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Mercury (element)
MERCURY is a chemical element with symbol HG and atomic number 80. It is commonly known as QUICKSILVER and was formerly named HYDRARGYRUM (/haɪˈdrɑːrdʒərəm/ ). A heavy , silvery d-block element, mercury is the only metallic element that is liquid at standard conditions for temperature and pressure ; the only other element that is liquid under these conditions is bromine , though metals such as caesium , gallium , and rubidium melt just above room temperature . Mercury occurs in deposits throughout the world mostly as cinnabar (mercuric sulfide ). The red pigment vermilion is obtained by grinding natural cinnabar or synthetic mercuric sulfide
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Copper
COPPER is a chemical element with symbol CU (from Latin : cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity . A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a reddish-orange color. Copper
Copper
is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material, and as a constituent of various metal alloys , such as sterling silver used in jewelry , cupronickel used to make marine hardware and coins , and constantan used in strain gauges and thermocouples for temperature measurement. Copper
Copper
is one of the few metals that occur in nature in directly usable metallic form as opposed to needing extraction from an ore. This led to very early human use, from c. 8000 BC. It was the first metal to be smelted from its ore, c. 5000 BC, the first metal to be cast into a shape in a mold, c
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Germanium
GERMANIUM is a chemical element with symbol GE and atomic number 32. It is a lustrous, hard, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group , chemically similar to its group neighbors tin and silicon . Pure germanium is a semiconductor with an appearance similar to elemental silicon. Like silicon, germanium naturally reacts and forms complexes with oxygen in nature. Because it seldom appears in high concentration, germanium was discovered comparatively late in the history of chemistry. Germanium ranks near fiftieth in relative abundance of the elements in the Earth\'s crust . In 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev predicted its existence and some of its properties from its position on his periodic table , and called the element EKASILICON . Nearly two decades later, in 1886, Clemens Winkler found the new element along with silver and sulfur , in a rare mineral called argyrodite
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Arsenic
ARSENIC is a chemical element with symbol AS and atomic number 33. Arsenic
Arsenic
occurs in many minerals , usually in combination with sulfur and metals , but also as a pure elemental crystal . Arsenic
Arsenic
is a metalloid . It has various allotropes , but only the gray form is important to industry. The primary use of metallic arsenic is in alloys of lead (for example, in car batteries and ammunition ). Arsenic
Arsenic
is a common n-type dopant in semiconductor electronic devices, and the optoelectronic compound gallium arsenide is the second most commonly used semiconductor after doped silicon . Arsenic
Arsenic
and its compounds, especially the trioxide, are used in the production of pesticides , treated wood products, herbicides , and insecticides . These applications are declining, however. A few species of bacteria are able to use arsenic compounds as respiratory metabolites
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Selenium
SELENIUM is a chemical element with symbol SE and atomic number 34. It is a nonmetal with properties that are intermediate between the elements above and below in the periodic table , sulfur and tellurium . It rarely occurs in its elemental state or as pure ore compounds in the Earth's crust. Selenium
Selenium
(Greek σελήνη selene meaning "Moon") was discovered in 1817 by Jöns Jacob Berzelius
Jöns Jacob Berzelius
, who noted the similarity of the new element to the previously discovered tellurium (named for the Earth). Selenium
Selenium
is found in metal sulfide ores , where it partially replaces the sulfur. Commercially, selenium is produced as a byproduct in the refining of these ores, most often during production. Minerals that are pure selenide or selenate compounds are known but rare
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Nickel
NICKEL is a chemical element with symbol NI and atomic number 28. It is a silvery-white lustrous metal with a slight golden tinge. Nickel belongs to the transition metals and is hard and ductile . Pure nickel, powdered to maximize the reactive surface area , shows a significant chemical activity, but larger pieces are slow to react with air under standard conditions because an oxide layer forms on the surface and prevents further corrosion (passivation ). Even so, pure native nickel is found in Earth's crust only in tiny amounts, usually in ultramafic rocks , and in the interiors of larger nickel–iron meteorites that were not exposed to oxygen when outside Earth's atmosphere. Meteoric nickel is found in combination with iron , a reflection of the origin of those elements as major end products of supernova nucleosynthesis . An iron–nickel mixture is thought to compose Earth's inner core
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Cobalt
COBALT is a chemical element with symbol CO and atomic number 27. Like nickel, cobalt is found in the Earth's crust only in chemically combined form, save for small deposits found in alloys of natural meteoric iron . The free element, produced by reductive smelting , is a hard, lustrous, silver-gray metal . Cobalt-based blue pigments (cobalt blue ) have been used since ancient times for jewelry and paints, and to impart a distinctive blue tint to glass, but the color was later thought by alchemists to be due to the known metal bismuth . Miners had long used the name kobold ore (German for goblin ore) for some of the blue-pigment producing minerals ; they were so named because they were poor in known metals, and gave poisonous arsenic -containing fumes upon smelting. In 1735, such ores were found to be reducible to a new metal (the first discovered since ancient times), and this was ultimately named for the kobold
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Scandium
SCANDIUM is a chemical element with symbol SC and atomic number 21. A silvery-white metallic d-block element , it has historically been sometimes classified as a rare-earth element , together with yttrium and the lanthanides . It was discovered in 1879 by spectral analysis of the minerals euxenite and gadolinite from Scandinavia
