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Menstruation
Menstruation, also known as a period or monthly,[1] is the regular discharge of blood and mucosal tissue (known as menses) from the inner lining of the uterus through the vagina.[2] The first period usually begins between twelve and fifteen years of age, a point in time known as menarche.[1] However, periods may occasionally start as young as eight years old and still be considered normal.[2] The average age of the first period is generally later in the developing world, and earlier in the developed world.[3] The typical length of time between the first day of one period and the first day of the next is 21 to 45 days in young women, and 21 to 31 days in adults (an average of 28 days).[2][3] Bleeding usually lasts around 2 to 7 days.[2] Menstruation
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Blood Clotting
Coagulation
Coagulation
(also known as clotting) is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot. It potentially results in hemostasis, the cessation of blood loss from a damaged vessel, followed by repair. The mechanism of coagulation involves activation, adhesion, and aggregation of platelets along with deposition and maturation of fibrin. Disorders of coagulation are disease states which can result in bleeding (hemorrhage or bruising) or obstructive clotting (thrombosis).[1] Coagulation
Coagulation
is highly conserved throughout biology; in all mammals, coagulation involves both a cellular (platelet) and a protein (coagulation factor) component.[2] The system in humans has been the most extensively researched and is the best understood.[3] Coagulation
Coagulation
begins almost instantly after an injury to the blood vessel has damaged the endothelium lining the vessel
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Primates
A primate (/ˈpraɪmeɪt/ ( listen) PRY-mayt) is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").[2][3] In taxonomy, primates include two distinct lineages, strepsirrhines and haplorhines.[1] Primates arose from ancestors that lived in the trees of tropical forests; many primate characteristics represent adaptations to life in this challenging environment. Most primate species remain at least partly arboreal. With the exception of humans, who inhabit every continent,[4] most primates live in tropical or subtropical regions of the Americas, Africa and Asia.[5] They range in typical size from Madame Berthe's mouse lemur, which weighs only 30 g (1 oz), to the eastern gorilla, weighing over 200 kg (440 lb)
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Miscarriage
Miscarriage, also known as spontaneous abortion and pregnancy loss, is the natural death of an embryo or fetus before it is able to survive independently.[1][3] Some use the cutoff of 20 weeks of gestation, after which fetal death is known as a stillbirth.[11] The most common symptom of a miscarriage is vaginal bleeding with or without pain.[1] Sadness, anxiety and guilt often occur afterwards.[2][12] Tissue and clot-like material may leave the uterus and pass through and out of the vagina.[13] When a woman keeps having miscarriages, infertility is present.[14] Risk factors for miscarriage include an older parent, previous miscarriage, exposure to tobacco smoke, obesity, diabetes, thyroid problems, and drug or alcohol use.[5][6] About 80% of miscarriages occur in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy (the first trimester).[1] The underlying cause in about half of cases involves chromosomal abnormalities.[4][1] Diagnosis of a miscarriage may involve checking to see if the cervix is open or cl
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Ectopic Pregnancy
Ectopic pregnancy, also known as tubal pregnancy, is a complication of pregnancy in which the embryo attaches outside the uterus.[4] Signs and symptoms classically include abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding.[1] Fewer than 50 percent of affected women have both of these symptoms.[1] The pain may be described as sharp, dull, or crampy.[1] Pain may also spread to the shoulder if bleeding into the abdomen has occurred.[1] Severe bleeding may result in a fast heart rate, fainting, or shock.[4][1] With very rare exceptions the fetus is unable to survive.[5] Risk factors for ectopic pregnancy include: pelvic inflammatory disease, often due to chlamydia infection, tobacco smoking, prior tubal surgery, a history of infertility, and the use of assisted reproductive technology.[2] Those who have previously had an ectopic pregnancy are at much higher risk of having another one.[2] Most ectopic pregnancies (90%) occur in the
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Intrauterine Devices
An intrauterine device (IUD), also known as intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD or ICD) or coil,[2] is a small, often T-shaped birth control device that is inserted into a woman's uterus to prevent pregnancy
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Uterine Fibroids
Uterine fibroids, also known as uterine leiomyomas or fibroids, are benign smooth muscle tumors of the uterus.[1] Most women have no symptoms while others may have painful or heavy periods.[1] If large enough, they may push on the bladder causing a frequent need to urinate.[1] They may also cause pain during sex or lower back pain.[1] A woman can have one uterine fibroid or many.[1] Occasionally, fibroids may make it difficult to become pregnant, although this is uncommon.[1] The exact cause of uterine fibroids is unclear.[1] However, fibroids run in families and appear to be partly determined by hormone levels.[1] Risk factors include obesity and eating red meat.[1] Diagnosis can be performed by pelvic examination or medical imaging.[1] Treatment is typically not needed if there are no symptoms.[1] NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen, may help with pain and bleeding while paracetamol (acetaminophen) may help with pain.[1][3]
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Ischemia
Ischemia
Ischemia
or ischaemia is a restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen that is needed for cellular metabolism (to keep tissue alive).[3] Ischemia
Ischemia
