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Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
is a historical region of Western Asia
Western Asia
situated within the Tigris– Euphrates
Euphrates
river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran– Iraq
Iraq
borders.[1] The Sumerians and Akkadians
Akkadians
(including Assyrians and Babylonians) dominated Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
from the beginning of written history (c. 3100 BC) to the fall of Babylon
Babylon
in 539 BC, when it was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire
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Ancient Greek Language
The Ancient Greek language
Greek language
includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BCE), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BCE), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(Koine Greek, 3rd century BCE to the 4th century CE). It is antedated in the second millennium BCE by Mycenaean Greek
Mycenaean Greek
and succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek
Attic Greek
and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
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Mathematics
Mathematics
Mathematics
(from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity,[1] structure,[2] space,[1] and change.[3][4][5] It has no generally accepted definition.[6][7] Mathematicians seek out patterns[8][9] and use them to formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof. When mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena, then mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logic, mathematics developed from counting, calculation, measurement, and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects. Practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back as written records exist
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Cursive
Cursive
Cursive
(also known as script, longhand or joined-up writing, among other names[note 1]) is any style of penmanship in which some characters are written joined together in a flowing manner, generally for the purpose of making writing faster. Formal cursive is generally joined, but casual cursive is a combination of joins and pen lifts. The writing style can be further divided as "looped", "italic" or "connected". The cursive method is used with a number of alphabets due to its improved writing speed and infrequent pen lifting
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Crop
A crop is a plant or animal product that can be grown and harvested extensively for profit or subsistence.[1] Crop
Crop
may refer either to the harvested parts or to the harvest in a more refined state (husked, shelled, etc.). Most crops are cultivated in agriculture or aquaculture. A crop is usually expanded to include macroscopic fungus (e.g. mushrooms), or alga (algaculture). Most crops are harvested as food for humans or livestock (fodder crops). Some crops are gathered from the wild (including intensive gathering, e.g. ginseng). Important non-food crops include horticulture, floriculture and industrial crops. Horticulture
Horticulture
crops include plants used for other crops (e.g. fruit trees). Floriculture
Floriculture
crops include bedding plants, houseplants, flowering garden and pot plants, cut cultivated greens, and cut flowers
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Sumerians
Sumerian or Sumerians may refer to:Sumer, an ancient civilization Sumerian language, their language Sumerian art Sumerian architecture Sumerian
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Iran–Iraq Border
The Iran– Iraq
Iraq
boundary runs for 1,458 kilometers, from the Shatt al-Arab (known as Arvand Rud in Iran) waterway to the tripoint boundary with Turkey
Turkey
at the Kuh e-Dalanper
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Two Rivers (other)
Two Rivers may refer to:Contents1 Places1.1 North America 1.2 Elsewhere2 Schools 3 Entertainment 4 Other uses 5 See alsoPlaces[edit] North America[edit]Two Rivers, Alaska, a census-designated place in Fairbanks North Star Borough Two Rivers, California Two Rivers, former name of Dos Rios, California Two River (Mississippi River tributary), a river in Minnesota Two Rivers (Red River of the North tributary), a river in Minnesota Two Rivers
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Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia,[c] officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia,[d] is a sovereign state in Western Asia
Western Asia
constituting the bulk of the Arabian
Arabian
Peninsula. With a land area of approximately 2,150,000 km2 (830,000 sq mi), Saudi Arabia
Arabia
is geographically the largest sovereign state in the Middle East, the second-largest in the Arab world
Arab world
(after Algeria), the fifth-largest in Asia, and the 12th-largest in the world
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Kuwait
Coordinates: 29°30′N 45°45′E / 29.500°N 45.750°E / 29.500; 45.750State of Kuwait دولة الكويت (Arabic) Dawlat al-KuwaitFlagEmblemAnthem: "Al-Nasheed Al-Watani" "National Anthem"Location of  Kuwait  (green)Capital and largest city Kuwait
Kuwait
City 29°22′N 47°58′E / 29.367°N 47.967°E / 29.367; 47.967Official languages ArabicEthnic groups60%
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Historical Region
Historical regions (or historical countries) are geographic areas which at some point in time had a cultural, ethnic, linguistic or political basis, regardless of present-day borders. They are used as delimitations for studying and analysing social development of period-specific cultures without any reference to contemporary political, economic or social organisations.[1]The fundamental principle underlying this view is that older political and mental structures exist which exercise greater influence on the spatial-social identity of individuals than is understood by the contemporary world, bound to and often blinded by its own worldview - e.g. the focus on the nation-state.[2]Definitions of regions vary,[3] and regions can include macroregions such as Europe, territories of traditional states or smaller microregional areas
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Charax Spasinu
Spasinu Charax /spæsɪnuː tʃæræks/, or Charax Spasinu, Charax Pasinu, Charax Spasinou (Ancient Greek: Σπασίνου Χάραξ), Alexandria (Greek: Ἀλεξάνδρεια), and Antiochia in Susiana (Greek: Ἀντιόχεια τῆς Σουσιανῆς) was an ancient port at the head of the Persian Gulf, and the capital of the ancient kingdom of Characene.Contents1 Etymology 2 Location of Charax 3 Archaeology 4 History 5 Economy 6 Coins 7 Notable persons 8 Footnotes 9 ReferencesEtymology[edit] The name Charax, probably from Greek Χάραξ,[1] literally means "palisaded fort", and was applied to several fortified Seleucid
Seleucid
towns. Charax was originally named Alexandria, after Alexander the Great, and was perhaps even personally founded by him. After destruction by floods, it was rebuilt by Antiochus IV
Antiochus IV
(175-164 BC) and renamed Antiochia
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Agriculture
Agriculture
Agriculture
is the cultivation and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.[1] Agriculture
Agriculture
was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science. The history of agriculture dates back thousands of years; people gathered wild grains at least 105,000 years ago, and began to plant them around 11,500 years ago, before they became domesticated. Pigs, sheep, and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago. Crops originate from at least 11 regions of the world
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Astronomy
Astronomy
Astronomy
(from Greek: ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena. It applies mathematics, physics, and chemistry, in an effort to explain the origin of those objects and phenomena and their evolution. Objects of interest include planets, moons, stars, galaxies, and comets; the phenomena include supernova explosions, gamma ray bursts, and cosmic microwave background radiation. More generally, all phenomena that originate outside Earth's atmosphere
Earth's atmosphere
are within the purview of astronomy. A related but distinct subject, physical cosmology, is concerned with the study of the Universe
Universe
as a whole.[1] Astronomy
Astronomy
is one of the oldest of the natural sciences
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Sippar
Coordinates: 33°03′32″N 44°15′08″E / 33.058829°N 44.252153°E / 33.058829; 44.252153 (Sippar)Being close to Babylon, Sippar
Sippar
was an early addition to its empire under Hammurabi. Sippar
Sippar
(Sumerian: 𒌓𒄒𒉣𒆠,Zimbir) was an ancient Near Eastern Sumerian and later Babylonian tell (hill city) on the east bank of the Euphrates
Euphrates
river, located at the site of modern Tell Abu Habbah in Iraq's Babil Governorate, some 60 km north of Babylon
Babylon
and 30 km southwest of Baghdad
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Syria–Turkey Border
The border between the Syrian Arab Republic
Syrian Arab Republic
and the Republic of Turkey is about 822 kilometres (511 mi) long.[1] It runs across Upper Mesopotamia for some 400 km, crossing the Euphrates
Euphrates
reaching as far as the Tigris, following the Southern Turkish stretch of the Baghdad Railway
Baghdad Railway
roughly along the 37th parallel between the 37th and 42nd eastern meridians
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