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Methyl Group
A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3. In formulas, the group is often abbreviated Me. Such hydrocarbon groups occur in many organic compounds. It is a very stable group in most molecules. While the methyl group is usually part of a larger molecule, it can be found on its own in any of three forms: anion, cation or radical. The anion has eight valence electrons, the radical seven and the cation six. All three forms are highly reactive and rarely observed.[1]Contents1 Methyl cation, anion, and radical1.1 Methyl cation 1.2 Methyl anion 1.3 Methyl radical2 Reactivity2.1 Oxidation 2.2 Methylation 2.3 Deprotonation 2.4 Free radical reactions3 Chiral
Chiral
methyl 4 Etymology 5 See also 6 ReferencesMethyl cation, anion, and radical[edit] Methyl cation[edit] The methylium cation (CH3+) exists in the gas phase, but is otherwise not encountered
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Methylation
In the chemical sciences, methylation denotes the addition of a methyl group on a substrate, or the substitution of an atom (or group) by a methyl group. Methylation
Methylation
is a form of alkylation, with a methyl group, rather than a larger carbon chain, replacing a hydrogen atom. These terms are commonly used in chemistry, biochemistry, soil science, and the biological sciences. In biological systems, methylation is catalyzed by enzymes; such methylation can be involved in modification of heavy metals, regulation of gene expression, regulation of protein function, and RNA processing. In vitro methylation of tissue samples is also one method for reducing certain histological staining artifacts
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Reagent
A reagent /riˈeɪdʒənt/ is a substance or compound added to a system to cause a chemical reaction, or added to test if a reaction occurs.[1] The terms reactant and reagent are often used interchangeably—however, a reactant is more specifically a substance consumed in the course of a chemical reaction.[1] Solvents, though involved in the reaction, are usually not called reactants. Similarly, catalysts are not consumed by the reaction, so they are not reactants. In biochemistry, especially in connection with enzyme-catalyzed reactions, the reactants are commonly called substrates. In organic chemistry, the term "reagent" denotes a chemical ingredient (a compound or mixture, typically of inorganic or small organic molecules) introduced to cause a desired transformation of an organic substance. Examples include the Collins reagent, Fenton's reagent, and Grignard reagents
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Ethane
ETHANE is a mnemonic indicating a protocol used by emergency services to report situations which they may be faced with, especially as it relates to major incidents, where it may be used as part of their emergency action principles. An alternative mnemonic M ETHANE adds an additional prompt "Major Incident Declared?" to ensure consideration is given to if the response may challenge the available resources and so necessitate initiating contingency plan measures. ETHANE dictates the form in which the receiving control station should get information from the first person or officer on scene. In the UK, the Joint Emergency Services Interoperability Principles (JESIP) set out the way the emergency services respond together to major incidents.[1][not in citation given] Definition and process[edit]This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources
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Thermal Decomposition
Thermal decomposition, or thermolysis, is not a chemical decomposition caused by heat. The decomposition temperature of a substance is the temperature at which the substance chemically decomposes. The reaction is usually endothermic as heat is required to break chemical bonds in the compound undergoing decomposition. If decomposition is sufficiently exothermic, a positive feedback loop is created producing thermal runaway and possibly an explosion.Contents1 Examples1.1 Decomposition
Decomposition
of nitrates, nitrites and ammonium compounds2 Ease of decomposition 3 See also 4 ReferencesExamples[edit]Calcium carbonate (limestone) or (chalk) decomposes into [calcium oxide] and [carbon(iv)oxide] when heated
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Acid
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).[1] The first category of acids is the proton donors or Brønsted acids. In the special case of aqueous solutions, proton donors form the hydronium ion H3O+ and are known as Arrhenius acids. Brønsted and Lowry generalized the Arrhenius theory to include non-aqueous solvents. A Brønsted or Arrhenius acid usually contains a hydrogen atom bonded to a chemical structure that is still energetically favorable after loss of H+. Aqueous Arrhenius acids have characteristic properties which provide a practical description of an acid.[2] Acids form aqueous solutions with a sour taste, can turn blue litmus red, and react with bases and certain metals (like calcium) to form salts
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Oxidation
Redox
Redox
(short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: /ˈrɛdɒks/ redoks or /ˈriːdɒks/ reedoks[1]) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed. Any such reaction involves both a reduction process and a complementary oxidation process, two key concepts involved with electron transfer processes.[2] Redox
Redox
reactions include all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation state changed; in general, redox reactions involve the transfer of electrons between chemical species. The chemical species from which the electron is stripped is said to have been oxidized, while the chemical species to which the electron is added is said to have been reduced
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Permanganate
A permanganate is the general name for a chemical compound containing the manganate(VII) ion, (MnO− 4). Because manganese is in the +7 oxidation state, the permanganate(VII) ion is a strong oxidizing agent. The ion has tetrahedral geometry.[1] Permanganate
Permanganate
