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Metternich
Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar, Prince von Metternich-Winneburg zu Beilstein (German: [ˈmɛtɐnɪç]; 15 May 1773 – 11 June 1859[1]) was a German diplomat and statesman who was one of the most important of his era, serving as the Austrian Empire's Foreign Minister from 1809 and Chancellor from 1821 until the liberal revolutions of 1848 forced his resignation. One of his first assignments was to engineer a détente with France that included the marriage of Napoleon
Napoleon
to the Austrian archduchess Marie Louise. Soon after, he engineered Austria's entry into the War of the Sixth Coalition on the Allied side, signed the Treaty of Fontainebleau that sent Napoleon
Napoleon
into exile, and led the Austrian delegation at the Congress of Vienna
Vienna
that divided post-Napoleonic Europe amongst the major powers. For his service to the Austrian Empire he was given the title of Prince in October 1813
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Free City Of Frankfurt
For almost five centuries, the German city of Frankfurt
Frankfurt
was a city-state within two major Germanic entities:The Holy Roman Empire
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University Of Mainz
The Johannes Gutenberg
Johannes Gutenberg
University
University
Mainz
Mainz
(German: Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz) is a public research university in Mainz, Rhineland Palatinate, Germany, named after the printer Johannes Gutenberg. With approximately 36,500 students (2014) in about 150 schools and clinics, it is among the ten largest universities in Germany
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Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire (/ˈɒtəmən/; Devlet-i ʿAlīye-i ʿOsmānīye[dn 5]), also historically known in Western Europe
Europe
as the Turkish Empire[8] or simply Turkey,[9] was a state that controlled much of southeastern Europe, western Asia and northern Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia
Anatolia
in the town of Söğüt (modern-day Bilecik Province) by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman.[10] After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire
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Kingdom Of Prussia
The Kingdom of Prussia
Prussia
(German: Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia
Prussia
between 1701 and 1918 and included parts of present-day Germany, Poland, Russia, Lithuania, Denmark, Belgium
Belgium
and the Czech Republic.[3] It was the driving force behind the unification of Germany
Germany
in 1871 and was the leading state of the German Empire
German Empire
until its dissolution in 1918.[3] Although it took its name from the region called Prussia, it was based in the Margraviate of Brandenburg, where its capital was Berlin. The kings of Prussia
Prussia
were from the House of Hohenzollern
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Kingdom Of Saxony
The Kingdom of Saxony
Saxony
(German: Königreich Sachsen), lasting between 1806 and 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Napoleonic through post-Napoleonic Germany. The kingdom was formed from the Electorate of Saxony. From 1871 it was part of the German Empire. It became a Free state in the era of Weimar Republic in 1918 after the end of World War I
World War I
and the abdication of King Frederick Augustus III of Saxony
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Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor
Leopold II (Peter Leopold Josef Anton Joachim Pius Gotthard; 5 May 1747 – 1 March 1792) was Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
and King of Hungary and Bohemia
Bohemia
from 1790 to 1792, Archduke of Austria and Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1765 to 1790. He was a son of Emperor Francis I and his wife, Empress Maria Theresa, and the brother of Marie Antoinette
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Prince Clemens Wenceslaus Of Saxony
Prince Clemens Wenceslaus of Saxony
Prince Clemens Wenceslaus of Saxony
(German: Clemens Wenzeslaus August Hubertus Franz Xaver von Sachsen) (28 September 1739 – 27 July 1812) was a German prince from the House of Wettin
House of Wettin
and the Archbishop-Elector of Trier
Trier
from 1768 until 1803, the Prince-Bishop of Freising
Freising
from 1763 until 1768, the Prince-Bishop of Regensburg
Regensburg
from 1763 until 1769, and the Prince-Bishop of Augsburg
Augsburg
from 1768 until 1812. Biography[edit] Clemens Wenceslaus was the ninth child of the Prince-Elector Augustus III of Saxony, who was also the King of Poland. In 1760 he went to Vienna
Vienna
and entered the Austrian army as a field marshal
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Liberalism
Liberalism
Liberalism
is a political philosophy or worldview founded on ideas of liberty and equality.[1][2][3] Liberals espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of these principles, but generally they support ideas and programmes such as freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of religion, free markets, civil rights, democratic societies, secular governments, gender equality and international cooperation.[4][5][6][7][8][9][10] Liberalism
Liberalism
first became a distinct political movement during the Age of Enlightenment, when it became popular among philosophers and economists in the Western world. Liberalism
Liberalism
