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Menopause
Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.[2][8] Menopause
Menopause
typically occurs between 49 and 52 years of age.[3] Medical professionals often define menopause as having occurred when a woman has not had any vaginal bleeding for a year.[4] It may also be defined by a decrease in hormone production by the ovaries.[9] In those who have had surgery to remove their uterus but still have ovaries, menopause may be viewed to have occurred at the time of the surgery or when their hormone levels fell
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Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding
Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) is abnormal genital tract bleeding based in the uterus and found in the absence of demonstrable structural[1] or organic disease. It is usually due to hormonal disturbances: reduced levels of progesterone cause high levels of prostaglandin F2-alpha and cause menorrhagia (abnormally heavy flow) as progesterone stabilizes the endometrium and inhibits synthesis of prostaglandin F2-alpha.; increased levels of tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) (a fibrinolytic enzyme) lead to more fibrinolysis. Diagnosis must be made by exclusion, since organic pathology must first be ruled out. DUB can be classified as ovulatory or anovulatory, depending on whether ovulation is occurring or not
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Gabapentin
Gabapentin, sold under the brand name Neurontin among others, is a medication used to treat epilepsy, neuropathic pain, hot flashes, and restless legs syndrome.[4][5] In epilepsy, it may be used for those with partial seizures.[4] It is recommended as one of a number of first line medications for the treatment of neuropathic pain in diabetic neuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia, and central neuropathic pain.[6] A 2017 review of its use for diabetic neuropathy and postherpetic neuralgia found that about 15 percent of people have a meaningful benefit.[7] Common side effects include sleepiness and dizziness.[4] Serious side effects may include an increased risk of suicide, aggressive behaviour, and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms.[4] It is unclear if it is safe during pregnancy or breastfeeding.[8] Lower doses should be used in people with kidney problems.[4]
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Joint Stiffness
Joint stiffness may be either the symptom of pain on moving a joint, the symptom of loss of range of motion or the physical sign of reduced range of motion.Pain on movement is commonly caused by osteoarthritis, often in quite minor degrees, and other forms of arthritis. It may also be caused by injury or overuse and rarely by more complex causes of pain such as infection or neoplasm. The range of motion may be normal or limited by pain. "Morning stiffness" pain which eases up after the joint has been used, is characteristic of rheumatoid arthritis.[1] Loss of motion (symptom): the patient notices that the joint (or many joints) do not move as far as they used to or need to
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Back Pain
Back pain
Back pain
is pain in any region of the back. It is divided into neck pain (cervical), middle back pain (thoracic), lower back pain (lumbar) or coccydynia (tailbone or sacral pain) based on the segment affected.[1] The lumbar area is the most common area for pain, as it supports most of the weight in the upper body.[2] Episodes of back pain may be acute, sub-acute, or chronic depending on the duration. The pain may be characterized as a dull ache, shooting or piercing pain, or a burning sensation. Discomfort can radiate into the arms and hands as well as the legs or feet, and may include numbness,[1] or weakness in the legs and arms. Back pain
Back pain
can originate from the muscles, nerves, bones, joints or other structures in the spine
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Headache
Headache
Headache
is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck. It occurs in migraines (sharp, or throbbing pains), tension-type headaches, and cluster headaches.[1] Frequent headaches can affect relationships and employment.[1] There is also an increased risk of depression in those with severe headaches.[1] Headaches can occur as a result of many conditions whether serious or not. There are a number of different classification systems for headaches. The most well-recognized is that of the International Headache
Headache
Society. Causes of headaches may include fatigue, sleep deprivation, stress, the effects of medications, the effects of recreational drugs, viral infections, loud noises, common colds, head injury, rapid ingestion of a very cold food or beverage, and dental or sinus issues. Treatment of a headache depends on the underlying cause, but commonly involves pain medication
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Arthralgia
Arthralgia (from Greek arthro-, joint + -algos, pain) literally means joint pain;[1][2] it is a symptom of injury, infection, illnesses (in particular arthritis) or an allergic reaction to medication.[3] According to MeSH, the term "arthralgia" should only be used when the condition is non-inflammatory, and the term "arthritis" should be used when the condition is inflammatory.[4]Contents1 Causes 2 Diagnosis 3 Treatment 4 See also 5 ReferencesCauses[edit] The causes of arthralgia are varied and range, from a joints perspective, from degenerative and destructive processes such as osteoarthritis and sports injuries to inflammation of tissues surrounding the joints, such as bursitis.[5] These might be triggered by other things, such as infections or vaccinations.[6]Cause Mono- or polyarticu
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Polyp (medicine)
A polyp is an abnormal growth of tissue projecting from a mucous membrane. If it is attached to the surface by a narrow elongated stalk, it is said to be pedunculated. If no stalk is present, it is said to be sessile. Polyps are commonly found in the colon, stomach, nose, ear, sinus(es), urinary bladder, and uterus. They may also occur elsewhere in the body where mucous membranes exist like the cervix, vocal folds, and small intestine. Some polyps are tumors (neoplasms) and others are nonneoplastic (for example, hyperplastic or dysplastic)
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Fatigue (medical)