solutions are purple in color and are stable in neutral or slightly alkaline media. The exact chemical reaction is dependent upon the organic contaminants present and the oxidant utilized
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Benzoic Acid
Benzoic acid
Benzoic acid
/bɛnˈzoʊ.ɪk/, C7H6O2 (or C6H5COOH), is a colorless crystalline solid and a simple aromatic carboxylic acid. The name is derived from gum benzoin, which was for a long time its only known source. Benzoic acid
Benzoic acid
occurs naturally in many plants[8] and serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of many secondary metabolites. Salts of benzoic acid are used as food preservatives and benzoic acid is an important precursor for the industrial synthesis of many other organic substances
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Proton
6973167262189800000♠1.672621898(21)×10−27 kg[1] 7002938272081300000♠938.2720813(58) MeV/c2[2] 7000100727646687900♠1.007276466879(91) u[2]Mean lifetime > 7036662709600000000♠2.1×1029 years (stable)Electric charge 6981160217648700000♠+1 e 6981160217662079999♠1.6021766208(98)×10−19 C[2]Charge radius 6999875100000000000♠0.8751(61) fm[2]Electric dipole moment < 6976540000000000000♠5.4×10−24 e⋅cmElectric polarizability 6997119999999999999♠1.20(6)×10−3 fm3Magnetic moment6974141060678730000♠1.4106067873(97)×10−26 J⋅T−1[2] 6997152103220530000♠1.5210322053(46)×10−3 μB[2] 7000279284735079999♠2.7928473508(85) μN[2]Magnetic polarizability 6996190000000000000♠1.9(5)×10−4 fm3Spin 1/2Isospin 1/2Parity +1Condensed I(JP) = 1/2(1/2+)A proton is a subatomic
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Carbon Dioxide
Carbon
Carbon
dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air. Carbon
Carbon
dioxide consists of a carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It occurs naturally in Earth's atmosphere
Earth's atmosphere
as a trace gas. The current concentration is about 0.04% (405 ppm) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Natural sources include volcanoes, hot springs and geysers, and it is freed from carbonate rocks by dissolution in water and acids. Because carbon dioxide is soluble in water, it occurs naturally in groundwater, rivers and lakes, ice caps, glaciers and seawater. It is present in deposits of petroleum and natural gas
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Dimethyl Sulfate
Dimethyl sulfate
Dimethyl sulfate
is a chemical compound with formula (CH3O)2SO2. As the diester of methanol and sulfuric acid, its formula is often written as (CH3)2SO4 or even Me2SO4, where CH3 or Me is methyl. Me2SO4 is mainly used as a methylating agent in organic synthesis. Under standard conditions, Me2SO4 is a colourless oily liquid with a slight onion-like odour (although smelling it would represent significant exposure). Like all strong alkylating agents, Me2SO4 is extremely toxic
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Grignard Reagents
The Grignard reaction (pronounced /ɡriɲar/) is an organometallic chemical reaction in which alkyl, vinyl, or aryl-magnesium halides (Grignard reagents) add to a carbonyl group in an aldehyde or ketone.[1][2] This reaction is an important tool for the formation of carbon–carbon bonds.[3][4] The reaction of an organic halide with magnesium is not a Grignard reaction, but provides a Grignard reagent.[5]Grignard reactions and reagents were discovered by and are named after the French chemist François Auguste Victor Grignard (University of Nancy, France), who published it in 1900 and was awarded the 1912 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for this work.[6] Grignard reagents are similar to organolithium reagents because both are strong nucleophiles that can form new carbon–carbon bonds. The nucleophilicity increases if the alkyl substituent is replaced by an amido group
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Methyl Triflate
Methyl trifluoromethanesulfonate, also commonly called methyl triflate and abbreviated MeOTf, is the organic compound with the formula CF3SO2OCH3. It is a colourless liquid which finds use in organic chemistry as a powerful (and dangerous) methylating agent.[1] The compound is closely related to methyl fluorosulfonate (FSO2OCH3).Contents1 Synthesis 2 Reactivity2.1 Methylation3 See also 4 ReferencesSynthesis[edit] Methyl triflate is commercially available, however it may also be prepared in the laboratory by treating dimethyl sulfate with triflic acid.[2]CF3SO2OH + (CH3O)2SO2 → CF3SO2OCH3 + CH3OSO2OHReactivity[edit] The compound hydrolyzes violently upon contact with water:CF3SO2OCH3 + H2O → CF3SO2OH + CH3OHMethylation[edit] One ranking of methylating agents is (CH3)3O+ > CF3SO2OCH3 ≈ FSO2OCH3 > (CH3)2SO4 > CH3I.[2] It will alkylate many functional groups that are only weakly basic such as aldehydes, amides, and nitriles
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Methanogenesis
Methanogenesis
Methanogenesis
or biomethanation is the formation of methane by microbes known as methanogens. Organisms capable of producing methane have been identified only from the domain Archaea, a group phylogenetically distinct from both eukaryotes and bacteria, although many live in close association with anaerobic bacteria. The production of methane is an important and widespread form of microbial metabolism. In most environments, it is the final step in the decomposition of biomass
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Acetone
Acetone
Acetone
(systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.[12] It is a colorless, volatile, flammable liquid, and is the simplest and smallest ketone. Acetone
Acetone
is miscible with water and serves as an important solvent in its own right, typically for cleaning purposes in laboratories. About 6.7 million tonnes were produced worldwide in 2010, mainly for use as a solvent and production of methyl methacrylate and bisphenol A.[13][14] It is a common building block in organic chemistry. Familiar household uses of acetone are as the active ingredient in nail polish remover, and as paint thinner. Acetone
Acetone
is produced and disposed of in the human body through normal metabolic processes. It is normally present in blood and urine. People with diabetes produce it in larger amounts
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