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Menachem Begin
MENACHEM BEGIN (_ listen (help ·info ); Hebrew
Hebrew
: מְנַחֵם בֵּגִין‎ Menaḥem Begin_, Polish : _Mieczysław Biegun_; Russian : Менахем Вольфович Бегин _Menakhem Volfovich Begin_; 16 August 1913 – 9 March 1992) was an Israeli politician, founder of Likud and the sixth Prime Minister of Israel
Prime Minister of Israel
. Before the creation of the state of Israel, he was the leader of the Zionist militant group Irgun
Irgun
, the Revisionist breakaway from the larger Jewish paramilitary organization Haganah
Haganah
. He proclaimed a revolt , on 1 February 1944, against the British mandatory government , which was opposed by the Jewish Agency . As head of the Irgun, he targeted the British in Palestine. Later, the Irgun
Irgun
fought the Arabs during the 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine . Begin was elected to the first Knesset, as head of Herut , the party he founded, and was at first on the political fringe, embodying the opposition to the Mapai -led government and Israeli establishment. He remained in opposition in the eight consecutive elections (except for a national unity government around the Six-Day War ), but became more acceptable to the political center. His 1977 electoral victory and premiership ended three decades of Labor Party political dominance
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List Of Prime Ministers Of Israel
This article lists the PRIME MINISTERS OF ISRAEL since the adoption of the Israeli Declaration of Independence in 1948. CONTENTS* 1 Prime Ministers of Israel (1948–present) * 1.1 Notes * 2 Term of office in years * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links PRIME MINISTERS OF ISRAEL (1948–PRESENT) COLOUR KEY Mapai /Alignment /Labor Likud Kadima A total of twelve people have served as Prime Minister of Israel, five of whom have served on two non-consecutive occasions. Additionally, one person, Yigal Allon , has served solely as an Interim Prime Minister. The other two who have served as Interim Prime Minister have gone on to become the Prime Minister. NO. Name (Birth–Death) PORTRAIT POLITICAL PARTY TERM OF OFFICE Elected (Knesset) GOVERNMENT NO. COMPOSITION 1 DAVID BEN-GURION דָּוִד בֶּן-גּוּרִיּוֹן‎ (1886–1973) Mapai 14 May 1948 10 March 1949 — Prov
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Prime Minister Of Israel
The PRIME MINISTER OF ISRAEL (Hebrew : רֹאשׁ הַמֶּמְשָׁלָה‎, _Rosh HaMemshala_, _lit._ Head of the Government, Hebrew acronym : רה״מ‎; Arabic : رئيس الحكومة‎‎, _Ra'īs al-Ḥukūma_) is the head of the Israeli government and the most powerful figure in Israeli politics. Although the President of Israel is the country's head of state, his powers are largely ceremonial; the prime minister holds most of the real power. The official residence of the prime minister, _Beit Rosh Hamemshala _ is in Jerusalem . The current prime minister is Benjamin Netanyahu of Likud , the ninth person to hold the position (excluding caretakers). Following an election, the president nominates a member of the Knesset to become prime minister after asking party leaders whom they support for the position. The nominee then presents a government platform and must receive a vote of confidence in order to become prime minister. In practice, the prime minister is usually the leader of the largest party in the governing coalition. Between 1996 and 2001, the prime minister was directly elected, separately from the Knesset
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Ephraim Katzir
EPHRAIM KATZIR (Hebrew : אפרים קציר‎‎ _Efrayim Katsir_; 16 May 1916 – 30 May 2009) was an Israeli biophysicist and former Israeli Labor Party politician. He was the fourth President of Israel from 1973 until 1978. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Scientific career * 3 Presidency * 4 Awards and commemoration * 5 References * 6 External links * 7 See also BIOGRAPHYKatzir was born Efraim Katchalski, son of Yehuda and Tzila Katchalski, in Kiev , in the Russian Empire (today in Ukraine ). In 1925 (several publications cite 1922 ), he immigrated to Mandate Palestine with his family and settled in Jerusalem . In 1932, he graduated from Gymnasia Rehavia . Like his brother, Aharon , he was interested in science. He studied botany, zoology, chemistry and bacteriology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem . In 1938, he received an M.Sc, and in 1941, he received a PhD degree. In 1939, he graduated from the first Haganah officers course, and became commander of the student unit in the field forces ('Hish). He and his brother worked on development of new explosives. In May, 1948, Ephraim was appointed commander of the "Heyl Mada" (HEMED) – scientific research and development corps. His brother, Aharon Katzir , chairman of the Department of Polymer Research at Weizmann Institute, was murdered in the Lod Airport Massacre
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Yitzhak Navon
