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Mesopotamian Arabic
MESOPOTAMIAN ARABIC is a continuum of mutually-intelligible varieties of Arabic
Arabic
native to the Mesopotamian basin of Iraq
Iraq
as well as spanning into Syria
Syria
, Iran
Iran
, southeastern Turkey
Turkey
, and spoken in Iraqi diaspora communities. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Phonology * 2.1 Vowels * 2.2 Consonants * 3 Varieties * 4 Distribution * 5 References HISTORYAramaic was the lingua franca in Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
from the early 1st millennium BCE until the late 1st millennium CE, and as may be expected, Iraqi Arabic
Arabic
shows signs of an Aramaic substrate . The Gelet and the Judeo-Iraqi varieties have retained features of Babylonian Aramaic . Due to Iraq
Iraq
's inherent multiculturalism as well as history, Iraqi Arabic
Arabic
in turn bears extensive borrowings in its lexicon from Aramaic, Akkadian , Persian and Turkish . PHONOLOGYVOWELSCONSONANTSEven in the most formal of conventions, pronunciation depends upon a speaker's background. Nevertheless, the number and phonetic character of most of the 28 consonants has a broad degree of regularity among Arabic-speaking regions. Note that Arabic
Arabic
is particularly rich in uvular , pharyngeal , and pharyngealized ("emphatic ") sounds
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Iraq
Coordinates : 33°N 44°E / 33°N 44°E / 33; 44 Republic of Iraq * جمهورية العـراق ( Arabic ) * كۆماريى عێراق (Kurdish ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: الله أكبر ( Arabic ) "Allahu Akbar " (transliteration ) "God is the Greatest" ANTHEM: "_ Mawtini _" "موطني" "My Homeland" Capital and largest city Baghdad 33°20′N 44°26′E / 33.333°N 44.433°E / 33.333; 44.433 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES * Arabic * Kurdish RELIGION Islam


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Syria
Coordinates : 35°N 38°E / 35°N 38°E / 35; 38 Syrian Arab Republic الجمهورية العربية السورية (Arabic ) _al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-Sūrīyah_ Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: "حماة الديار" (Arabic ) Humat ad-Diyar _Guardians of the Homeland_ Capital and largest city Damascus 33°30′N 36°18′E / 33.500°N 36.300°E / 33.500; 36.300 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES Arabic ETHNIC GROUPS * Syrian people * Arameans * Kurds * Turkomans * Assyrians *
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Iran
IRAN (/ɪˈrɑːn/ (_ listen ), also /ɪˈræn/ ; Persian : ایران‎‎ Irān_ (_ listen )), also known as PERSIA (/ˈpɜːrʒə/ ), officially the ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAN (Persian : جمهوری اسلامی ایران‎‎ Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān_ (_ listen )), is a sovereign state in Western Asia . It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia , the de facto_ independent Nagorno-Karabakh Republic , the Republic of Azerbaijan , and the exclave of Nakhchivan ; to the north by the Caspian Sea ; to the northeast by Turkmenistan ; to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan ; to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman ; and to the west by Turkey and Iraq . With over 79.92 million inhabitants (as of March 2017 ), Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country . Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 18th-largest in the world . It is the only country with both a Caspian Sea and an Indian Ocean coastline. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz , give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center
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Turkey
Coordinates : 39°N 35°E / 39°N 35°E / 39; 35 Republic of Turkey _Türkiye Cumhuriyeti_ (Turkish ) Flag National emblem ANTHEM: * " İstiklâl Marşı " * "The Independence March" * CAPITAL Ankara
Ankara
39°55′N 32°50′E / 39.917°N 32.833°E / 39.917; 32.833 LARGEST CITY Istanbul
Istanbul
41°1′N 28°57′E / 41.017°N 28.950°E / 41.017; 28.950 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES Turkish DEMONYM * Turkish GOVERNMENT Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic • PRESI
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Cyprus
CYPRUS (/ˈsaɪprəs/ (_ listen ); Greek : Κύπρος, translit. Kýpros_ IPA: ; Turkish : _Kıbrıs_ IPA: ), officially the REPUBLIC OF CYPRUS (Greek: Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία, translit. _Kypriakí Demokratía_; Turkish: _Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti_), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean . It is located south of Turkey
Turkey
, west of Syria
Syria
and Lebanon
Lebanon
, northwest of Israel
Israel
, north of Egypt
Egypt
, and southeast of Greece
Greece
. The earliest known human activity on the island dates to around the 10th millennium BC. Archaeological remains from this period include the well-preserved Neolithic
Neolithic
village of Khirokitia , and Cyprus
Cyprus
is home to some of the oldest water wells in the world. Cyprus
Cyprus
was settled by Mycenaean Greeks in two waves in the 2nd millennium BC. As a strategic location in the Middle East, it was subsequently occupied by several major powers , including the empires of the Assyrians , Egyptians and Persians , from whom the island was seized in 333 BC by Alexander the Great
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Mesopotamia
MESOPOTAMIA (/ˌmɛsəpəˈteɪmiə/ , Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Μεσοποταμία " between rivers"; Arabic
Arabic
