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Miami-Illinois Language
Miami- Illinois
Illinois
(Myaamia [mjɑːmia]) is an indigenous Algonquian language formerly spoken in the United States, primarily in Illinois, Missouri, Indiana, western Ohio
Ohio
and adjacent areas along the
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Illinois
Illinois
Illinois
(/ˌɪlɪˈnɔɪ/ ( listen) IL-ih-NOY) is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States. It is the 6th most populous state and 25th largest state in terms of land area, and is often noted as a microcosm of the entire country.[7] With Chicago
Chicago
in the northeast, small industrial cities and great agricultural productivity in central and northern Illinois, and natural resources like coal, timber, and petroleum in the south, Illinois
Illinois
has a diverse economic base and is a major transportation hub. The Port of Chicago connects the state to other global ports from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean, as well as the Great Lakes to the Mississippi
Mississippi
River, via the Illinois Waterway
Illinois Waterway
on the Illinois
Illinois
River
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Velar Consonant
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum). Since the velar region of the roof of the mouth is relatively extensive and the movements of the dorsum are not very precise, velars easily undergo assimilation, shifting their articulation back or to the front depending on the quality of adjacent vowels.[1] They often become automatically fronted, that is partly or completely palatal before a following front vowel, and retracted, that is partly or completely uvular before back vowels. Palatalised velars (like English /k/ in keen or cube) are sometimes referred to as palatovelars.[citation needed][by whom?] Many languages also have labialized velars, such as [kʷ], in which the articulation is accompanied by rounding of the lips. There are also labial–velar consonants, which are doubly articulated at the velum and at the lips, such as [k͡p]
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Jacques Gravier
Jacques Gravier (17 May 1651 – 17 April 1708) was a French Jesuit missionary in the New World. He founded the Illinois
Illinois
mission in 1696, where he administered to the several tribes of the territory. He was notable for his compilation of the most extensive dictionary of Kaskaskia
Kaskaskia
Illinois-French among those made by French missionaries. In 1705 he was appointed Superior of the mission.Contents1 Early life and education 2 Career in North America 3 References 4 Further reading 5 External linksEarly life and education[edit] Gravier was born in 1651 in Moulins, Allier, France. He became well educated with the Jesuits, entering the Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
in the fall of 1670. He made his novitiate at Paris.[1] From 1672-1680, Gravier taught and tutored in the Jesuit
Jesuit
schools of Hesdin, Eu, and Arras
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Missionary
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize and/or perform ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care, and economic development.[1][2] The word "mission" originates from 1598 when the Jesuits
Jesuits
sent members abroad, derived from the Latin missionem (nom. missio), meaning "act of sending" or mittere, meaning "to send".[3] The word was used in light of its biblical usage; in the Latin translation of the Bible, Christ uses the word when sending the disciples to preach The gospel in his name
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Trinity College (Connecticut)
Trinity College is a private liberal arts college in Hartford, Connecticut. Founded in 1823, it is the second-oldest college in the state of Connecticut
Connecticut
after Yale University. The college is an urban campus. Coeducational since 1969, the college enrolls 2,300 students. Trinity offers 38 majors and 26 minors, with a student to faculty ratio of 9:1. 73.1 percent of classes at the college contain less than 20 students.[4] The college is a member of the New England Small College Athletic Conference (NESCAC). U.S
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Hartford, Connecticut
Hartford is the capital city of Connecticut. It was the seat of Hartford County until Connecticut
Connecticut
disbanded county government in 1960. The city is nicknamed the "Insurance Capital of the World", as it hosts many insurance company headquarters and is the region's major industry. It is the core city in the Greater Hartford
Greater Hartford
area of Connecticut. Census estimates since the 2010 United States
United States
Census have indicated that Hartford is the fourth-largest city in Connecticut, behind the coastal cities of Bridgeport, New Haven, and Stamford.[6] Hartford was founded in 1635 and is among the oldest cities in the United States
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Indian Territory
As general terms, Indian Territory, the Indian Territories, or Indian country describe an evolving land area set aside by the United States Government for the relocation of Native Americans who held aboriginal title to their land. In general, the tribes ceded land they occupied in exchange for land grants in 1803. The concept of an Indian Territory was an outcome of the 18th- and 19th-century policy of Indian removal
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Piankashaw
The Piankeshaw
Piankeshaw
(or Piankashaw) Indians were Native Americans and members of the Miami Indians
Miami Indians
who lived apart from the rest of the Miami nation. They lived in an area that now includes western Indiana and Ohio, and were closely allied with the Wea
Wea