YITZHAK RACHAMIM NAVON (Hebrew : יצחק נבון‎‎‎; 9 April 1921 – 6 November 2015 ) was an Israeli politician, diplomat, and author. He served as the fifth President of Israel between 1978 and 1983 as a member of the center-left Alignment party. He was the first Israeli president to be Sephardi and born in Jerusalem , then within the British Mandate for Palestine , while all previous presidents were born in and immigrated from the Russian Empire . CONTENTS * 1 Personal life * 2 Political career * 3 Presidency (1978–83) * 4 Literary output * 5 References * 6 Bibliography * 7 External links PERSONAL LIFEBorn in Jerusalem to Yosef and Miryam Navon, a descendant of a Sephardi family of rabbis . On his father's side, he was descended from Spanish Jews who settled in Turkey after the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492. The family ( Baruch Mizrahi family or Al Mashraki) moved to Jerusalem in 1670. On his mother's side, he was descended from the renowned Moroccan-Jewish kabbalist Chaim ibn Attar , who emigrated to Palestine and settled in Jerusalem in mid-1742. He attended the "Doresh Tziyon" beit midrash, the "Takhemoni" school and Hebrew University Secondary School, where he developed an ability in Islamic and Arab texts. Navon studied Arabic and Islamic studies at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem
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Chaim Herzog
Major-General CHAIM HERZOG (Hebrew : חיים הרצוג‎‎‎; 17 September 1918, Belfast – 17 April 1997, Tel Aviv) was an Israeli politician, general, lawyer and author who served as the sixth President of Israel between 1983 and 1993. Born in Belfast and raised predominantly in Dublin , the son of Ireland's Chief Rabbi Yitzhak HaLevi Herzog , he emigrated to Mandatory Palestine in 1935 and served in the Haganah Jewish paramilitary group during the 1936–39 Arab revolt . In the British Army during World War II, latterly as an officer, he received the nickname "Vivian" because the British could not pronounce "Chaim". He returned to Palestine after the war and, following the end of the British Mandate and Israel's Declaration of Independence in 1948, operated in the battles for Latrun during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War . He retired from the Israel Defence Forces in 1962 with the rank of Major-General. After leaving the military, Herzog practised law
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Yitzhak Rabin
YITZHAK RABIN ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: יצחק רבין‎‎; IPA: ( listen ); 1 March 1922 – 4 November 1995) was an Israeli politician, statesman and general. He was the fifth Prime Minister of Israel
Prime Minister of Israel
, serving two terms in office, 1974–77 and 1992 until his assassination in 1995. Rabin was born in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
to Ukrainian-Jewish immigrants and was raised in a Labor Zionist household. He learned agriculture in school and excelled as a student. He led a 27-year career as a soldier. As a teenager he joined the Palmach , the commando force of the Yishuv
Yishuv
. He eventually rose through its ranks to become its chief of operations during Israel\'s War of Independence . He joined the newly formed Israel
Israel
Defense Forces in late 1948 and continued to rise as a promising officer. He helped shape the training doctrine of the IDF in the early 1950s, and led the IDF's Operations Directorate from 1959 to 1963. He was appointed Chief of the General Staff in 1964 and oversaw Israel's victory in the 1967 Six-Day War . Rabin served as Israel's ambassador to the United States
United States
from 1968 to 1973, during a period of deepening U.S.– Israel
Israel
ties
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Yitzhak Shamir
YITZHAK SHAMIR (Hebrew : יצחק שמיר‎‎, listen (help ·info ); born YITZHAK YEZERNITSKY; October 22, 1915 – June 30, 2012) was an Israeli politician and the seventh Prime Minister of Israel , serving two terms, 1983–84 and 1986–1992. Before the establishment of the State of Israel , Shamir was a leader of the Zionist paramilitary group Lehi . After the establishment of the State of Israel he served in the Mossad between 1955 and 1965, a Knesset Member, a Knesset Speaker and a Foreign Affairs Minister . Shamir was the country's third longest-serving prime minister after David Ben-Gurion and Benjamin Netanyahu . CONTENTS * 1 Early and personal life * 2 Zionist activism * 3 Anti-Polonism * 4 Mossad * 5 Political career * 5.1 Prime Minister * 5.2 Electoral defeat and retirement * 6 Illness and death * 6.1 Reactions * 7 Awards and recognition * 8 Published works * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Bibliography * 12 External links EARLY AND PERSONAL LIFEYitzhak Yezernitsky (later Yitzhak Shamir) was born in the predominantly Jewish village of Ruzhany , Grodno province, Russian Empire (now Belarus ), which after World War I became part of Poland , as the son of Perla and Shlomo, owner of a leather factory
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Ministry Of Defense (Israel)
The MINISTRY OF DEFENSE (Hebrew : מִשְׂרַד הַבִּטָּחוֹן‎, Misrad HaBitahon) of the government of Israel
Israel
, is the governmental department responsible for defending the State of Israel