: بلاد الرافدين‎‎ _bilād ar-rāfidayn_; Kurdish : میزۆپۆتامیا‎; Persian : میان‌رودان‎‎ _miyān rudān_; Syriac : ܒܝܬ ܢܗܪܝܢ‎ _ Beth Nahrain _ "land of rivers") was a historical region situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system , in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq
Iraq
plus Kuwait
Kuwait
, the eastern parts of Syria
Syria
, Southeastern Turkey
Turkey
, and regions along the Turkish-Syrian and Iran– Iraq
Iraq
borders . The Sumerians and Akkadians (including Assyrians and Babylonians) dominated Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
from the beginning of written history (c. 3100 BC) to the fall of Babylon
Babylon
in 539 BC, when it was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
. It fell to Alexander the Great in 332 BC, and after his death, it became part of the Greek Seleucid Empire . Around 150 BC, Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
was under the control of the Parthian Empire
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Armenian Highlands
The ARMENIAN HIGHLANDS (Armenian : Հայկական լեռնաշխարհ, translit. _Haykakan leṙnašxarh_; also known as the ARMENIAN UPLAND, ARMENIAN PLATEAU, ARMENIAN TABLELAND, or simply ARMENIA) is the central-most and highest of three land-locked plateaus that together form the northern sector of the Middle East . To its west is the Anatolian plateau which rises slowly from the lowland coast of the Aegean Sea and converges with the Armenian Highlands to the east of Cappadocia . To its southeast is the Iranian plateau , where the elevation drops rapidly by about 600 metres (2,000 ft) to 1,500 metres (5,000 ft) above sea level. The Caucasus extends to the northeast of the Armenian Highlands. To the southwest of the Armenian Highlands is Upper Mesopotamia . During Antiquity , it was known as ARMENIA MAJOR, a central region to the history of Armenians , and one of the four geo-political regions associated with Armenians , the other three being Armenia Minor , Cilicia and Commagene . During the Middle Ages , Turkmens settled in large numbers in the Armenian Highlands. The region was historically mainly inhabited by Armenians, and minorities of Georgians and Assyrians
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Cilicia
In antiquity, CILICIA (/sɪˈlɪʃiə/ ) was the south coastal region of Asia Minor and existed as a political entity from Hittite times into the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia during the late Byzantine Empire . Extending inland from the southeastern coast of modern Turkey , Cilicia is due north and northeast of the island of Cyprus and corresponds to the modern region of Çukurova in Turkey. CONTENTS * 1 Geography and etymology * 2 History * 2.1 Early history * 2.2 Persian Empire-Achaemenid satrapy * 2.3 Alexander the Great * 2.4 Roman Cilicia * 2.5 Armenian Kingdom * 2.6 Anatolian beyliks * 2.7 Ottoman Empire * 2.8 Republic of Turkey * 3 Mythological namesake * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links GEOGRAPHY AND ETYMOLOGY Cilicia extended along the Mediterranean coast east from Pamphylia , to the Nur Mountains , which separated it from Syria . North and east of Cilicia lie the rugged Taurus Mountains that separate it from the high central plateau of Anatolia, which are pierced by a narrow gorge, called in antiquity the Cilician Gates . Ancient Cilicia was naturally divided into CILICIA TRACHAEA and CILICIA PEDIAS by the Limonlu River
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Language Family
A LANGUAGE FAMILY is a group of languages related through descent from a common _ancestral language_ or _parental language_, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics , which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree , or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy . Linguists therefore describe the _daughter languages_ within a language family as being _genetically related_. Estimates of the number of living languages vary from 5,000 to 8,000, depending on the precision of one's definition of "language", and in particular on how one classifies dialects . The 2013 edition of Ethnologue catalogs just over 7,000 living human languages. A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people. There are also many dead and extinct languages, as well as some that are still insufficiently studied to be classified, or are even unknown outside their respective speech communities. Membership of languages in a language family is established by comparative linguistics . Sister languages are said to have a "genetic" or "genealogical" relationship. The latter term is older
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Afroasiatic Languages
AFROASIATIC (AFRO-ASIATIC), also known as AFRASIAN and traditionally as HAMITO-SEMITIC (CHAMITO-SEMITIC), is a large language family of several hundred related languages and dialects. It comprises about 300 or so living languages and dialects, according to the 2009 Ethnologue estimate. It includes languages spoken predominantly in West Asia , North Africa
North Africa
, the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
, and parts of the Sahel
Sahel
. Afroasiatic languages
Afroasiatic languages
have over 350 million native speakers, the fourth largest number of any language family (after Indo-European , Sino-Tibetan and Niger–Congo ). The phylum has six branches: Berber , Chadic , Cushitic , Egyptian , Omotic and Semitic . By far the most widely spoken Afroasiatic language is Arabic
Arabic
