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Menachem Begin
MENACHEM BEGIN ( listen (help ·info ); Hebrew
Hebrew
: מְנַחֵם בֵּגִין‎ Menaḥem Begin, Polish : Mieczysław Biegun; Russian : Менахем Вольфович Бегин Menakhem Volfovich Begin; 16 August 1913 – 9 March 1992) was an Israeli politician, founder of Likud
Likud
and the sixth Prime Minister of Israel
Prime Minister of Israel
. Before the creation of the state of Israel, he was the leader of the Zionist militant group Irgun
Irgun
, the Revisionist breakaway from the larger Jewish paramilitary organization Haganah . He proclaimed a revolt , on 1 February 1944, against the British mandatory government , which was opposed by the Jewish Agency . As head of the Irgun, he targeted the British in Palestine. Later, the Irgun
Irgun
fought the Arabs during the 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine
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Sinai Peninsula
The SINAI PENINSULA or simply SINAI (/ˈsaɪnaɪ/ ; Arabic : سيناء‎‎ Sīnāʼ ; Egyptian Arabic : سينا‎‎ Sīna, IPA: ; Hebrew : סיני‎‎ Sinai) is a peninsula in Egypt
Egypt
, situated between the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the north and the Red Sea
Red Sea
to the south, serving as a land bridge between Asia
Asia
and Africa
Africa
. It is the only part of Egyptian territory located in Asia. Sinai has a land area of about 60,000 km2 (23,000 sq mi) and a population of approximately 1,400,000 people. The bulk of the peninsula is divided administratively into two of Egypt's 27 governorates (with three more straddling the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
area)
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Hebrew Language
HEBREW (/ˈhiːbruː/ ; עִבְרִית‬, Ivrit ( listen ) or ( listen )) is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel
Israel
, spoken by over 9 million people worldwide. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name Hebrew in the Tanakh . The earliest examples of written Paleo-Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE. Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Hebrew is the only living Canaanite language left, and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language . Hebrew had ceased to be an everyday spoken language somewhere between 200 and 400 CE, declining since the aftermath of the Bar Kokhba revolt . Aramaic and to a lesser extent Greek were already in use as international languages, especially among elites and immigrants
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Israel Defense Forces
The ISRAEL DEFENSE FORCES (IDF; Hebrew
Hebrew
: צְבָא הַהֲגָנָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל‎ Tsva ha-Hagana le-Yisra\'el , lit. "The Army of Defense for Israel"; Arabic : جيش الدفاع الإسرائيلي‎‎), commonly known in Israel
Israel
by the Hebrew
Hebrew
acronym Tzahal (צה״ל‎), are the military forces of the State of Israel
Israel
. They consist of the ground forces , air force , and navy . It is the sole military wing of the Israeli security forces , and has no civilian jurisdiction within Israel. The IDF is headed by its Chief of General Staff , the Ramatkal, subordinate to the Defense Minister of Israel
Israel
; Lieutenant general
Lieutenant general
( Rav Aluf ) Gadi Eizenkot has served as Chief of Staff since 2015
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Russian Empire
The RUSSIAN EMPIRE (Russian : Россійская Имперія) was an empire that existed from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War , until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution
February Revolution
of 1917. The third largest empire in world history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire
Empire
was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires. The rise of the Russian Empire
Empire
happened in association with the decline of neighboring rival powers: the Swedish Empire
Empire
, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
, Persia and the Ottoman Empire
Empire
. It played a major role in 1812–1814 in defeating Napoleon 's ambitions to control Europe and expanded to the west and south
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Israeli Labor Party
The ISRAELI LABOR PARTY (Hebrew : מִפְלֶגֶת הָעֲבוֹדָה הַיִּשְׂרְאֵלִית‎, translit. Mifleget HaAvoda HaYisrelit (help ·info )), commonly known as HAAVODA (Hebrew : הָעֲבוֹדָה‎), is a social democratic and Zionist political party in Israel . The Israeli Labor Party was established in 1968 by a merger of Mapai , Ahdut HaAvoda and Rafi . Until 1977, all Israeli Prime Ministers were affiliated with the Labor movement. The current party leader (since July 2017) is Avi Gabbay . The Labor Party is associated with supporting the Israeli–Palestinian peace process , pragmatic foreign affairs policies and social democratic economic policies. The party is a member of the Socialist International and Progressive Alliance , and is an observer member of the Party of European Socialists
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Tel Aviv
TEL AVIV (Hebrew : תֵּל אָבִיב-יָפוֹ‎, , Arabic : تل أَبيب-يافا‎‎) is a major city in Israel
Israel
, located on the country\'s Mediterranean coastline . It is the financial center and the technology hub of Israel
Israel
, with a population of 432,892, making it Israel's second-largest city. Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
is the largest city in the Gush Dan region of Israel. Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
is also a focal point in the high-tech concentration known as the Silicon Wadi . Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
is governed by the Tel Aviv-Yafo Municipality , headed by Ron Huldai , and is home to many foreign embassies . Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
is a global city and is the 32nd most important financial center in the world
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Phalangist
The LEBANESE PHALANGES PARTY ( Arabic
Arabic
: حزب الكتائب اللبنانية‎‎ Ḥizb al-Katā’ib al-Lubnānīya), better known in English as the PHALANGE ( Arabic
Arabic
: الكتائب‎‎ al-Katā’ib), is a Christian
Christian
Democratic political party in Lebanon
Lebanon
. In spite of it being officially secular, it is supported mainly by Maronite Catholics . The party played a major role in the Lebanese Civil War (1975–90). In decline in the late 1980s and 1990s, the party slowly re-emerged since the early 2000s. It is now part of the March 14 Alliance
