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Metal Halide Lamp
A METAL-HALIDE LAMP is an electrical lamp that produces light by an electric arc through a gaseous mixture of vaporized mercury and metal halides (compounds of metals with bromine or iodine ). It is a type of high-intensity discharge (HID) gas discharge lamp . Developed in the 1960s, they are similar to mercury vapor lamps , but contain additional metal halide compounds in the quartz arc tube, which improve the efficiency and color rendition of the light. The most common metal halide compound used is sodium iodide . Once the arc tube reaches its running temperature, the sodium dissociates from the iodine, adding orange and reds to the lamp's spectrum from the sodium D line as the metal ionizes. As a result, metal-halide lamps have high luminous efficacy of around 75–100 lumens per watt, which is about twice that of mercury vapor lights and 3 to 5 times that of incandescent lights and produce an intense white light. Lamp life is 6,000 to 15,000 hours
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Plasma (physics)
PLASMA (from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
πλάσμα, meaning "moldable substance" ) is a state of matter resembling an ionised gas , though partially ionised plasmas also exist. This ionization makes the plasma affected by electromagnetic fields , which heavily influence how the plasma behaves. It is one of the four fundamental states of matter , and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir
Irving Langmuir
in the 1920s. Unlike the other three states of solid , liquid , and gas , plasma does not freely exist on the Earth under normal surface conditions, and can only be artificially generated by heating neutral gases or by subjecting that gas to a strong electromagnetic field . Plasma and ionised gases have unique properties and display behaviors unlike those of the other states, and the transition between them is mostly a matter of nomenclature and subject to interpretation
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Pound-force Per Square Inch
The POUND PER SQUARE INCH or, more accurately, POUND-FORCE PER SQUARE INCH (symbol: LBF/IN2; abbreviation: PSI) is a unit of pressure or of stress based on avoirdupois units. It is the pressure resulting from a force of one pound-force applied to an area of one square inch : 1 psi = 1 lbf ( 1 in ) 2 4.4482216 N ( 0.0254 m ) 2 6894.757 N / m 2 {displaystyle 1~{text{psi}}={frac {1~{text{lbf}}}{(1~{text{in}})^{2}}}approx {frac {4.4482216~{text{N}}}{(0.0254~{text{m}})^{2}}}approx 6894.757~{text{N}}/{text{m}}^{2}} Therefore, one pound-force per square inch is approximately 6,894.757 pascals
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KPa
The PASCAL (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit
SI derived unit
of pressure used to quantify internal pressure , stress , Young\'s modulus and ultimate tensile strength . It is defined as one newton per square metre . It is named after the French polymath Blaise Pascal
Blaise Pascal
. Common multiple units of the pascal are the hectopascal (1 hPa = 100 Pa) which is equal to one millibar , and the kilopascal (1 kPa = 1000 Pa) which is equal to one centibar. The unit of measurement called standard atmosphere (atm) is defined as 101325 Pa. Meteorological reports typically state atmospheric pressure in millibars
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Negative Resistance
In electronics , NEGATIVE RESISTANCE (NR) is a property of some electrical circuits and devices in which an increase in voltage across the device's terminals results in a decrease in electric current through it. This is in contrast to an ordinary resistor in which an increase of applied voltage causes a proportional increase in current due to Ohm\'s law , resulting in a positive resistance . While a positive resistance consumes power from current passing through it, a negative resistance produces power. Under certain conditions it can increase the power of an electrical signal, amplifying it. Negative resistance
Negative resistance
is an uncommon property which occurs in a few nonlinear electronic components
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Aquarist
FISHKEEPING is a popular hobby , practiced by AQUARISTS, concerned with keeping fish in a home aquarium or garden pond . There is also a piscicultural fishkeeping industry, as a branch of agriculture
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Intelligent Lighting
INTELLIGENT LIGHTING refers to stage lighting that has automated or mechanical abilities beyond those of traditional, stationary illumination. Although the most advanced intelligent lights can produce extraordinarily complex effects, the intelligence lies with the programmer of the show rather than the instruments or the lighting operator . For this reason, intelligent lighting is also known as AUTOMATED LIGHTING, MOVING LIGHTS or MOVING HEADS. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Features * 3 Control * 4 Construction * 5 Usage * 6 Debate * 7 See also * 8 References HISTORYThere are many patents for intelligent lighting dating back from 1906, with Edmond Sohlberg of Kansas City, USA. The lantern used a carbon-arc bulb and was operated not by motors or any form of electronics, but by cords that were operated manually to control pan, tilt and zoom. 1925 saw the first use of electrical motors to move the fixture, and with it the beam position, by Herbet F
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Argon
ARGON is a chemical element with symbol AR and atomic number 18. It is in group 18 of the periodic table and is a noble gas . Argon
Argon
is the third-most abundant gas in the Earth\'s atmosphere , at 0.934% (9340 ppmv ). It is more than twice as abundant as water vapor (which averages about 4000 ppmv, but varies greatly), 23 times as abundant as carbon dioxide (400 ppmv), and more than 500 times as abundant as neon (18 ppmv). Argon
Argon
is the most abundant noble gas in Earth's crust, comprising 0.00015% of the crust. Nearly all of the argon in Earth's atmosphere is radiogenic argon-40 , derived from the decay of potassium-40 in the Earth's crust. In the universe, argon-36 is by far the most common argon isotope , being the preferred argon isotope produced by stellar nucleosynthesis in supernovas
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Spectrum
A SPECTRUM (plural spectra or spectrums ) is a condition that is not limited to a specific set of values but can vary, without steps, across a continuum . The word was first used scientifically in optics to describe the rainbow of colors in visible light after passing through a prism . As scientific understanding of light advanced, it came to apply to the entire electromagnetic spectrum . Spectrum
