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Metacritic
METACRITIC is a website that aggregates reviews of media products: music albums, video games, films, TV shows, and formerly, books. For each product, the scores from each review are averaged (a weighted average ). Metacritic was created by Jason Dietz, Marc Doyle, and Julie Doyle Roberts in 1999. The site provides an excerpt from each review and hyperlinks to its source. A color of Green, Yellow or Red summarizes the critics' recommendations. It has been described as the video game industry 's "premier" review aggregator. Metacritic's scoring converts each review into a percentage, either mathematically from the mark given, or which the site decides subjectively from a qualitative review. Before being averaged, the scores are weighted according to the critic's fame, stature, and volume of reviews. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Metascores * 3 Video games * 3.1 Criticism * 4 Films * 5 Critic weights * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORY Metacritic was launched in July 1999 by Marc Doyle, his sister Julie Doyle Roberts, and a classmate from the University of Southern California law school, Jason Dietz. Rotten Tomatoes was already compiling movie reviews, but Doyle, Roberts, and Dietz saw an opportunity to cover a broader range of media. They sold Metacritic to CNET in 2005. CNET and Metacritic are now owned by the CBS Corporation
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Review Aggregator
A REVIEW AGGREGATOR is a system that collects reviews of products and services (such as films, books, video games, software, hardware and cars). This system stores the reviews and uses them for purposes such as supporting a website where users can view the reviews, selling information to third parties about consumer tendencies, and creating databases for companies to learn about their actual and potential customers. The system enables users to easily compare many different reviews of the same work. Many of these systems calculate an approximate average assessment, usually based on assigning a numeric value to each review related to its degree of positive rating of the work. Review aggregation sites have begun to have economic effects of the companies that create or manufacture items under review, especially in certain categories such as electronic games, which are expensive to purchase. Some companies have tied royalty payment rates and employee bonuses to aggregate scores, and stock prices have been seen to reflect ratings, as related to potential sales. Indeed, it is widely accepted in the literature that there is a strong correlation between sales and aggregated scores. Due to the influence reviews have over sales decisions, manufacturers are often interested in measuring these reviews for their own products. This is often done using a business-facing product review aggregator
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CBS Interactive
CBS INTERACTIVE INC. (formerly CBS DIGITAL MEDIA GROUP) is an American media company and is a division of the CBS Corporation . It is an online content network for information and entertainment. Its websites cover news , sports , entertainment , technology and business . It is headed by Jim Lanzone . CBS Interactive coordinates with CBS Network Sales to bring together ad sales operations, as well as the Corporation's television, sports, and news groups, who will continue to be involved in program development. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Brands * 2.1 Entertainment * 2.2 Video games * 2.3 Music * 2.4 News * 2.5 Sports * 2.6 Technology * 3 Former brands * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORYOn May 30, 2007, CBS Interactive acquired Last.fm for £140 million (US$280 million). On June 30, 2008, CNET Networks was acquired by CBS and the assets were merged into CBS Interactive, including Metacritic , GameSpot , TV.com , and Movietome
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Slogan
A SLOGAN is a memorable motto or phrase used in a clan , political , commercial , religious , and other context as a repetitive expression of an idea or purpose, with the goal of persuading members of the public or a more defined target group. The _Oxford Dictionary of English _ defines a slogan as "a short and striking or memorable phrase used in advertising." (Stevenson, 2010) A slogan usually has the attributes of being memorable, very concise and appealing to the audience. (Lim they were used primarily as passwords to ensure proper recognition of individuals at night or in the confusion of battle. LIKABILITYCrimmins' (2000, as cited in Dass, Kumar, Kohli, & Thomas, 2014) research suggests that brands are an extremely valuable corporate asset, and can make up a lot of a business's total value. With this in mind, if we take into consideration Keller's (1993, as cited in Dass, Kumar, Kohli, & Thomas, 2014) research, which suggests that a brand is made up of three different components. These include, name, logo and slogan. Brands names and logos both can be changed by the way the receiver interprets them. Therefore, the slogan has a large job in portraying the brand (Dass, Kumar, Kohli, & Thomas, 2014). Therefore, the slogan should create a sense of likability in order for the brand name to be likable and the slogan message very clear and concise
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Alexa Internet
ALEXA INTERNET, INC. is a California-based company that provides commercial web traffic data and analytics. It is a wholly owned subsidiary of Amazon.com . Founded as an independent company in 1996, Alexa was acquired by the company Amazon in 1999. Its toolbar collects data on browsing behavior and transmits them to the Alexa website, where they are stored and analyzed. This is the basis for the company's web traffic reporting. According to its website, Alexa provides traffic data, global rankings, and other information on 30 million websites. As of 2015, its website has been visited by over 6.5 million people monthly. As of June 2017, the number 1 Alexa Rank belongs to Google.com , its average daily time being 8.1 and average daily pageviews being 8.01. CONTENTS* 1 Operations and history * 1.1 1996–1999 * 1.2 2000–2009 * 2 Tracking * 2.1 Toolbar * 2.2 Certified statistics * 3 Privacy and malware assessments * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links OPERATIONS AND HISTORY1996–1999Alexa Internet was founded in April 1996 by American web entrepreneurs Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat . The company's name was chosen in homage to the Library of Alexandria of Ptolemaic Egypt , drawing a parallel between the largest repository of knowledge in the ancient world and the potential of the Internet to become a similar store of knowledge
