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Mesopotamian Arabic
MESOPOTAMIAN ARABIC is a continuum of mutually-intelligible varieties of Arabic
Arabic
native to the Mesopotamian basin of Iraq
Iraq
as well as spanning into Syria
Syria
, Iran
Iran
, southeastern Turkey
Turkey
, and spoken in Iraqi diaspora communities. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Phonology * 2.1 Vowels * 2.2 Consonants * 3 Varieties * 4 Distribution * 5 References HISTORYAramaic was the lingua franca in Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
from the early 1st millennium BCE until the late 1st millennium CE, and as may be expected, Iraqi Arabic
Arabic
shows signs of an Aramaic substrate . The Gelet and the Judeo-Iraqi varieties have retained features of Babylonian Aramaic
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Pharyngeal Consonant
A PHARYNGEAL CONSONANT is a consonant that is articulated primarily in the pharynx . Some phoneticians distinguish upper pharyngeal consonants, or "high" pharyngeals, pronounced by retracting the root of the tongue in the mid to upper pharynx, from (ary)epiglottal consonants, or "low" pharyngeals, which are articulated with the aryepiglottic folds against the epiglottis in the lower larynx, as well as from epiglotto-pharyngeal consonants, with both movements being combined. Stops and trills can be reliably produced only at the epiglottis, and fricatives can be reliably produced only in the upper pharynx. When they are treated as distinct places of articulation, the term radical consonant may be used as a cover term, or the term guttural consonants may be used instead. In many languages, pharyngeal consonants trigger advancement of neighboring vowels. Pharyngeals thus differ from uvulars , which nearly always trigger retraction
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Pharyngealization
PHARYNGEALIZATION is a secondary articulation of consonants or vowels by which the pharynx or epiglottis is constricted during the articulation of the sound. CONTENTS * 1 IPA symbols * 2 Usage * 2.1 Examples of pharyngealized consonants * 2.1.1 Stops * 2.1.2 Fricatives * 2.1.3 Nasals * 2.1.4 Approximants * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 Further reading IPA SYMBOLSIn the International Phonetic Alphabet , pharyngealization can be indicated by one of two methods: * A tilde or swung dash through the letter indicates velarization , uvularization or pharyngealization, as in , the pharyngealized equivalent of . * The symbol ⟨ˤ⟩ or ⟨ˁ⟩ (a superscript voiced pharyngeal approximant , or reversed glottal stop ) after the letter standing for the pharyngealized consonant, as in or (the pharyngealized equivalent of ).Both are easily confused in print: they look almost identical and are coded as superscript variants of ⟨ʕ⟩
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Emphatic Consonant
In Semitic linguistics , an EMPHATIC CONSONANT is an obstruent consonant which originally contrasted with series of both voiced and voiceless obstruents . In specific Semitic languages
Semitic languages
, the members of this series may be realized as uvularized or pharyngealized , velarized , ejective , or plain voiced or voiceless consonants . It is also used, to a lesser extent, to describe cognate series in other Afro-Asiatic languages , where they are typically realized as either ejective or implosive consonants . In Semitic studies , they are commonly transcribed using the convention of placing a dot under the closest plain obstruent consonant in the Latin alphabet . With respect to particular Semitic and Afro-Asiatic languages , this term describes the particular phonetic feature which distinguishes these consonants from other consonants
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Coronal Consonant
CORONAL CONSONANTS are consonants articulated with the flexible front part of the tongue . Only the coronal consonants can be divided into apical (using the tip of the tongue), laminal (using the blade of the tongue), domed (with the tongue bunched up), or subapical (using the underside of the tongue) as well as a few rarer orientations, such as postalveolar , as only the front of the tongue has such dexterity. Coronals have another dimension, grooved , to make sibilants in combination with the orientations above
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Uvular Consonant
UVULARS are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula , that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants . Uvulars may be stops , fricatives , nasals , trills , or approximants , though the IPA does not provide a separate symbol for the approximant, and the symbol for the voiced fricative is used instead. Uvular affricates can certainly be made but are rare: they occur in some southern High-German dialects, as well as in a few African and Native American languages. (Ejective uvular affricates occur as realizations of uvular stops in Lillooet , Kazakh and Georgian .) Uvular consonants are typically incompatible with advanced tongue root , and they often cause retraction of neighboring vowels
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Turkish Language
Turkey (official), Northern Cyprus (official), Cyprus (official), Bulgaria , Macedonia , Greece , Iraq ,
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Iraq
Coordinates : 33°N 44°E / 33°N 44°E / 33; 44 Republic of Iraq * جمهورية العـراق ( Arabic ) * كۆماريى عێراق (Kurdish ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: الله أكبر ( Arabic ) "Allahu Akbar " (transliteration ) "God is the Greatest" ANTHEM: "_ Mawtini _" "موطني" "My Homeland" Capital and largest city