Spectrum
has since been applied by analogy to topics outside of optics. Thus, one might talk about the "spectrum of political opinion ", or the "spectrum of activity" of a drug, or the "autism spectrum ". In these uses, values within a spectrum may not be associated with precisely quantifiable numbers or definitions. Such uses imply a broad range of conditions or behaviors grouped together and studied under a single title for ease of discussion. Nonscientific uses of the term spectrum are sometimes misleading
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Stage Lighting
STAGE LIGHTING is the craft of lighting as it applies to the production of theatre , dance , opera and other performance arts. Several different types of stage lighting instruments are used in this discipline. In addition to basic lighting, modern stage lighting can also include special effects, such as lasers and fog machines . People who work on stage lighting are commonly referred to as lighting technicians . The equipment used for stage lighting (e.g., cabling, dimmers, lighting instruments, controllers) are also used in other lighting applications, including corporate events, concerts , trade shows, broadcast television, film production, photographic studios, and other types of live events. The personnel needed to install, operate, and control the equipment also cross over into these different areas of "stage lighting" applications
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Watt
The WATT (symbol: W) is a derived unit of power in the International System of Units (SI) defined as 1 joule per second and can be used to quantify the rate of energy transfer . Power has dimensions of M L 2 T 3 {displaystyle {mathsf {ML}}^{2}{mathsf {T}}^{-3}} . CONTENTS * 1 Examples * 2 Origin and adoption as an SI unit * 3 Multiples * 3.1 Femtowatt * 3.2 Picowatt * 3.3 Nanowatt * 3.4 Microwatt * 3.5 Milliwatt * 3.6 Kilowatt * 3.7 Megawatt * 3.8 Gigawatt * 3.9 Terawatt * 3.10 Petawatt * 4 Conventions in the electric power industry * 5 Radio
Radio
transmission * 6 Difference between watts, watt-hours and watts per hour * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 External links EXAMPLESWhen an object's velocity is held constant at one meter per second against constant opposing force of one newton the rate at which work is done is 1 watt
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Lumen (unit)
The LUMEN (symbol: lm) is the SI derived unit
SI derived unit
of luminous flux , a measure of the total quantity of visible light emitted by a source. Luminous flux differs from power (radiant flux ) in that radiant flux includes all electromagnetic waves emitted, while luminous flux is weighted according to a model (a "luminosity function ") of the human eye 's sensitivity to various wavelengths . Lumens are related to lux in that one lux is one lumen per square meter. The lumen is defined in relation to the candela as 1 lm = 1 cd ⋅ sr . A full sphere has a solid angle of 4π steradians , so a light source that uniformly radiates one candela in all directions has a total luminous flux of 1 cd × 4π sr = 4π cd⋅sr ≈ 12.57 lumens
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Incandescent Light Bulb
An INCANDESCENT LIGHT BULB, INCANDESCENT LAMP or INCANDESCENT LIGHT GLOBE is an electric light with a wire filament heated to such a high temperature that it glows with visible light (incandescence ). The filament, heated by passing an electric current through it, is protected from oxidation with a glass or quartz bulb that is filled with inert gas or evacuated . In a halogen lamp , filament evaporation is prevented by a chemical process that redeposits metal vapor onto the filament, extending its life. The light bulb is supplied with electric current by feed-through terminals or wires embedded in the glass. Most bulbs are used in a socket which provides mechanical support and electrical connections. Incandescent bulbs are manufactured in a wide range of sizes, light output, and voltage ratings, from 1.5 volts to about 300 volts
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Sodium
SODIUM is a chemical element with symbol NA (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11. It is a soft, silvery-white, highly reactive metal . Sodium
Sodium
is an alkali metal , being in group 1 of the periodic table, because it has a single electron in its outer shell that it readily donates, creating a positively charged atom—the Na+ cation . Its only stable isotope is 23Na. The free metal does not occur in nature, but must be prepared from compounds. Sodium
Sodium
is the sixth most abundant element in the Earth\'s crust , and exists in numerous minerals such as feldspars , sodalite and rock salt (NaCl). Many salts of sodium are highly water-soluble: sodium ions have been leached by the action of water from the Earth\'s minerals over eons, and thus sodium and chlorine are the most common dissolved elements by weight in the oceans
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Thallium
THALLIUM is a chemical element with symbol TL and atomic number 81. This soft gray post-transition metal is not found free in nature. When isolated, thallium resembles tin , but discolors when exposed to air. Chemists William Crookes
William Crookes
and Claude-Auguste Lamy discovered thallium independently in 1861, in residues of sulfuric acid production. Both used the newly developed method of flame spectroscopy , in which thallium produces a notable green spectral line. Thallium, from Greek θαλλός, 'THALLóS\', meaning "a green shoot or twig," was named by Crookes. It was isolated by both Lamy and Crookes in 1862; Lamy by electrolysis and Crookes by precipitation and melting of the resultant powder. Crookes exhibited it as a powder precipitated by zinc at the International exhibition which opened on 1 May, that year. Thallium
Thallium
tends to oxidize to the +3 and +1 oxidation states as ionic salts
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Indium
INDIUM is a chemical element with symbol IN and atomic number 49. It is a post-transition metal that makes up 0.21 parts per million of the Earth's crust. Very soft and malleable, indium has a melting point higher than sodium and gallium , but lower than lithium and tin . Chemically, indium is similar to gallium and thallium , and it is largely intermediate between the two in terms of its properties. Indium
Indium
was discovered in 1863 by Ferdinand Reich and Hieronymous Theodor Richter by spectroscopic methods . They named it for the indigo blue line in its spectrum. Indium
Indium
was isolated the next year. Indium
Indium
is a minor component in zinc sulfide ores and is produced as a byproduct of zinc refinement
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