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Hyperinflation
In economics, HYPERINFLATION occurs when a country experiences very high and usually accelerating rates of inflation , rapidly eroding the real value of the local currency , and causing the population to minimize their holdings of local money. The population normally switches to holding relatively stable foreign currencies. Under such conditions, the general price level within an economy increases rapidly as the official currency quickly loses real value. The value of economic items remains relatively stable in terms of foreign currencies. Unlike low inflation, where the process of rising prices is protracted and not generally noticeable except by studying past market prices, hyperinflation sees a rapid and continuing increase in nominal prices, the nominal cost of goods, and in the supply of money . Typically, however, the general price level rises even more rapidly than the money supply as people try ridding themselves of the devaluing currency as quickly as possible
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Cheder
A CHEDER (alternatively, CHEIDER, in Hebrew : חדר‎, lit. "room") is a traditional elementary school teaching the basics of Judaism
Judaism
and the Hebrew language
Hebrew language
. HISTORYCheders were widely found in Europe before the end of the 18th century. Lessons took place in the house of the teacher, known as a Melamed , whose wages were paid by the Jewish community or a group of parents. Normally, only boys would attend classes—girls were educated by their mothers in their homes. Where money was scarce and the community could not afford to maintain many teachers, boys of all ages would be taught in a single group. Although traditionally boys start learning the Hebrew alphabet
Hebrew alphabet
the day they turned three, boys typically entered cheder school around the age of 5
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Polish Language
POLISH (język polski, polszczyzna) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland
Poland
and is the native language of the Poles
Poles
. It belongs to the Lechitic subgroup of the West Slavic languages
Slavic languages
. Polish is the official language of Poland, but it is also used throughout the world by Polish minorities in other countries. There are over 55 million Polish language
Polish language
speakers around the world and it is one of the official languages of the European Union
European Union
. Its written standard is the Polish alphabet , which has 9 additions to the letters of the basic Latin script
Latin script
(ą, ć, ę, ł, ń, ó, ś, ź, ż). Polish is closely related to Kashubian , Silesian , Upper Sorbian , Lower Sorbian , Czech and Slovak
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Theodor Herzl
THEODOR HERZL ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: תאודור הֶרְצֵל‎ Te'odor Hertsel, Hungarian : Herzl Tivadar; May 2, 1860 – July 3, 1904), born BENJAMIN ZE\'EV HERZL ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: בִּנְיָמִין זְאֵב הֶרְצֵל‎ Binyamin Ze'ev Hertsel), also known in Hebrew
Hebrew
as חוֹזֵה הַמְדִינָה‎, Chozeh HaMedinah (lit. "Visionary of the State") was an Austro-Hungarian journalist, playwright, political activist, and writer who was one of the fathers of modern political Zionism
Zionism
. Herzl formed the World Zionist Organization and promoted Jewish migration to Palestine in an effort to form a Jewish state. Though he died long before its establishment, he is generally considered a father of the State of Israel
Israel
, formed in 1948
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Alma Mater
ALMA MATER ( Latin
Latin
: alma "nourishing/kind", mater "mother"; pl. almae matres) is an allegorical Latin
Latin
phrase for a university or college . In modern usage, it is a school or university which an individual has attended, or a song or hymn associated with a school . The phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will often depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its modern usage, Alma mater
Alma mater
was an honorific title for various Latin
Latin
mother goddesses , especially Ceres or Cybele , and later in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary
Virgin Mary

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Belarus
Coordinates : 53°N 23°E / 53°N 23°E / 53; 23 Republic
Republic
of Belarus Рэспубліка Беларусь (Belarusian ) Республика Беларусь (Russian ) Flag National emblem ANTHEM: * Дзяржаўны гімн Рэспублікі Беларусь (Belarusian ) * Dziaržaŭny himn Respubliki Bielaruś * (English: State Anthem of Belarus) Location of
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Russian Language
RUSSIAN (Russian: ру́сский язы́к, tr. rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language and an official language in Russia
Russia
, Belarus
Belarus
, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and many minor or unrecognised territories throughout Eurasia
Eurasia
(particularity in Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
, the Baltics , the Caucasus
Caucasus
, and Central Asia
Central Asia
). It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Latvia
Latvia
, Moldova
Moldova
, Ukraine
Ukraine
and to a lesser extent, the other post-Soviet states
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Mapai
MAPAI (Hebrew : מַפָּא"י‎‎, an acronym for מִפְלֶגֶת פּוֹעֲלֵי אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, Mifleget Poalei Eretz Yisrael, lit. "Workers' Party of the Land of Israel
Israel
") was a centre-left political party in Israel
Israel
, and was the dominant force in Israeli politics until its merger into the modern-day Israeli Labor Party in 1968. During Mapai's time in office, a wide range of progressive reforms were carried out, as characterised by the establishment of a welfare state, providing minimum income, security, and free (or almost free) access to housing subsidies and health and social services. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Politics and government * 3 List of General Secretaries * 4 Electoral results * 5 References * 6 External links BACKGROUNDThe party was founded on 5 January 1930 by the merger of the Hapoel Hatzair founded by A. D
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