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Mesopotamian Arabic
MESOPOTAMIAN ARABIC is a continuum of mutually-intelligible varieties of Arabic
Arabic
native to the Mesopotamian basin of Iraq
Iraq
as well as spanning into Syria
Syria
, Iran
Iran
, southeastern Turkey
Turkey
, and spoken in Iraqi diaspora communities. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Phonology * 2.1 Vowels * 2.2 Consonants * 3 Varieties * 4 Distribution * 5 References HISTORYAramaic was the lingua franca in Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
from the early 1st millennium BCE until the late 1st millennium CE, and as may be expected, Iraqi Arabic
Arabic
shows signs of an Aramaic substrate . The Gelet and the Judeo-Iraqi varieties have retained features of Babylonian Aramaic
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Lingua Franca
A LINGUA FRANCA (/ˌlɪŋɡwə ˈfræŋkə/ ), also known as a BRIDGE LANGUAGE, COMMON LANGUAGE, TRADE LANGUAGE or VEHICULAR LANGUAGE, is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages. Lingua francas have developed around the world throughout human history, sometimes for commercial reasons (so-called "trade languages") but also for cultural, religious, diplomatic and administrative convenience, and as a means of exchanging information between scientists and other scholars of different nationalities. The term originates with one such language, Mediterranean Lingua Franca
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Labial Consonant
LABIAL CONSONANTS are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator . The two common labial articulations are bilabials , articulated using both lips, and labiodentals , articulated with the lower lip against the upper teeth, both of which are present in English . A third labial articulation is dentolabials , articulated with the upper lip against the lower teeth (the reverse of labiodental), normally only found in pathological speech. Generally precluded are linguolabials , in which the tip of the tongue contacts the posterior side of the upper lip, making them coronals , though sometimes, they behave as labial consonants. The most common distribution between bilabials and labiodentals is the English one, in which the stops , , , and , are bilabial and the fricatives , , and , are labiodental. Bilabial fricatives and the bilabial approximant do not exist in English , but they occur in many languages
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Lexicon
A LEXICON is the vocabulary of a person, language , or branch of knowledge (such as nautical or medical ). In linguistics , a LEXICON is a language's inventory of lexemes . The word "lexicon" derives from the Greek λεξικόν (lexicon), neuter of λεξικός (lexikos) meaning "of or for words." Linguistic theories generally regard human languages as consisting of two parts: a lexicon, essentially a catalogue of a language's words (its wordstock); and a grammar , a system of rules which allow for the combination of those words into meaningful sentences. The lexicon is also thought to include bound morphemes , which cannot stand alone as words (such as most affixes ). In some analyses, compound words and certain classes of idiomatic expressions and other collocations are also considered to be part of the lexicon. Dictionaries represent attempts at listing, in alphabetical order, the lexicon of a given language; usually, however, bound morphemes are not included
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Iraq
Coordinates : 33°N 44°E / 33°N 44°E / 33; 44 Republic
Republic
of Iraq * جمهورية العراق ( Arabic
Arabic
) * کۆماری عێراق (Kurdish ) Flag Coat of arms
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Iraqi Diaspora
The IRAQI DIASPORA refers to native Iraqis who have left for other countries as emigrants or refugees , and is now one of the largest in modern times, being described by the UN as a "humanitarian crisis" caused by the 2003 invasion of Iraq and by the ensuing war
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Replacement Character
SPECIALS is a short Unicode
Unicode
block allocated at the very end of the Basic Multilingual Plane
Basic Multilingual Plane
, at U+FFF0–FFFF. Of these 16 code points, five are assigned as of Unicode
Unicode
10.0: * U+FFF9 INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION ANCHOR, marks start of annotated text * U+FFFA INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION SEPARATOR, marks start of annotating character(s) * U+FFFB INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION TERMINATOR, marks end of annotation block * U+FFFC  OBJECT REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, placeholder in the text for another unspecified object, for example in a compound document . * U+FFFD � REPLACEMENT CHARACTER used to replace an unknown, unrecognized or unrepresentable character * U+FFFE not a character. * U+FFFF not a character.FFFE and FFFF are not unassigned in the usual sense, but guaranteed not to be a Unicode
Unicode
character at all
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Unicode
UNICODE is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding , representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems . The latest version contains a repertoire of 136,755 characters covering 139 modern and historic scripts , as well as multiple symbol sets. The Unicode
Unicode
Standard is maintained in conjunction with ISO/IEC 10646 , and both are code-for-code identical. The Unicode
Unicode
Standard consists of a set of code charts for visual reference, an encoding method and set of standard character encodings , a set of reference data files , and a number of related items, such as character properties, rules for normalization , decomposition, collation , rendering, and bidirectional display order (for the correct display of text containing both right-to-left scripts, such as Arabic and Hebrew , and left-to-right scripts)