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness which is distinct from weakness, and has a gradual onset. Unlike weakness, fatigue can be alleviated by periods of rest. Fatigue can have physical or mental causes. Physical fatigue is the transient inability of a muscle to maintain optimal physical performance, and is made more severe by intense physical exercise.[1][2][3] Mental fatigue is a transient decrease in maximal cognitive performance resulting from prolonged periods of cognitive activity. It can manifest as somnolence, lethargy, or directed attention fatigue.[4] Medically, fatigue is a non-specific symptom, which means that it has many possible causes and accompanies many different conditions. Fatigue is considered a symptom, rather than a sign, because it is a subjective feeling reported by the patient, rather than an objective one that can be observed by others
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Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
(SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. The exact mechanism of action of SSRIs is unknown.[2] SSRIs are believed to increase the extracellular level of the neurotransmitter serotonin by limiting its reabsorption (reuptake) into the presynaptic cell, increasing the level of serotonin in the synaptic cleft available to bind to the postsynaptic receptor
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Heart Palpitation
Palpitations are the perceived abnormality of the heartbeat characterized by awareness of cardiac muscle contractions in the chest: hard, fast and/or irregular beats. It is both a symptom reported by the patient and a medical diagnosis. Palpitation can be associated with anxiety and does not necessarily indicate a structural or functional abnormality of the heart, but it can be a symptom arising from an objectively rapid or irregular heartbeat. Palpitation can be intermittent and of variable frequency and duration, or continuous
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Urinary Tract
The urinary system, also known as the renal system or urinary tract, consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and the urethra. The purpose of the urinary system is to eliminate waste from the body, regulate blood volume and blood pressure, control levels of electrolytes and metabolites, and regulate blood pH. The urinary tract is the body's drainage system for the eventual removal of urine.[1] The kidneys have an extensive blood supply via the renal arteries which leave the kidneys via the renal vein. Each kidney consists of functional units called nephrons. Following filtration of blood and further processing, wastes (in the form of urine) exit the kidney via the ureters, tubes made of smooth muscle fibres that propel urine towards the urinary bladder, where it is stored and subsequently expelled from the body by urination (voiding)
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Dizziness
Dizziness
Dizziness
is an impairment in spatial perception and stability.[1] Because the term dizziness is imprecise,[2] it can refer to vertigo, presyncope, disequilibrium,[3] or a non-specific feeling such as giddiness or foolishness.[4] One can induce dizziness by engaging in disorientating activities such as spinning. Vertigo is the sensation of spinning or having one's surroundings spin about them. Many people find vertigo very disturbing and often report associated nausea and vomiting. It represents about 25% of cases of occurrences of dizziness.[5] Disequilibrium is the sensation of being off balance, and is most often characterized by frequent falls in a specific direction. This condition is not often associated with nausea or vomiting. Presyncope is lightheadedness, muscular weakness and feeling faint as opposed to a syncope, which is actually fainting. Non-specific dizziness is often psychiatric in origin
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Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy
(often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a category of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen. Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy
may be given with a curative intent (which almost always involves combinations of drugs), or it may aim to prolong life or to reduce symptoms (palliative chemotherapy). Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy
is one of the major categories of the medical discipline specifically devoted to pharmacotherapy for cancer, which is called medical oncology. The term chemotherapy has come to connote non-specific usage of intracellular poisons to inhibit mitosis, or cell division. The connotation excludes more selective agents that block extracellular signals (signal transduction)
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Alternative Medicine
Alternative medicine
Alternative medicine
or fringe medicine are practices claimed to have the healing effects of medicine but which are disproven, unproven, impossible to prove, or are excessively harmful in relation to their effect. Scientific consensus states that such therapies do not, or cannot, work because the known laws of nature are violated by their basic claims; or that the treatment is so much worse that its use is unethical. Alternative therapies or diagnoses are not part of medicine or science-based healthcare systems. Alternative practices, products, and therapies – range from plausible but not well tested, to having known harmful and toxic effects. Large amounts of funding go to testing alternative medicine, with more than US$2.5 billion spent by the United States government alone.[1] Almost none show any effect beyond that of false treatment, and most positive studies have been shown to be statistical flukes
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Xeroderma
Xeroderma
Xeroderma
or xerodermia (also known as xerosis cutis[1]), derived from the Greek words for "dry skin", is a condition involving the integumentary system, which in most cases can safely be treated with emollients or moisturizers. Xeroderma
Xeroderma
occurs most commonly on the scalp, lower legs, arms, hands, the knuckles, the sides of the abdomen, and thighs. Symptoms most associated with xeroderma are scaling (the visible peeling of the outer skin layer), itching, and skin cracking.[2]Contents1 Common causes 2 Prevention 3 Cure3.1 Safety4 See also 5 References 6 External linksCommon causes[edit] Xeroderma
Xeroderma
is a very common condition. It happens more often in the winter when the cold air outside and the hot air inside creates a low relative humidity. This causes the skin to lose moisture and it may crack and peel
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