Israel
from internal and external military threats. Its political head is the Defense Minister of Israel, and its offices are located in HaKirya
HaKirya
, Tel Aviv . The Ministry of Defense oversees most of the Israeli security forces , including the Israel Defense Forces (IDF), Israel
Israel
Military Industries (IMI), and Israel
Israel
Aerospace Industries (IAI). The MOD was established when the British Mandate of Palestine ended, and the British Army departed Palestine and the State of Israel
Israel
was formed. This ended the rag-tag militia units during British rule and gave way to the formal defense of the Jewish state. CONTENTS* 1 Minister of Defense * 1.1 List of ministers * 1.1.1 Deputy ministers * 2 Directors General * 3 Structure * 4 Notes * 5 External links MINISTER OF DEFENSEThe Defense Minister of Israel
Israel
(Hebrew : שַׂר הַבִּטָּחוֹן‎, Sar HaBitahon, lit. Minister of Security) heads the ministry. The post is considered to be the second most important position in the Israeli cabinet , and usually has a Deputy Minister
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Ezer Weizman
EZER WEIZMAN _ listen (help ·info ) (Hebrew : עזר ויצמן‎‎ Ezer Vaytsman_; 15 June 1924 – 24 April 2005) was the seventh President of Israel , first elected in 1993 and re-elected in 1998. Before the presidency, Weizman was commander of the Israeli Air Force and Minister of Defense . CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Military career * 3 Political career * 4 Presidency * 5 Death * 6 Honours and awards * 7 Published works * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links EARLY LIFEWeizman was born in Tel Aviv in the British Mandate of Palestine on 15 June 1924. His father, Yechiel, was an agronomist. Weizman was a nephew of Israel's first president, Chaim Weizmann . He grew up in Haifa , and attended the Hebrew Reali School . He married Reuma Schwartz, sister of Ruth Dayan , wife of Moshe Dayan , and they had two children, Shaul and Michal. Weizman was a combat pilot . He received his training in the British Army in which he enlisted in 1942 during World War II. He served as a truck driver in the Western Desert campaigns in Egypt and Libya . In 1943, he joined the British Royal Air Force (RAF) and attended aviation school in Rhodesia . He served with the RAF in India in early 1944. Weizman ended his service in the RAF as a sergeant pilot
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Ariel Sharon
ARIEL SHARON (Hebrew : אריאל שרון‎‎; IPA: (_ listen ), Ariʼēl Sharōn_, also known by his diminutive Arik, אַריק, born ARIEL SCHEINERMANN, אריאל שיינרמן‎; February 26, 1928 – January 11, 2014) was an Israeli general and politician who served as the 11th Prime Minister of Israel
Prime Minister of Israel
from March 2001 until April 2006. Sharon was incapacitated by a stroke in January 2006. Sharon was a commander in the Israeli Army from its creation in 1948. As a soldier and then an officer, he participated prominently in the 1948 War of Independence , becoming a platoon commander in the Alexandroni Brigade and taking part in many battles, including Operation Bin Nun Alef . He was an instrumental figure in the creation of Unit 101 and the reprisal operations , as well as in the 1956 Suez Crisis , the Six-Day War of 1967, the War of Attrition , and the Yom-Kippur War of 1973. As Minister of Defense, he directed the 1982 Lebanon War . Sharon was considered the greatest field commander in Israel's history, and one of the country's greatest military strategists and tacticians. Upon retirement from the military, Sharon entered politics, joining the Likud , and served in a number of ministerial posts in Likud-led governments in 1977–92 and 1996–99
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Moshe Arens
MOSHE ARENS (Hebrew : משה ארנס‎, born 27 December 1925) is an Israeli aeronautical engineer, researcher and former diplomat and Likud politician. A member of the Knesset between 1973 and 1992 and again from 1999 until 2003, he served as Minister of Defense three times and once as Minister of Foreign Affairs . Arens has also served as the Israeli ambassador to the U.S. and was a professor at the Technion in Haifa
Haifa
. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Political career * 3 Historical research * 4 References * 5 External links BIOGRAPHY Moshe Arens
Moshe Arens
was born in Kaunas
Kaunas
, Lithuania
Lithuania
, to a Jewish family. His father was an industrialist and his mother was a dentist. When he was a year old, his family moved to Riga
Riga
, Latvia
Latvia
. where he attended elementary school. In 1939, Arens and his family immigrated to the United States
United States
, where his father had business interests. The family settled in New York City
New York City
, where Arens attended George Washington High School . As a youth, Arens was a leader in the Betar
Betar
youth movement. During World War II
World War II
, Arens served in the United States
United States
Army Corps of Engineers as a technical sergeant
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Brest, Belarus