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Oclc
OCLC, currently incorporated as OCLC
OCLC
ONLINE COMPUTER LIBRARY CENTER, INCORPORATED, is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the OHIO COLLEGE LIBRARY CENTER. OCLC
OCLC
and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat , the largest online public access catalog (OPAC) in the world. OCLC
OCLC
is funded mainly by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services (around $200 million annually as of 2016 ). CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Services * 3 Software * 4 Research * 5 Advocacy
Advocacy
* 6 Online database: WorldCat * 7 Identifiers and linked data * 8 Company acquisitions * 9 Criticism * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 Further reading * 13 External links HISTORY OCLC
OCLC
began in 1967, as the Ohio
Ohio
College Library Center, through a collaboration of Ohio
Ohio
university presidents, vice presidents, and library directors who wanted to create a cooperative, computerized network for Ohio
Ohio
libraries. The group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio
Ohio
State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization
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Aggregates Reviews
A REVIEW AGGREGATOR is a system that collects reviews of products and services (such as films, books, video games, software, hardware and cars). This system stores the reviews and uses them for purposes such as supporting a website where users can view the reviews, selling information to third parties about consumer tendencies, and creating databases for companies to learn about their actual and potential customers. The system enables users to easily compare many different reviews of the same work. Many of these systems calculate an approximate average assessment, usually based on assigning a numeric value to each review related to its degree of positive rating of the work. Review aggregation sites have begun to have economic effects of the companies that create or manufacture items under review, especially in certain categories such as electronic games, which are expensive to purchase. Some companies have tied royalty payment rates and employee bonuses to aggregate scores, and stock prices have been seen to reflect ratings, as related to potential sales. Indeed, it is widely accepted in the literature that there is a strong correlation between sales and aggregated scores. Due to the influence reviews have over sales decisions, manufacturers are often interested in measuring these reviews for their own products. This is often done using a business-facing product review aggregator
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Weighted Average
The WEIGHTED ARITHMETIC MEAN is similar to an ordinary arithmetic mean (the most common type of average ), except that instead of each of the data points contributing equally to the final average, some data points contribute more than others. The notion of weighted mean plays a role in descriptive statistics and also occurs in a more general form in several other areas of mathematics. If all the weights are equal, then the weighted mean is the same as the arithmetic mean . While weighted means generally behave in a similar fashion to arithmetic means, they do have a few counterintuitive properties, as captured for instance in Simpson\'s paradox
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Video Game Industry
The COMPUTER GAME INDUSTRY (sometimes referred to as the INTERACTIVE ENTERTAINMENT INDUSTRY ) is the economic sector involved in the development , marketing and monetizing of video games . It encompasses dozens of job disciplines and employs thousands of people worldwide. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Game industry value chain * 3 Disciplines * 4 History * 4.1 1940s–1960s * 4.2 1970s * 4.3 1980s * 4.4 1990s * 4.5 2000s * 4.6 2010s * 5 Economics
Economics
* 5.1 Retail * 6 Practices * 6.1 Breakaways * 6.2 Piracy * 6.3 Creative control * 6.4 Alternatives * 6.5 Gaming conventions * 7 International practices * 7.1 World trends * 7.2 Conventions * 7.3 Africa * 7.4 Canada * 7.5 China
China
* 7.6 Germany
Germany
* 7.7 Japan
Japan
* 7.8 United Kingdom
United Kingdom
* 7.9 United States * 7.9.1 History * 7.9.2 Companies * 7.9.3 Regions * 7.9.4 People * 7.9.5 Sports * 8 Trends * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links OVERVIEWThe computer and video game industry has grown from focused markets to mainstream. They took in about US$ 9.5 billion in the US in 2007, 11.7 billion in 2008, and 25.1 billion in 2010 (ESA annual report)
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University Of Southern California
The UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA (USC or SC) is a private research university located in Los Angeles , California . Founded in 1880, it is the oldest private research university in California. USC has historically educated a large number of the region's business leaders and professionals. In recent decades, the university has also leveraged its location in Los Angeles to establish relationships with research and cultural institutions throughout Asia and the Pacific Rim . An engine for economic activity, USC contributes $8 billion annually to the economy of the Los Angeles metropolitan area and California. For the 2014–15 academic year, there were 18,740 students enrolled in four-year undergraduate programs. USC also has 23,729 graduate and professional students in a number of different programs, including business, law, engineering, social work, and medicine. The university is one of the top fundraising institutions in the world, consistently ranking among the top 3 in external contributions and alumni giving rates. Multiple academic rankings list the University of Southern California as being among the top 25 universities in the United States. With an acceptance rate of 16 percent, USC is also among the most selective academic institutions in the nation
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Rotten Tomatoes
