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Michel Adanson
MICHEL ADANSON (7 April 1727 – 3 August 1806) was an 18th-century French botanist and naturalist , of Scottish descent. CONTENTS * 1 Personal history * 2 Familles naturelles des plantes * 3 Evolution
Evolution
* 4 Later life * 5 Death and legacy * 6 In literature * 7 Taxa named by Adanson * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Bibliography PERSONAL HISTORYAdanson was born at Aix-en-Provence
Aix-en-Provence
. His family moved to Paris on 1730. After leaving the Collège Sainte-Barbe he was employed in the cabinets of R. A. F. Réaumur and Bernard de Jussieu , as well as in the Jardin des Plantes
Jardin des Plantes
, Paris. He attended lectures at the Jardin du Roi and the Collège Royal in Paris from 1741 to 1746. At the end of 1748, funded by a director of the Compagnie des Indes , he left France on an exploring expedition to Senegal
Senegal

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Carnegie Mellon University
Coordinates : 40°26′36″N 79°56′37″W / 40.443322°N 79.943583°W / 40.443322; -79.943583 CARNEGIE MELLON UNIVERSITY (CARNEGIE MELLON or CMU; /ˈkɑːrnᵻɡi ˈmɛlən/ or /kɑːrˈneɪɡi ˈmɛlən/ ) is a private research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
. Founded in 1900 by Andrew Carnegie
Andrew Carnegie
as the Carnegie Technical Schools, the university became the Carnegie Institute of Technology in 1912 and began granting four-year degrees. In 1967, the Carnegie Institute of Technology merged with the Mellon Institute of Industrial Research to form Carnegie Mellon University. The university's 140-acre (57 ha) main campus is 3 miles (5 km) from Downtown Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh

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The Commodore (novel)
THE COMMODORE is the seventeenth historical novel in the Aubrey-Maturin series by British author Patrick O\'Brian , first published in 1995. The story is set during the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
and the War of 1812
War of 1812
. In this novel, Aubrey and Maturin complete their circumnavigation of the globe begun in The Thirteen Gun Salute and continued through The Nutmeg of Consolation , Clarissa Oakes /The Truelove, and The Wine-Dark Sea . After a long-awaited stay at home in England, Commodore Aubrey is given a squadron to conduct a mission against slave ships in West Africa and then he and Maturin are sent against Napoleon's Navy. Dr Maturin finally meets his young daughter, whom he must protect from a vicious enemy agent out to get him through his family. The story ranges from England to Spain to West Africa and the rocky west coast of Ireland
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Patrick O'Brian
PATRICK O\'BRIAN, CBE
CBE
(12 December 1914 – 2 January 2000), born RICHARD PATRICK RUSS, was an English novelist and translator, best known for his Aubrey–Maturin series of sea novels set in the Royal Navy during the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
, and centred on the friendship of the English naval captain Jack Aubrey and the Irish–Catalan physician Stephen Maturin . The 20-novel series, the first of which is Master and Commander , is known for its well-researched and highly detailed portrayal of early 19th-century life, as well as its authentic and evocative language. A partially finished 21st novel in the series was published posthumously containing facing pages of handwriting and typescript. O'Brian wrote a number of other novels and short stories, most of which were published before he achieved success with the Aubrey–Maturin series
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Aubrey-Maturin Series
The AUBREY–MATURIN SERIES is a sequence of nautical historical novels —20 completed and one unfinished —by Patrick O\'Brian , set during the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
and centering on the friendship between Captain Jack Aubrey of the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
and his ship's surgeon Stephen Maturin , a physician, natural philosopher , and intelligence agent . The first novel, Master and Commander
Master and Commander
, was published in 1969 and the last finished novel in 1999. The 21st novel of the series, left unfinished at O'Brian's death in 2000, appeared in print in late 2004. The series received considerable international acclaim and most of the novels reached The New York Times Best Seller list . These novels comprise the heart of the canon of an author often compared to Jane Austen , C. S. Forester
C. S