Scandinavia
. Scandium
Scandium
is present in most of the deposits of rare earth and uranium compounds, but it is extracted from these ores in only a few mines worldwide. Because of the low availability and the difficulties in the preparation of metallic scandium, which was first done in 1937, applications for scandium were not developed until the 1970s. The positive effects of scandium on aluminium alloys were discovered in the 1970s, and its use in such alloys remains its only major application. The global trade of scandium oxide is about 10 tonnes per year
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Titanium
TITANIUM is a chemical element with symbol TI and atomic number 22. It is a lustrous transition metal with a silver color, low density, and high strength. Titanium
Titanium
is resistant to corrosion in sea water , aqua regia , and chlorine . Titanium
Titanium
was discovered in Cornwall
Cornwall
, Great Britain , by William Gregor in 1791, and it is named by Martin Heinrich Klaproth
Martin Heinrich Klaproth
for the Titans of Greek mythology
Greek mythology
. The element occurs within a number of mineral deposits, principally rutile and ilmenite , which are widely distributed in the Earth\'s crust and lithosphere , and it is found in almost all living things, water bodies, rocks, and soils. The metal is extracted from its principal mineral ores by the Kroll and Hunter processes
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Chromium
CHROMIUM is a chemical element with symbol CR and atomic number 24. It is the first element in group 6 . It is a steely-grey, lustrous , hard and brittle metal which takes a high polish, resists tarnishing , and has a high melting point. The name of the element is derived from the Greek word χρῶμα, chrōma, meaning color , because many chromium compounds are intensely colored. Ferrochromium alloy is commercially produced from chromite by silicothermic or aluminothermic reactions and chromium metal by roasting and leaching processes followed by reduction with carbon and then aluminium . Chromium
Chromium
metal is of high value for its high corrosion resistance and hardness
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Manganese
MANGANESE is a chemical element with symbol MN and atomic number 25. It is not found as a free element in nature; it is often found in minerals in combination with iron . Manganese
Manganese
is a metal with important industrial metal alloy uses, particularly in stainless steels . Historically, manganese is named for pyrolusite and other black minerals from the region of Magnesia in Greece, which also gave its name to magnesium and the iron ore magnetite . By the mid-18th century, Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele had used pyrolusite to produce chlorine . Scheele and others were aware that pyrolusite (now known to be manganese dioxide ) contained a new element, but they were unable to isolate it. Johan Gottlieb Gahn
Johan Gottlieb Gahn
was the first to isolate an impure sample of manganese metal in 1774, which he did by reducing the dioxide with carbon
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Bromine
BROMINE is a chemical element with symbol BR and atomic number 35. It is the third-lightest halogen , and is a fuming red-brown liquid at room temperature that evaporates readily to form a similarly coloured gas. Its properties are thus intermediate between those of chlorine and iodine . Isolated independently by two chemists, Carl Jacob Löwig (in 1825) and Antoine Jérôme Balard
Antoine Jérôme Balard
(in 1826), its name was derived from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
βρῶμος "stench", referencing its sharp and disagreeable smell. Elemental bromine is very reactive and thus does not occur free in nature, but in colourless soluble crystalline mineral halide salts , analogous to table salt . While it is rather rare in the Earth's crust, the high solubility of the bromide ion (Br−) has caused its accumulation in the oceans
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Krypton
KRYPTON (from Greek : κρυπτός kryptos "the hidden one") is a chemical element with symbol KR and atomic number 36. It is a member of group 18 (noble gases) elements. A colorless, odorless, tasteless noble gas , krypton occurs in trace amounts in the atmosphere and is often used with other rare gases in fluorescent lamps . With rare exceptions, krypton is chemically inert . Krypton, like the other noble gases , is used in lighting and photography . Krypton
Krypton
light has many spectral lines , and krypton plasma is useful in bright, high-powered gas lasers (krypton ion and excimer lasers ), each of which resonates and amplifies a single spectral line. Krypton
Krypton
fluoride also makes a useful laser. From 1960 to 1983, the official length of a meter was defined by the 605 nm wavelength of the orange spectral line of krypton-86, because of the high power and relative ease of operation of krypton discharge tubes
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Technetium
TECHNETIUM is a chemical element with symbol TC and atomic number 43. It is the lightest element whose isotopes are all radioactive ; none are stable . Nearly all technetium is produced synthetically, and only minute amounts are found in the Earth's crust. Naturally occurring technetium is a spontaneous fission product in uranium ore or the product of neutron capture in molybdenum ores. The chemical properties of this silvery gray, crystalline transition metal are intermediate between rhenium and manganese . Many of technetium's properties were predicted by Dmitri Mendeleev before the element was discovered. Mendeleev noted a gap in his periodic table and gave the undiscovered element the provisional name ekamanganese (Em). In 1937, technetium (specifically the technetium-97 isotope) became the first predominantly artificial element to be produced, hence its name (from the Greek τεχνητός, meaning "artificial", + -ium)
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Ruthenium
RUTHENIUM is a chemical element with symbol RU and atomic number 44. It is a rare transition metal belonging to the platinum group of the periodic table . Like the other metals of the platinum group, ruthenium is inert to most other chemicals. The Baltic German scientist Karl Ernst Claus discovered the element in 1844 and named it after his homeland, Ruthenia . Ruthenium
Ruthenium
is usually found as a minor component of platinum ores; the annual production is about 20 tonnes . Most ruthenium produced is used in wear-resistant electrical contacts and thick-film resistors. A minor application for rut