naturalist and zoologist, sometimes referred to as the "founding father of paleontology".[1] Cuvier was a major figure in natural sciences research in the early 19th century
19th century
and was instrumental in establishing the fields of comparative anatomy and paleontology through his work in comparing living animals with fossils. Cuvier's work is considered the foundation of vertebrate paleontology, and he expanded Linnaean taxonomy
Linnaean taxonomy
by grouping classes into phyla and incorporating both fossils and living species into the classification.[2] Cuvier is also known for establishing extinction as a fact—at the time, extinction was considered by many of Cuvier's contemporaries to be merely controversial speculation
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Ship-worm
Teredo navalis, the naval shipworm, is a species of saltwater clam, a marine bivalve mollusc in the family Teredinidae, the shipworms. This species is the type species of the genus Teredo. Like other species in this family, this bivalve is called a shipworm, because it resembles a worm in general appearance, while at the anterior end it has a small shell with two valves which are specialised at boring through wood. This species may have originated in the northeast Atlantic Ocean, but has spread around the world. It tunnels into underwater piers and pilings and is a major cause of damage and destruction to submarine timber structures and the hulls of wooden boats.Contents1 Description 2 Distribution and habitat 3 Biology 4 Economic effects 5 ReferencesDescription[edit] Teredo navalis
Teredo navalis
has an elongated, reddish, wormlike body which is completely enclosed in a tunnel it has made in floating or submerged timber
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Carnegie Mellon University
Coordinates: 40°26′36″N 79°56′37″W / 40.443322°N 79.943583°W / 40.443322; -79.943583 Carnegie Mellon University
Carnegie Mellon University
(Carnegie Mellon or CMU /ˈkɑːrnɪɡi ˈmɛlən/ or /kɑːrˈneɪɡi ˈmɛlən/) is a private research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Founded in 1900 by Andrew Carnegie
Andrew Carnegie
as the Carnegie Technical Schools, the university became the Carnegie Institute of Technology in 1912 and began granting four-year degrees. In 1967, the Carnegie Institute of Technology merged with the Mellon Institute of Industrial Research
Mellon Institute of Industrial Research
to form Carnegie Mellon University. The university's 140-acre (57 ha) main campus is 3 miles (5 km) from Downtown Pittsburgh
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The Commodore (novel)
The Commodore
The Commodore
is the seventeenth historical novel in the Aubrey-Maturin series
Aubrey-Maturin series
by British author Patrick O'Brian, first published in 1995. The story is set during the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
and the War of 1812. In this novel, Aubrey and Maturin complete their circumnavigation of the globe begun in The Thirteen Gun Salute and continued through The Nutmeg of Consolation, Clarissa Oakes/The Truelove, and The Wine-Dark Sea. After a long-awaited stay at home in England, Commodore Aubrey is given a squadron to conduct a mission against slave ships in West Africa and then he and Maturin are sent against Napoleon's Navy. Dr Maturin finally meets his young daughter, whom he must protect from a vicious enemy agent out to get him through his family
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Patrick O'Brian
Patrick O'Brian, CBE
CBE
(12 December 1914 – 2 January 2000), born Richard Patrick Russ, was an English novelist and translator, best known for his Aubrey–Maturin series
Aubrey–Maturin series
of sea novels set in the Royal Navy during the Napoleonic Wars, and centred on the friendship of the English naval captain Jack Aubrey
Jack Aubrey
and the Irish–Catalan physician Stephen Maturin. The 20-novel series, the first of which is Master and Commander, is known for its well-researched and highly detailed portrayal of early 19th-century life, as well as its authentic and evocative language. A partially finished 21st novel in the series was published posthumously containing facing pages of handwriting and typescript. O'Brian wrote a number of other novels and short stories, most of which were published before he achieved success with the Aubrey–Maturin series
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Aubrey-Maturin Series
The Aubrey–Maturin series
Aubrey–Maturin series
is a sequence of nautical historical novels—20 completed and one unfinished—by Patrick O'Brian, set during the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
and centering on the friendship between Captain Jack Aubrey
Jack Aubrey
of the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
and his ship's surgeon Stephen Maturin, a physician, natural philosopher, and intelligence agent. The first novel, Master and Commander, was published in 1969 and the last finished novel in 1999.[1] The 21st novel of the series, left unfinished at O'Brian's death in 2000, appeared in print in late 2004. The series received considerable international acclaim and most of the novels reached The New York Times Best Seller list.[1] These novels comprise the heart of the canon of an author often compared to Jane Austen, C. S. Forester
C. S

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Jack Aubrey
John "Jack" Aubrey, JP MP FRS[1][2] is a fictional character in the Aubrey–Maturin series
Aubrey–Maturin series
of novels by Patrick O'Brian. The series portrays his rise from lieutenant to rear-admiral in the Royal Navy during the Napoleonic Wars. The twenty (and one incomplete draft)-book series encompasses Aubrey's adventures and various commands along his course to flying a rear admiral's flag. Some of his naval battles and adventures are drawn from Royal Navy history.[3] Several of his exploits and reverses, most importantly those in the plots of Master and Commander, The Reverse of the Medal and Blue at the Mizzen,[3] are directly based on the chequered career of Thomas Cochrane
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Lamarck
Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck
Lamarck
(1 August 1744 – 18 December 1829), often known simply as Lamarck (/ləˈmɑːrk/;[1] French: [lamaʁk]), was a French naturalist. He was a soldier, biologist, academic, and an early proponent of the idea that biological evolution occurred and proceeded in accordance with natural laws. Lamarck
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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List Of Botanists By Author Abbreviation (A)
An abbreviation (from Latin
Latin
brevis, meaning short [1]) is a shortened form of a word or phrase. It consists of a group of letters taken from the word or phrase. For example, the word abbreviation can itself be represented by the abbreviation abbr., abbrv., or abbrev. In strict analysis, abbreviations should not be confused with contractions, crasis, acronyms, or initialisms, with which they share some semantic and phonetic functions, though all four are connected by the term "abbreviation" in loose parlance.[2]:p167An abbreviation is a shortening by any method; a contraction is a reduction of size by the drawing together of the parts. A contraction of a word is made by omitting certain letters or syllables and bringing together the first and last letters or elements; an abbreviation may be made by omitting certain portions from the interior or by cutting off a part. A contraction is an abbreviation, but an abbreviation is not necessarily a contraction
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