BREST (Belarusian : Брэст Brest or traditionally Берасьце, Bieraście; Russian : Брест Brest) formerly also Brześć nad Bugiem BREST-ON-THE-BUG and BREST-LITOVSK ("Брэст-Лiтоўск" in Belarusian), is a city (population 340,141 in 2016) in Belarus
Belarus
at the border with Poland
Poland
opposite the Polish city of Terespol , where the Bug and Mukhavets rivers meet. It is the capital city of the Brest voblast . The city of Brest is a historic site of many cultures. It was the location of important historical events such as the Union of Brest and Treaty of Brest-Litovsk . The Brest Fortress was recognized by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as the Hero Fortress in honor of the defense of Brest Fortress in June 1941. During medieval times, the city was part of the Kingdom of Poland from 1020 until 1319 when it was taken by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania . It became part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1569. As a result of the Partitions of Poland
Poland
, it was incorporated into the Russian Empire in 1795. After World War I
World War I
, the city returned to Second Polish Republic
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Russian Empire
The RUSSIAN EMPIRE (also known as RUSSIA) was an empire that existed from 1721 until it was overthrown by the short-lived February Revolution in 1917 . One of the largest empires in world history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire
Empire
was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires. The rise of the Russian Empire
Empire
happened in association with the decline of neighboring rival powers: the Swedish Empire
Empire
, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth , Persia and the Ottoman Empire
Empire
. It played a major role in 1812–1814 in defeating Napoleon 's ambitions to control Europe and expanded to the west and south. The House of Romanov ruled the Russian Empire
Empire
from 1721 until 1762, and its German-descended cadet branch, the House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov , ruled from 1762. At the beginning of the 19th century, the Russian Empire
Empire
extended from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Black Sea
Black Sea
in the south, from the Baltic Sea on the west to the Pacific Ocean, and (until 1867) into Alaska in North America on the east. With 125.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census , it had the third-largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China and India
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Tel Aviv
TEL AVIV-YAFO (Hebrew : תֵּל אָבִיב-יָפוֹ‎, , Arabic : تل أَبيب-يافا‎‎) is a major city in Israel , located on the country\'s Mediterranean coastline . It is the financial center and the technology hub of Israel, with a population of 432,892, making it Israel's second-largest city. Tel Aviv is the largest city in the Gush Dan region of Israel. Tel Aviv is also a focal point in the high-tech concentration known as the Silicon Wadi . Tel Aviv is governed by the Tel Aviv-Yafo Municipality , headed by Ron Huldai , and is home to many foreign embassies . Tel Aviv is a global city , and is the 32nd most important financial center in the world. Tel Aviv is known to have the third-largest economy of any city in the Middle East after Abu Dhabi and Kuwait City , and has the 31st highest cost of living in the world. The city receives over a million international visitors annually. Known as "The City that Never Sleeps" and a "party capital", it has a lively nightlife and 24-hour culture. The city was founded in 1909 by Jewish immigrants on the outskirts of the ancient port city of Jaffa (Hebrew : יָפוֹ‎ _Yafo_). It is named after the Hebrew translation of Theodor Herzl's 1902 novel, _Altneuland_ , meaning "Old New Land"
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Herut
HERUT (Hebrew : חרות‎, Freedom) was the major right-wing nationalist political party in Israel
Israel
from 1948 until its formal merger into Likud in 1988. It was an adherent of Revisionist Zionism and was initially known in part for its militia actions; it became more moderate from 1951. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Platform * 3 Opposition to Herut
Herut
* 4 Decline * 5 Begin\'s return * 6 Gahal alliance * 7 Government participation * 8 Herut – The National Movement * 9 References * 10 External links HISTORY Herut
Herut
was founded by Menachem Begin on 15 June 1948 as a successor to the Revisionist Irgun , a militant paramilitary group in Mandate Palestine . The new party was a challenge to the Hatzohar party established by Ze\'ev Jabotinsky . Herut
Herut
also established an eponymous newspaper , with many of its founding journalists defecting from Hatzohar's HaMashkif . Herut's political expectations were high as the first election approached in 1949. It took credit for driving the British government out and as a young movement, reflecting the esprit of the nation, it perceived its image as being more attractive than the old establishment
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