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Dental Consonant
A DENTAL CONSONANT is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as /t/, /d/, /n/, and /l/ in some languages. Dentals are usually distinguished from sounds in which contact is made with the tongue and the gum ridge, as in English (see alveolar consonant ) because of the acoustic similarity of the sounds and the fact that in the Roman alphabet , they are generally written using the same symbols (like t, d, n). In the International Phonetic Alphabet , the diacritic for dental consonant is U+ 032A ◌̪ COMBINING BRIDGE BELOW. CONTENTS * 1 Cross-linguistically * 2 Occurrence * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Sources CROSS-LINGUISTICALLYFor many languages, such as Albanian , Irish and Russian , velarization is generally associated with more dental articulations of coronal consonants
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Persian Language
PERSIAN (/ˈpɜːrʒən/ or /ˈpɜːrʃən/ ), also known by its endonym FARSI (فارسی fārsi ( listen )), is one of the Western Iranian languages
Iranian languages
within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family . It is primarily spoken in Iran
Iran
, Afghanistan (officially known as Dari since 1958), and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(officially known as Tajiki since the Soviet era), and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran
Iran
. It is written in the Persian alphabet , a modified variant of the Arabic script
Arabic script

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Turkish Language
Turkey
Turkey
(official), Northern Cyprus
Northern Cyprus
(official), Cyprus
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Assimilation (linguistics)
In phonology , ASSIMILATION is a common phonological process by which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound. This can occur either within a word or between words. In rapid speech, for example, "handbag" is often pronounced . As in this example, sound segments typically assimilate to a following sound (this is called regressive or anticipatory assimilation), but they may also assimilate to a preceding one (progressive assimilation). While assimilation most commonly occurs between immediately adjacent sounds, it may occur between sounds separated by others ("assimilation at a distance"). Assimilation can be synchronic —that is, an active process in a language at a given point in time—or diachronic —that is, a historical sound change
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Pe (Persian Letter)
ا ب پ ت ث ج چ ح خ د ذ ر ز ژ س ش ص ض ط ظ ع غ ف ق ک گ ل م ن و ه ی ------------------------- Perso-Arabic script * Transliteration * Diacritics * Hamza * Numerals * Numeration * v * t * e PE (پ) is a letter in the Perso-Arabic alphabet used for . It is used in Persian and Kurdish and other Iranian languages , Uyghur , Urdu , Pashto language , Sindhi , Kashmiri , Shina language , and Turkic languages (before adoption of Latin/Cyrillic script) but not in Arabic , where it is usually substituted by the letter bāʼ (ب). But it is sometimes used in some Arabic dialects for the transliteration of foreign words or to write scientific words such as protein (بروتين or پروتين)
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Ve (Arabic Letter)
VE or Vāʼ (ڤ‬) is a letter of the Arabic-based Sorani , Comoro , Wakhi , Malay Arabic , Karakhanid alphabets derived from the Arabic letter fāʾ (ﻑ) with two additional dots . It represents the sound /v / for all alphabets, except for Malay. It is sometimes used in Arabic language to write names and loanwords with the phoneme /v /, such as ڤولڤو (Volvo ) and ڤيينا viyenna (Vienna ). It is also frequently used in Palestine for transcribing names that have a /v/ sound into Arabic, which is one of Israel's official languages, on signs and labels. In Jawi script , used for Malay language, ڤ‬ stands for /p /. The character is mapped in Unicode under position U+06A8
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Coronal Consonant
CORONAL CONSONANTS are consonants articulated with the flexible front part of the tongue . Only the coronal consonants can be divided into apical (using the tip of the tongue), laminal (using the blade of the tongue), domed (with the tongue bunched up), or subapical (using the underside of the tongue) as well as a few rarer orientations, such as postalveolar , as only the front of the tongue has such dexterity. Coronals have another dimension, grooved , to make sibilants in combination with the orientations above
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Emphatic Consonant
In Semitic linguistics , an EMPHATIC CONSONANT is an obstruent consonant which originally contrasted with series of both voiced and voiceless obstruents . In specific Semitic languages , the members of this series may be realized as uvularized or pharyngealized , velarized , ejective , or plain voiced or voiceless consonants . It is also used, to a lesser extent, to describe cognate series in other Afro-Asiatic languages , where they are typically realized as either ejective or implosive consonants . In Semitic studies , they are commonly transcribed using the convention of placing a dot under the closest plain obstruent consonant in the Latin alphabet . With respect to particular Semitic and Afro-Asiatic languages , this term describes the particular phonetic feature which distinguishes these consonants from other consonants
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