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Meteor
A meteoroid (/ˈmiːtiərɔɪd/)[1] is a small rocky or metallic body in outer space. Meteoroids are significantly smaller than asteroids, and range in size from small grains to one-meter-wide objects.[2] Objects smaller than this are classified as micrometeoroids or space dust.[2][3][4] Most are fragments from comets or asteroids, whereas others are collision impact debris ejected from bodies such as the Moon
Moon
or Mars.[5][6][7] When a meteoroid, comet, or asteroid enters Earth's atmosphere at a speed typically in excess of 20 km/s (72,000 km/h; 45,000 mph), aerodynamic heating of that object produces a streak of light, both from the glowing object and the trail of glowing particles that it leaves in its wake. This phenomenon is called a meteor or "shooting star". A series of many meteors appearing seconds or minutes apart and appearing to originate from the same fixed point in the sky is called a meteor shower
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Atacama Large Millimeter Array
The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is an astronomical interferometer of radio telescopes in the Atacama desert of northern Chile. Since a high and dry site is crucial to millimeter and submillimeter wavelength operations,[1] the array has been constructed on the Chajnantor plateau at 5,000 metres (16,000 ft) altitude, near Llano de Chajnantor Observatory
Llano de Chajnantor Observatory
and Atacama Pathfinder Experiment
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Aerogel
Aerogel
Aerogel
is a synthetic porous ultralight material derived from a gel, in which the liquid component of the gel has been replaced with a gas.[1] The result is a solid with extremely low density[2] and low thermal conductivity. Nicknames include frozen smoke,[3] solid smoke, solid air, solid cloud, blue smoke owing to its translucent nature and the way light scatters in the material. It feels like fragile expanded polystyrene to the touch. Aerogels can be made from a variety of chemical compounds.[4] Aerogel
Aerogel
was first created by Samuel Stephens Kistler in 1931, as a result of a bet[5] with Charles Learned over who could replace the liquid in "jellies" with gas without causing shrinkage.[6][7] Aerogels are produced by extracting the liquid component of a gel through supercritical drying
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Ancient Greek
The Ancient Greek language
Greek language
includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(Koine Greek, 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek
Attic Greek
and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
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Astronomical Unit
The astronomical unit (symbol: au,[1][2][3] ua,[4] or AU) is a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth
Earth
to the Sun. However, that distance varies as Earth
Earth
orbits the Sun, from a maximum (aphelion) to a minimum (perihelion) and back again once a year. Originally conceived as the average of Earth's aphelion and perihelion, it was defined exactly as 7011149597870700000♠149597870700 metres or about 150 million kilometres (93 million miles) since 2012.[5] The astronomical unit is used primarily for measuring distances within the Solar System
Solar System
or around other stars
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Nevada
Nevada
Nevada
(/nɪˈvædə/; see pronunciations) is a state in the Western, Mountain West, and Southwestern regions of the United States
United States
of America. It borders Oregon
Oregon
to the northwest, Idaho
Idaho
to the northeast, California
California
to the west, Arizona
Arizona
to the southeast and Utah
Utah
to the east. Nevada
Nevada
is the 7th most extensive, the 34th most populous, but the 9th least densely populated of the 50 United States
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Escape Velocity
In physics, escape velocity is the minimum speed needed for an object to escape from the gravitational influence of a massive body. The escape velocity from Earth
Earth
is about 11.186 km/s (6.951 mi/s; 40,270 km/h; 25,020 mph)[1] at the surface. More generally, escape velocity is the speed at which the sum of an object's kinetic energy and its gravitational potential energy is equal to zero;[nb 1] an object which has achieved escape velocity is neither on the surface, nor in a closed orbit (of any radius). With escape velocity in a direction pointing away from the ground of a massive body, the object will move away from the body, slowing forever and approaching, but never reaching, zero speed. Once escape velocity is achieved, no further impulse need be applied for it to continue in its escape
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Gravity Well
A gravity well or gravitational well is a conceptual model of the gravitational field surrounding a body in space – the more massive the body, the deeper and more extensive the gravity well associated with it. The Sun
Sun
is very massive, relative to other bodies in the Solar System, so the corresponding gravity well that surrounds it appears "deep" and far-reaching. The gravity wells of asteroids and small moons, conversely, are often depicted as very shallow. Anything on the surface of a planet or moon is considered to be at the bottom of that celestial body's gravity well, and so escaping the effects of gravity from such a planet or moon (to enter outer space) is sometimes called "climbing out of the gravity well". The deeper a gravity well is, the more energy any space-bound "climber" must use to escape it. In astrophysics, a gravity well is specifically the gravitational potential field around a massive body
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Yale University
Yale University
Yale University
is an American private Ivy League
Ivy League
research university in New Haven, Connecticut. Founded in 1701, it is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States
United States
and one of the nine Colonial Colleges
Colonial Colleges