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Lingua Franca
A _LINGUA FRANCA_ (/ˌlɪŋɡwə ˈfræŋkə/ ), also known as a BRIDGE LANGUAGE, COMMON LANGUAGE, TRADE LANGUAGE or VEHICULAR LANGUAGE, is a language or dialect systematically (as opposed to occasionally, or casually) used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages. _Lingua francas_ have developed around the world throughout human history, sometimes for commercial reasons (so-called "trade languages") but also for cultural, religious, diplomatic and administrative convenience, and as a means of exchanging information between scientists and other scholars of different nationalities. The term originates with one such language, Mediterranean Lingua Franca
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Lexicon
A LEXICON is the vocabulary of a person, language , or branch of knowledge (such as nautical or medical ). In linguistics , a LEXICON is a language's inventory of lexemes . The word "lexicon" derives from the Greek λεξικόν (_lexicon_), neuter of λεξικός (_lexikos_) meaning "of or for words." Linguistic theories generally regard human languages as consisting of two parts: a lexicon, essentially a catalogue of a language's words (its wordstock); and a grammar , a system of rules which allow for the combination of those words into meaningful sentences. The lexicon is also thought to include bound morphemes , which cannot stand alone as words (such as most affixes ). In some analyses, compound words and certain classes of idiomatic expressions and other collocations are also considered to be part of the lexicon. Dictionaries represent attempts at listing, in alphabetical order, the lexicon of a given language; usually, however, bound morphemes are not included
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Persian Language
PERSIAN (/ˈpɜːrʒən/ or /ˈpɜːrʃən/ ), also known by its endonym FARSI (فارسی _fārsi_ ( listen )), is one of the Western Iranian languageswithin the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family . It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan(officially known as DARI since 1958), and Tajikistan (officially known as TAJIKI since the Soviet era), and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script. The Persian languageis classified as a continuation of Middle Persian , the official religious and literary language of the Sasanian Empire , itself a continuation of Old Persian, the language of the Achaemenid Empire. Its grammar is similar to that of many contemporary European languages
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Assimilation (linguistics)
In phonology , ASSIMILATION is a common phonological process by which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound. This can occur either within a word or between words. It occurs in normal speech, and it becomes more common in more rapid speech. In rapid speech, for example, "handbag" is often pronounced /ˈhæmbæɡ/ . The pronunciations /ˈhænˌbæɡ/ or /ˈhændˌbæɡ/ are however common in normal speech whereas the word "cupboard", for example, is always pronounced /ˈkʌbərd/, never /ˈkʌpˌbɔrd/, and even in slow, highly articulated speech. As in these examples, sound segments typically assimilate to a following sound (this is called regressive or anticipatory assimilation), but they may also assimilate to a preceding one (progressive assimilation). While assimilation most commonly occurs between immediately adjacent sounds, it may occur between sounds separated by others ("assimilation at a distance")
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Pe (Persian Letter)
ا
ا
ب
ب
پ ت
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Velar Consonant
VELARS are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum ) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the VELUM ). Since the velar region of the roof of the mouth is relatively extensive and the movements of the dorsum are not very precise, velars easily undergo assimilation , shifting their articulation back or to the front depending on the quality of adjacent vowels. They often become automatically _fronted_, that is partly or completely palatal before a following front vowel, and _retracted_, that is partly or completely uvular before back vowels. Palatalised velars (like English /k/ in _keen_ or _cube_) are sometimes referred to as PALATOVELARS. Many languages also have labialized velars, such as , in which the articulation is accompanied by rounding of the lips
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Glottal Consonant
GLOTTAL CONSONANTS are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation. Many phoneticians consider them, or at least the glottal fricative, to be transitional states of the glottis without a point of articulation as other consonants have, while some do not consider them to be consonants at all. However, glottal consonants behave as typical consonants in many languages. For example, in Literary Arabic , most words are formed from a root C-C-C consisting of three consonants, which are inserted into templates such as /CaːCiC/ or /maCCuːC/. The glottal consonants /h/ and /ʔ/ can occupy any of the three root consonant slots, just like "normal" consonants such as /k/ or /n/
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Nasal Stop
In phonetics , a NASAL, also called a NASAL OCCLUSIVE, NASAL STOP in contrast with a nasal fricative , or NASAL CONTINUANT, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum , allowing air to escape freely through the nose. Examples of nasals in English are and , in words such as nose and mouth. Nasal occlusives are nearly universal in human languages. There are also other kinds of NASAL CONS