ROTTEN TOMATOES is an American review aggregator website for film and television. The company was launched in August 1998 by Senh Duong and since January 2010 has been owned by Flixster , which was, in turn, acquired in 2011 by Warner Bros
Warner Bros
. In February 2016, Rotten Tomatoes and its parent site Flixster were sold to Comcast
Comcast
's Fandango . Warner Bros. retained a minority stake in the merged entities, including Fandango. From 2007 to 2017, the website's editor-in-chief was Matt Atchity, who left in July 2017 to join _The Young Turks_ . The name "Rotten Tomatoes" derives from the practice of audiences throwing rotten tomatoes when disapproving of a poor stage performance. From early 2008 to September 2010, Current Television aired the weekly _ The Rotten Tomatoes Show _, featuring hosts and material from the website. A shorter segment was incorporated into the weekly show, _InfoMania_, which ended in 2011. In September 2013, the website introduced "TV Zone", a section for reviewing scripted TV shows
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CNET
CNET (stylized as CNET) is an American media website that publishes reviews, news, articles, blogs, podcasts and videos on technology and consumer electronics globally. Founded in 1994 by Halsey Minor and Shelby Bonnie, it was the flagship brand of CNET Networks and became a brand of CBS Interactive through CNET Networks' acquisition in 2008. CNET originally produced content for radio and television in addition to its website and now uses new media distribution methods through its Internet television network , CNET Video , and its podcast and blog networks. In addition CNET currently has region-specific and language-specific editions. These include the United Kingdom, Australia, China, Japan, French, German, Korean and Spanish
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CBS Corporation
CBS
CBS
CORPORATION is an American mass media corporation focused on commercial broadcasting , publishing , and television production , with most of its operations in the United States. The president, chief executive and executive chairman of the company is Leslie Moonves . Sumner Redstone , owner of National Amusements , controls CBS
CBS
by way of his majority ownership of the company's Class A voting stock; he also serves as chairman emeritus. The company began trading on the NYSE on January 3, 2006. Until then, the corporation was known as Viacom
Viacom
, and is the legal successor to said company. A new company, keeping the Viacom
Viacom
name, was spun off from CBS. CBS, not Viacom, retains control of over-the-air television ( CBS
CBS
, CW ) and radio broadcasting, TV production and distribution , publishing , pay-cable , basic cable (Pop ), and recording formerly owned by the larger company. CBS
CBS
has its headquarters in the CBS
CBS
Building (colloquially called "Black Rock"), Midtown , Manhattan
Manhattan
, New York City, United States
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The Wall Street Journal
_THE WALL STREET JOURNAL_ is an American business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City . The _Journal_, along with its Asian and European editions, is published six days a week by Dow Jones ">'s 1.7 million. The newspaper has won 40 Pulitzer Prizes through 2017 and derives its name from Wall Street
Wall Street
in the heart of the Financial District of Lower Manhattan
Lower Manhattan
. The _Journal_ has been printed continuously since its inception on July 8, 1889, by Charles Dow , Edward Jones , and Charles Bergstresser . The Journal also publishes the luxury news and lifestyle magazine _ WSJ. _
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The Guardian
_THE GUARDIAN_ is a British daily newspaper, known from 1821 until 1959 as _THE MANCHESTER GUARDIAN_. Along with its sister papers _The Observer _ and _ The Guardian Weekly _, _The Guardian_ is part of the _ Guardian Media Group _, owned by _The Scott Trust Limited _. The Trust was created in 1936 "to secure the financial and editorial independence of _The Guardian_ in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of _The Guardian_ free from commercial or political interference." _The Scott Trust_ became a limited company in 2008, with a constitution to maintain the same protections for _The Guardian_. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than to the benefit of an owner or shareholders. The paper's readership is generally on the mainstream left of British political opinion. The newspaper's reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing editorial has led to the use of the "_Guardian_ reader" and "Guardianista" as often (but not always) pejorative epithets for those of left-leaning, earnest or politically correct tendencies. _The Guardian_ is edited by Katharine Viner , who succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. In 2016, _The Guardian_'s print edition had an average daily circulation of roughly 162,000 copies in the country, behind _ The Daily Telegraph _ and _ The Times _
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GameRankings
GAMERANKINGS is a website that collects review scores from both offline and online sources to give an average rating. It indexes over 315,000 articles relating to more than 14,500 video games . GameRankings
GameRankings
is owned by CBS Interactive . Similar websites include GameStats
GameStats
, Metacritic (also owned by CBS Interactive), MobyGames
MobyGames
, and TopTenReviews . CONTENTS* 1 Rankings * 1.1 Site Inclusion Rules * 2 Game ranking * 3 References * 4 External links RANKINGS GameRankings
GameRankings
collects and links to (but does not host) reviews from other websites and magazines and averages specific ones. While hundreds of reviews may get listed, only the ones that GameRankings deems notable are used for the average. Scores are culled from numerous American and European sources. The site uses a percentage grade for all reviews in order to be able to calculate an average. However, because not all sites use the same scoring system (some rate out of 5 or 10, while others use a letter grade), GameRankings
GameRankings
changes all other types of scores into percentages using a relatively straightforward conversion process. When a game has accumulated 6 total reviews, it is given a ranking compared to all other games in the database and a ranking compared to games on its console
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