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Ship-worm
TEREDO NAVALIS, the NAVAL SHIPWORM, is a species of saltwater clam, a marine bivalve mollusc in the family Teredinidae , the shipworms. This species is the type species of the genus Teredo . Like other species in this family, this bivalve is called a shipworm, because it resembles a worm in general appearance, while at the anterior end it has a small shell with two valves which are specialised at boring through wood. This species may have originated in the northeast Atlantic Ocean, but has spread around the world. It tunnels into underwater piers and pilings and is a major cause of damage and destruction to submarine timber structures and the hulls of wooden boats. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Distribution and habitat * 3 Biology * 4 Economic effects * 5 References DESCRIPTION Teredo navalis has an elongated, reddish, wormlike body which is completely enclosed in a tunnel it has made in floating or submerged timber
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Georges Cuvier
JEAN LéOPOLD NICOLAS FRéDéRIC CUVIER (French: ; 23 August 1769 – 13 May 1832), known as GEORGES CUVIER, was a French naturalist and zoologist , sometimes referred to as the "father of paleontology". Cuvier was a major figure in natural sciences research in the early 19th century
19th century
and was instrumental in establishing the fields of comparative anatomy and paleontology through his work in comparing living animals with fossils. Cuvier's work is considered the foundation of vertebrate paleontology , and he expanded Linnaean taxonomy by grouping classes into phyla and incorporating both fossils and living species into the classification. Cuvier is also known for establishing extinction as a fact—at the time, extinction was considered by many of Cuvier's contemporaries to be merely controversial speculation
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Lamarck
JEAN-BAPTISTE PIERRE ANTOINE DE MONET, CHEVALIER DE LAMARCK (1 August 1744 – 18 December 1829), often known simply as LAMARCK (/ləˈmɑːrk/ ; French: ), was a French naturalist . He was a soldier , biologist , academic , and an early proponent of the idea that biological evolution occurred and proceeded in accordance with natural laws . He gave the term "biology " a broader meaning by coining the term for special sciences, chemistry , meteorology , geology , and botany-zoology. Lamarck
Lamarck
fought in the Pomeranian War (1757–62) against Prussia , and was awarded a commission for bravery on the battlefield. Posted to Monaco
Monaco
, Lamarck
Lamarck
became interested in natural history and resolved to study medicine. He retired from the army after being injured in 1766, and returned to his medical studies
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Aix-en-Provence
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting : residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. AIX-EN-PROVENCE (French pronunciation: ​ ; Provençal Occitan : Ais de Provença in classical norm, or Ais de Prouvènço in Mistralian norm , pronounced , Latin : Aquae Sextiae), or simply AIX (pronounced ; medieval Occitan Aics), is a city-commune in the south of France
France
, about 30 km (19 mi) north of Marseille
Marseille
. It is in the region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d\'Azur , in the department of Bouches-du-Rhône
Bouches-du-Rhône
, of which it is a subprefecture . The population of Aix numbers approximately 143,000. Its inhabitants are called Aixois or, less commonly, Aquisextains
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Transmutation Of Species
TRANSMUTATION OF SPECIES and TRANSFORMISM are terms often used to describe 19th-century evolutionary ideas for the altering of one species into another that preceded Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
's theory of natural selection . The French Transformisme was a term used by Jean Baptiste Lamarck in 1809 for his theory, and other 19th century proponents of pre-Darwinian evolutionary ideas included Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire , Robert Grant , and Robert Chambers who anonymously published the book Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation . Opposition in the scientific community to these early theories of evolution, led by influential scientists like the anatomists Georges Cuvier and Richard Owen and the geologist Charles Lyell
Charles Lyell
, was intense. The debate over them was an important stage in the history of evolutionary thought and would influence the subsequent reaction to Darwin\'s theory
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French Institute
The INSTITUT DE FRANCE (French pronunciation: ​ , Institute of France) is a French learned society , grouping five académies, the most famous of which is the Académie française . The Institute, located in Paris
Paris
, manages approximately 1,000 foundations, as well as museums and châteaux open for visit. It also awards prizes and subsidies, which amounted to a total of € 5,028,190.55 for 2002. Most of these prizes are awarded by the Institute on the recommendation of the académies. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Académies * 3 Influence * 4 See also * 5 External links HISTORY Esplanade in front of the Institut, 1898. The Institut de France
France
was established on 25 October 1795, by the French government. ACADéMIES A plaque on the northern wall of the Institut de France
France
shows the ancient location of the Tour de Nesle
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Stephen Maturin
STEPHEN MATURIN, FRS , /ˈmætʃʊərɪn/ is a fictional character in the Aubrey-Maturin series
Aubrey-Maturin series
of novels by Patrick O\'Brian . The series portrays his career as a physician, naturalist and spy in the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
during the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
, and the long pursuit of his beloved Diana Villiers . Maturin was played by Paul Bettany
Paul Bettany
in the 2003 film Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World and by Richard Dillane in the BBC Radio 4
BBC Radio 4
adaptations of the O'Brian novels
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Jack Aubrey
JOHN "JACK" AUBREY, JP MP FRS is a fictional character in the Aubrey–Maturin series of novels by Patrick O\'Brian . The series portrays his rise from lieutenant to rear-admiral in the Royal Navy during the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
. The twenty (and one incomplete draft )-book series encompasses Aubrey's adventures and various commands along his course to flying a rear admiral's flag. Some of his naval battles and adventures are drawn from Royal Navy history. Several of his exploits and reverses, most importantly those in the plots of Master and Commander
Master and Commander
, The Reverse of the Medal and Blue at the Mizzen , are directly based on the chequered career of Thomas Cochrane . Often in the other 17 novels in the series, Aubrey may witness an action or hear of one that is drawn from history, while the battles or other encounters with ships he captains are fictional
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Pittsburgh
Allegheny ------------------------- HISTORIC EMPIRES France
France
Great Britain HISTORIC COLONIES New France
New France
Quebec
Quebec
Virginia FOUNDED November 27, 1758 MUNICIPAL INCORPORATION April 16, 1771 (Township) April 22, 1794 (Borough) March 18, 1816 (City) FOUNDED BY George Washington , General John Forbes NAMED FOR "The Great Commoner": Prime Minister William Pitt GOVERNMENT • TYPE Mayor-Council • MAYOR Bill Peduto
Bill Peduto
(D ) • CITY COUNCIL Councilmembers * Darlene Harris * Theresa Kail-Smith
Theresa Kail-Smith
* Bruce Kraus (President) * Natalia Rudiak * Corey O\'Connor * Daniel Lavelle * Deborah Gross * Dan Gilman * Rev
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The American Naturalist
THE AMERICAN NATURALIST is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1867. It is published by the University of Chicago Press on behalf of the American Society of Naturalists . The journal covers research in ecology , evolutionary biology , population, and integrative biology . As of 2016 , the editor-in-chief is Judith L. Bronstein. According to the Journal Citation Reports , the journal had a 2011 impact factor of 4.736, ranking it 21st out of 131 journals in the category "Ecology" and 10th out of 45 journals in the category "Evolutionary Biology". HISTORYThe journal was founded by Alpheus Hyatt , Edward S. Morse , Alpheus S. Packard Jr. , and Frederick W. Putnam at the Essex Institute in Salem, Massachusetts . The first issue appeared in print dated March 1867. In 1878 the journal was for sale and Edward Cope bought half the rights
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The Commodore
THE COMMODORE (published 1945) is a