. It is also the most widely spoken language within the Semitic branch, and includes Modern Standard Arabic
Arabic
and spoken colloquial varieties . Arabic
Arabic
has around 290 million native speakers, who are concentrated primarily in West Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, and Malta
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Semitic Languages
The SEMITIC LANGUAGES are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East
Middle East
. Semitic languages
Semitic languages
are spoken by more than 330 million people across much of Western Asia
Western Asia
, North Africa and the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
, as well as in often large expatriate communities in North America
North America
and Europe
Europe
, with smaller communities in the Caucasus
Caucasus
and Central Asia
Central Asia
. The terminology was first used in the 1780s by members of the Göttingen School of History , who derived the name from Shem , one of the three sons of Noah in the Book of Genesis . The most widely spoken Semitic languages
Semitic languages
today are (numbers given are for native speakers only) Arabic
Arabic
(300 million), Amharic (22 million), Tigrinya (7 million), Hebrew
Hebrew
(unknown; 5 million native and non-native L1 speakers), Aramaic (575,000 to 1 million largely Assyrian fluent speakers) and Maltese (520,000 speakers)
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Central Semitic Languages
The CENTRAL SEMITIC LANGUAGES are a proposed intermediate group of Semitic languages
Semitic languages
, comprising the Late Iron Age, modern dialect of Arabic (prior to which Arabic was a Southern Semitic language), and older Bronze Age Northwest Semitic languages
Semitic languages
(which include Aramaic , Ugaritic , and the Canaanite languages of Hebrew and Phoenician ). In this reckoning, Central Semitic itself is one of three divisions of Semitic along with East Semitic ( Akkadian
Akkadian
and Eblaite ) and South Semitic (South Arabian and the Ethiopian Semitic languages
Semitic languages
)
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Arabic Languages
The ARABIC language family consists of all of the descendants of Proto-Arabic , including: * Old Arabic
Old Arabic
, the language of northwestern Arabia in the pre-Islamic period and its varieties: * Northern Old Arabic
Old Arabic
(including Safaitic and Hismaic) * Old Hejazi * Classical Arabic , the liturgical language of Islam which emerged in the 7th century AD,* Neo-Arabic, the descendants of spoken Old Arabic, including: * Maltese * Colloquial Arabic * Western Arabic * Eastern Arabic * Modern Standard Arabic , the standardized variety of Arabic used since the 19th century and modernized version of the liturgical language of IslamNOTES * ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Arabian". Glottolog 2.7 . Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. LITERATURE * Cantineau, Jean (1955). "La dialectologie arabe", Orbis 4:149–169. * Fischer, Wolfdietrich, & Otto Jastrow (ed) (1980). Handbuch der arabischen Dialekte, Wiesbaden: Harrasowitz. * Kaye, Alan S., & Judith Rosenhouse (1997). "Arabic Dialects and Maltese", The Semitic Languages. Ed. Robert Hetzron. New York: Routledge. Pages 263–311. * Lozachmeur, H., (ed.), (1995)
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Baghdad Arabic
BAGHDAD ARABIC or the BAGHDADI ARABIC is the Arabic dialect spoken in Baghdad
Baghdad
, the capital of Iraq
Iraq
. During the last century, Baghdad Arabic has become the lingua franca of Iraq, and the language of commerce and education. It is a subvariety of Mesopotamian Arabic . An interesting sociolinguistic feature of Baghdadi Arabic is the existence of three distinct dialects: Muslim, Jewish and Christian Baghdadi Arabic. Muslim Baghdadi belongs to a group called gilit dialects, while Jewish Baghdadi (as well as Christian Baghdadi) belongs to qeltu dialects. Baghdadi gilit Arabic, which is considered the standard Baghdadi Arabic, shares many features with varieties spoken in some parts of eastern Syria
Syria
. Gilit Arabic is of Bedouin
Bedouin
provenance, unlike Christian and Jewish Baghdadi, which is believed to be descendant of Medieval Iraqi Arabic . Until the 1950s Baghdad
Baghdad
Arabic contained a large inventory of borrowings from English , Turkish , Persian or Kurdish language
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Khuzestani Arabic
KHUZESTANI ARABIC is a dialect of Gelet (Southern) Mesopotamian Arabic spoken by the Iranian Arabs in Khuzestan Province of Iran
Iran
. It has had a long history of contact with Persian , leading to several changes. The main changes are in word order , noun–noun and noun–adjective attribution constructions, definiteness marking, complement clauses , and discourse markers and connectors. Khuzestani Arabic is only used in informal situations. It is not taught in school, not even as an optional course, although Modern Standard Arabic is taught. CONTENTS* 1 Phonology * 1.1 Vowels * 1.2 Consonants * 2 References * 3 Further reading PHONOLOGYVOWELSCONSONANTSEven in the most formal of conventions, pronunciation depends upon a speaker's background. Nevertheless, the number and phonetic character of most of the 28 consonants has a broad degree of regularity among Arabic-speaking regions. Note that Arabic is particularly rich in uvular , pharyngeal , and pharyngealized ("emphatic ") sounds. The emphatic coronals (/sˤ/, /dˤ/, /tˤ/, and /ðˤ/) cause assimilation of emphasis to adjacent non-emphatic coronal consonants
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