rejected the prevailing social and political norms of hereditary privilege, state religion, absolute monarchy and the divine right of kings
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Nationalism
Nationalism
Nationalism
is a political, social, and economic system characterized by promoting the interests of a particular nation particularly with the aim of gaining and maintaining self-governance, or full sovereignty, over the group's homeland. The political ideology therefore holds that a nation should govern itself, free from unwanted outside interference, and is linked to the concept of self-determination. Nationalism
Nationalism
is further oriented towards developing and maintaining a national identity based on shared characteristics such as culture, language, race, religion, political goals or a belief in a common ancestry.[1][2] Nationalism
Nationalism
therefore seeks to preserve the nation's culture. It often also involves a sense of pride in the nation's achievements, and is closely linked to the concept of patriotism
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Thomas Lawrence (painter)
Sir Thomas Lawrence
Thomas Lawrence
PRA FRS (13 April 1769 – 7 January 1830) was a leading English portrait painter and the fourth president of the Royal Academy. Lawrence was a child prodigy. He was born in Bristol
Bristol
and began drawing in Devizes, where his father was an innkeeper. At the age of ten, having moved to Bath, he was supporting his family with his pastel portraits. At eighteen he went to London and soon established his reputation as a portrait painter in oils, receiving his first royal commission, a portrait of Queen Charlotte, in 1790. He stayed at the top of his profession until his death, aged 60, in 1830. Self-taught, he was a brilliant draughtsman and known for his gift of capturing a likeness, as well as his virtuoso handling of paint. He became an associate of the Royal Academy
Royal Academy
in 1791, a full member in 1794, and president in 1820
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Détente
Détente
Détente
(French pronunciation: ​[detɑ̃t], meaning "relaxation")[1] is the easing of strained relations, especially in a political situation
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Foreign Minister
A foreign minister or minister of foreign affairs (less commonly for foreign affairs) is generally a cabinet minister in charge of a state's foreign policy and relations.[1]Contents1 World contexts1.1 Difference in titles 1.2 Powers of position 1.3 Responsibilities2 Related articles and lists2.1 By year 2.2 Country and territory-related articles and lists3 Former countries 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksWorld contexts[edit] Difference in titles[edit] In some nations, such as India, the Foreign Minister is referred to as the " Minister for External Affairs" or, as in the case of Brazil, "Minister of Foreign Affairs" and of the former Soviet Union, this position is known as the "Minister of External Relations". In the United States, the equivalent to the foreign ministry is called the "Department of State", and the equivalent position is known as the "Secretary of State". Other common titles may include "Minister of Foreign Relations"
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Censorship
Censorship
Censorship
is the suppression of speech, public communication, or other information, on the basis that such material is considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, politically incorrect or "inconvenient" as determined by government authorities or by community consensus.[1] Governments and private organizations may engage in censorship. Other groups or institutions may propose and petition for censorship
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Diplomat
A diplomat is a person appointed by a state to conduct diplomacy with one or more other states or international organizations. The main functions of diplomats are: representation and protection of the interests and nationals of the sending state; initiation and facilitation of strategic agreements; treaties and conventions; promotion of information; trade and commerce; technology; and friendly relations. Seasoned diplomats of international repute are used in international organisations (e.g. United Nations) as well as multinational companies for their experience in management and negotiating skills. Diplomats are members of foreign services and diplomatic corps of various nations of the world. Diplomats are the oldest form of any of the foreign policy institutions of the state, predating by centuries foreign ministers and ministerial offices
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Archbishopric Of Trier
The word diocese (/ˈdaɪəsɪs, -siːs, -siːz/)[a] is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning "administration". When now used in an ecclesiastical sense, it refers to an administrative territorial entity.[2] In the Western Church, the district is under the supervision of a bishop (who may have assistant bishops to help him or her) and is divided into parishes under the care of priests; but in the Eastern Church, the word denotes the area under the jurisdiction of a patriarch and the bishops under his jurisdiction administer parishes.[2] This structure of church governance is known as episcopal polity. The word diocesan means relating or pertaining to a diocese. It can also be used as a noun meaning the bishop who has the principal supervision of a diocese
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