chartered before the American Revolution.[6] Chartered by Connecticut
Connecticut
Colony, the "Collegiate School" was established by clergy in Saybrook Colony
Saybrook Colony
to educate Congregational ministers. It moved to New Haven
New Haven
in 1716 and shortly after was renamed Yale College
Yale College
in recognition of a gift from British East India Company governor Elihu Yale
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Minor Planet Center
The Minor Planet Center (MPC) is the official worldwide organization in charge of collecting observational data for minor planets (such as asteroids and comets), calculating their orbits and publishing this information via the Minor Planet Circulars. Under the auspices of the International Astronomical Union
International Astronomical Union
(IAU), it operates at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, which is part of the Center for Astrophysics along with the Harvard College Observatory.[1] The MPC runs a number of free online services for observers to assist them in observing minor planets and comets. The complete catalogue of minor planet orbits (sometimes referred to as the "Minor Planet Catalogue") may also be freely downloaded. In addition to astrometric data, the MPC collects light curve photometry of minor planets
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Sudan
The Sudan
Sudan
or Sudan
Sudan
(/suːˈdæn, -ˈdɑːn/ ( listen);[8][9] Arabic: السودان‎ as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan
Sudan
since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic
Republic
of the Sudan[10] (Arabic: جمهورية السودان‎ Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northern Africa. It is bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea, Eritrea
Eritrea
and Ethiopia
Ethiopia
to the east, South Sudan
Sudan
to the south, the Central African Republic
Central African Republic
to the southwest, Chad
Chad
to the west and Libya
Libya
to the northwest
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Nubian Desert
Coordinates: 20°30′N 33°00′E / 20.5°N 33°E / 20.5; 33Fragment of Nubian Desert
Desert
seen from spaceThe Nubian Desert
Desert
(Arabic: صحراء النوبة‎, Şaḩrā’ an Nūbyah) is in the eastern region of the Sahara
Sahara
Desert, spanning approximately 400,000 km² of northeastern Sudan
Sudan
between the Nile and the Red Sea. The arid region is rugged and rocky and contains some dunes, it also contains many wadis that die out before reaching the Nile. The average annual rainfall in the Nubian Desert
Desert
is less than 5 inches (125mm).[1] The native inhabitants of the area are the Nubians. The River Nile
Nile
goes through most of its cataracts while traveling through the Nubian Desert. This is right before the Great Bend of the Nile
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Μm
The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures;[1] SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling 6994100000000000000♠1×10−6 metre (SI standard prefix "micro-" = 10−6); that is, one millionth of a metre (or one thousandth of a millimetre, 0.001 mm, or about 0.000039 inch).[1] The micrometre is a common unit of measurement for wavelengths of infrared radiation as well as sizes of biological cells and bacteria,[1] and for grading wool by the diameter of the fibres.[2] The width of a single human hair ranges from approximately 10 to 200 μm
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Micrometer
A micrometer (/maɪˈkrɒmɪtər/ my-KROM-i-tər), sometimes known as a micrometer screw gauge, is a device incorporating a calibrated screw widely used for precise measurement of components[1] in mechanical engineering and machining as well as most mechanical trades, along with other metrological instruments such as dial, vernier, and digital calipers[2]. Micrometers are usually, but not always, in the form of calipers (opposing ends joined by a frame). The spindle is a very accurately machined screw and the object to be measured is placed between the spindle and the anvil. The spindle is moved by turning the ratchet knob or thimble until the object to be measured is lightly touched by both the spindle and the anvil. Micrometers are also used in telescopes or microscopes to measure the apparent diameter of celestial bodies or microscopic objects. The micrometer used with a telescope was invented about 1638 by William Gascoigne, an English astronomer
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Interplanetary Dust Cloud
The interplanetary dust cloud or zodiacal cloud consists of cosmic dust (small particles floating in outer space) that pervades the space between planets in the Solar System
Solar System
and other planetary systems. This system of particles has been studied for many years in order to understand its nature, origin, and relationship to larger bodies. In our Solar System, the interplanetary dust particles have a role in scattering sunlight and in emitting thermal radiation, which is the most prominent feature of the night-sky light in the 5–50 micrometer wavelength range (Levasseur-Regourd, A.C. 1996)
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Benjamin Silliman
Benjamin Silliman
Benjamin Silliman
(August 8, 1779 – November 24, 1864) was an early American chemist and science educator.[1] He was one of the first American professors of science, at Yale College, the first person to distill petroleum in America, and a founder of the American Journal of Science, the oldest continuously published scientific journal in the United States.[2]Contents1 Early life 2 Education 3 Career 4 1807 meteor 5 Family 6 Legacy6.1 Things named for him7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External linksEarly life[edit] Silliman was born in a tavern in North Stratford, now Trumbull, Connecticut, a few months after his mother, Mary (Fish) Silliman (widow of John Noyes), fled for her life from their Fairfield, Connecticut, home to escape two thousand invading British troops that burned Fairfield center to the ground
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