Indians. Piankeshaw villages have been reported along the White River in central Indiana, and along the Vermilion River in Illinois, near Ouiatenon.[1] The Piankashaw were living along the Vermilion river in 1743.[2] The Piankeshaw
Piankeshaw
are usually regarded as being "friendly" towards European settlers. They intermarried with French traders and were treated as equals by residents of New France
New France
in the Illinois
Illinois
Country. A principal Piankeshaw
Piankeshaw
village was established on the Wabash River near what became Vincennes
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Peoria Tribe
The Peoria (or Peouaroua) are a Native American people. Today they are enrolled in the federally recognized Peoria Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma. Historically, they were part of the Illinois
Illinois
Confederation.Contents1 Language and name 2 Government 3 Economic development 4 History 5 Namesakes 6 Notable Peoria people 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External linksLanguage and name[edit] Traditionally, the Peoria spoke a dialect of the Miami-Illinois language. The name "Peoria" derives from their autonym or name for themselves in the Illinois
Illinois
language, peewaareewa (modern pronunciation peewaalia)
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Labial Consonant
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator. The two common labial articulations are bilabials, articulated using both lips, and labiodentals, articulated with the lower lip against the upper teeth, both of which are present in English. A third labial articulation is dentolabials, articulated with the upper lip against the lower teeth (the reverse of labiodental), normally only found in pathological speech. Generally precluded are linguolabials, in which the tip of the tongue contacts the posterior side of the upper lip, making them coronals, though sometimes, they behave as labial consonants.[clarification needed] The most common distribution between bilabials and labiodentals is the English one, in which the stops, [m], [p], and [b], are bilabial and the fricatives, [f], and [v], are labiodental
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Alveolar Consonant
Alveolar consonants (/ælˈviːələr, ˌælviˈoʊlər/) are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. Alveolar consonants may be articulated with the tip of the tongue (the apical consonants), as in English, or with the flat of the tongue just above the tip (the "blade" of the tongue; called laminal consonants), as in French and Spanish. The laminal alveolar articulation is often mistakenly called dental, because the tip of the tongue can be seen near to or touching the teeth. However, it is the rearmost point of contact that defines the place of articulation; this is where the oral cavity ends, and it is the resonant space of the oral cavity that gives consonants and vowels their characteristics. The International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
(IPA) does not have separate symbols for the alveolar consonants
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Palatal Consonant
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). Consonants with the tip of the tongue curled back against the palate are called retroflex.Contents1 Characteristics 2 Distinction from palatalized consonants and consonant clusters 3 Examples 4 See also 5 Notes 6 ReferencesCharacteristics[edit] The most common type of palatal consonant is the extremely common approximant [j], which ranks as among the ten most common sounds in the world's languages.[citation needed] The nasal [ɲ] is also common, occurring in around 35 percent of the world's languages,[1] in most of which its equivalent obstruent is not the stop [c], but the affricate [t͡ʃ]
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Glottal Consonant
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation. Many phoneticians consider them, or at least the glottal fricative, to be transitional states of the glottis without a point of articulation as other consonants have, while some do not consider them to be consonants at all. However, glottal consonants behave as typical consonants in many languages. For example, in Literary Arabic, most words are formed from a root C-C-C consisting of three consonants, which are inserted into templates such as /CaːCiC/ or /maCCuːC/
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Oxford, Ohio
Oxford is a city in northwestern Butler County, Ohio, United States, in the southwestern portion of the state. It lies in Oxford Township, originally called the College Township. The population was 21,371 at the 2010 census. This college town was founded as a home for Miami University
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Stop Consonant
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases. The occlusion may be made with the tongue blade ([t], [d]) or body ([k], [ɡ]), lips ([p], [b]), or glottis ([ʔ]). Stops contrast with nasals, where the vocal tract is blocked but airflow continues through the nose, as in /m/ and /n/, and with fricatives, where partial occlusion impedes but does not block airflow in the vocal tract.Contents1 Terminology 2 Common stops 3 Articulation 4 Classification4.1 Voice 4.2 Aspiration 4.3 Length 4.4 Nasalization 4.5 Airstream mechanism 4.6 Tenseness5 Transcription5.1 English 5.2 Variations6 See also 7 References 8 External linksTerminology[edit] The terms stop, occlusive, and plosive are often used interchangeably. Linguists who distinguish them may not agree on the distinction being made. The terms refer to different features of the consonant. "Stop" refers to the airflow that is stopped
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