is generally caused by problems with blood vessels, with resultant damage to or dysfunction of tissue. It also means local anemia in a given part of a body sometimes resulting from congestion (such as vasoconstriction, thrombosis or embolism). Ischemia
Ischemia
comprises not only insufficiency of oxygen, but also reduced availability of nutrients and inadequate removal of metabolic wastes
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Nutrient
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce. The requirement for dietary nutrient intake applies to animals, plants, fungi, and protists. Nutrients can be incorporated into cells for metabolic purposes or excreted by cells to create non-cellular structures, such as hair, scales, feathers, or exoskeletons. Some nutrients can be metabolically converted to smaller molecules in the process of releasing energy, such as for carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and fermentation products (ethanol or vinegar), leading to end-products of water and carbon dioxide. All organisms require water. Essential nutrients for animals are the energy sources, some of the amino acids that are combined to create proteins, a subset of fatty acids, vitamins and certain minerals. Plants require more diverse minerals absorbed through roots, plus carbon dioxide and oxygen absorbed through leaves
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Hormones
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour. Hormones have diverse chemical structures, mainly of 3 classes: eicosanoids, steroids, and amino acid/protein derivatives (amines, peptides, and proteins). The glands that secrete hormones comprise the endocrine signaling system
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Elephant Shrew
Elephantulus Macroscelides Petrodromus Rhynchocyon Elephant
Elephant
shrews, also called jumping shrews or sengis, are small insectivorous mammals native to Africa, belonging to the family Macroscelididae, in the order Macroscelidea. Their traditional common English name "elephant shrew" comes from a fancied resemblance between their long noses and the trunk of an elephant, and their superficial similarity with shrews (family Soricidae) in the order Eulipotyphla. However, phylogenetic analysis revealed that elephant shrews are not classified with true shrews, but are in fact more closely related to elephants than shrews
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Bats
(traditional):Megachiroptera Microchiroptera(recent):Yinpterochiroptera YangochiropteraWorldwide distribution of bat speciesBats are mammals of the order Chiroptera;[a] with their forelimbs adapted as wings, they are the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight. Bats are more manoeuvrable than birds, flying with their very long spread-out digits covered with a thin membrane or patagium. The smallest bat, and arguably the smallest extant mammal, is Kitti's hog-nosed bat, which is 29–34 mm (1.14–1.34 in) in length, 15 cm (5.91 in) across the wings and 2–2.6 g (0.07–0.09 oz) in mass. The largest bats are the flying foxes and the giant golden-crowned flying fox, Acerodon jubatus, which can weigh 1.6 kg (4 lb) and have a wingspan of 1.7 m (5 ft 7 in). The second largest order of mammals, bats comprise about 20% of all classified mammal species worldwide, with over 1,200 species
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Monkeys
HominoideaMonkeys are non-hominoid simians, generally possessing tails and consisting of about 260 known living species. Many monkey species are tree-dwelling (arboreal), although there are species that live primarily on the ground, such as baboons. Most species are also active during the day (diurnal). Monkeys are generally considered to be intelligent, particularly Old World monkeys. There are two major types of monkey: New World monkeys (platyrrhines) from South and Central America and Old World monkeys
Old World monkeys
(catarrhines of the superfamily Cercopithecoidea) from Africa and Asia
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Apes
†Chororapithecidae †Proconsulidae †Afropithecidae †Pliobatidae Hylobatidae HominidaeApes (Hominoidea) are a branch of Old World
Old World
tailless anthropoid primates native to Africa
Africa
and Southeast Asia. They are the sister group of the Old World
Old World
monkeys, together forming the catarrhine clade. They are distinguished from other primates by a wider degree of freedom of motion at the shoulder joint as evolved by the influence of brachiation. There are two extant branches of the superfamily Hominoidea: the gibbons, or lesser apes; and the hominids, or great apes.The family Hylobatidae, the lesser apes, include four genera and a total of sixteen species of gibbon, including the lar gibbon and the siamang, all native to Asia. They are highly arboreal and bipedal on the ground
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Irritability
Irritability is the excitatory ability that living organisms have to respond to changes in their environment.[1] The term is used for both the physiological reaction to stimuli and for the pathological, abnormal or excessive sensitivity to stimuli. It is usually used to refer to anger or frustration. In individuals with autism disorder for example, they tend to be marked by aggression patterns.[2] Irritability can be a growing response to the objective stimuli of hunger or thirst in animals or humans which then reaches some level of awareness of that need. Irritability may be demonstrated in behavioral responses to both physiological and behavioral stimuli including environmental, situational, sociological, and emotional stimuli. See also[edit]Look up irritability in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.[[Annoyanckiranmoy e]] References[edit]^ D, Venes (2013). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: F.A
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Pain
Pain
Pain
is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli. The International Association for the Study of Pain's widely used definition defines pain as "an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage";[1] however, due to it being a complex, subjective phenomenon, defining pain has been a challenge
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