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Membrane Distillation
MEMBRANE DISTILLATION (MD) is a thermally driven separational program in which separation is enabled due to phase change. A hydrophobic membrane displays a barrier for the liquid phase , allowing the vapour phase (e.g. water vapour) to pass through the membrane's pores. The driving force of the process is given by a partial vapour pressure difference commonly triggered by a temperature difference
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Thermal Insulation
THERMAL INSULATION is the reduction of heat transfer (the transfer of thermal energy between objects of differing temperature) between objects in thermal contact or in range of radiative influence. Thermal insulation can be achieved with specially engineered methods or processes, as well as with suitable object shapes and materials. Heat flow is an inevitable consequence of contact between objects of differing temperature . Thermal insulation
Thermal insulation
provides a region of insulation in which thermal conduction is reduced or thermal radiation is reflected rather than absorbed by the lower-temperature body. The insulating capability of a material is measured with thermal conductivity (k) . Low thermal conductivity is equivalent to high insulating capability (R-value ). In thermal engineering , other important properties of insulating materials are product density (ρ) and specific heat capacity (c)
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Evaporator
An EVAPORATOR is a device in a process used to turn the liquid form of a chemical substance such as water into its gaseous-form/vapor. The liquid is evaporated, or vaporized, into a gas form of the targeted substance in that process. CONTENTS * 1 Uses * 2 Energetics * 3 How an evaporator works * 4 Types of evaporators used today * 4.1 Natural/forced circulation evaporator * 4.2 Falling film evaporator * 4.3 Rising film (Long Tube Vertical) evaporator * 4.4 Climbing and falling-film plate evaporator * 4.5 Multiple-effect evaporators * 4.6 Agitated thin film evaporators * 5 Problems * 6 Marine use * 7 See also * 8 References USESOne kind of evaporator is a kind of radiator coil used in a closed compressor driven circulation of a liquid coolant
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Volatility (chemistry)
In chemistry and physics , VOLATILITY is quantified by the tendency of a substance to vaporize . Volatility is directly related to a substance's vapor pressure . At a given temperature, a substance with higher vapor pressure vaporizes more readily than a substance with a lower vapor pressure. The term is primarily written to be applied to liquids; however, it may be used to describe the process of sublimation which is associated with solid substances, such as dry ice (solid carbon dioxide ) and osmium tetroxide (OsO4) , which can change directly from the solid state to a vapor , without becoming liquid
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Condensation
CONDENSATION is the change of the physical state of matter from gas phase into liquid phase , and is the reverse of evaporation . The word most often refers to the water cycle . It can also be defined as the change in the state of water vapour to liquid water when in contact with a liquid or solid surface or cloud condensation nuclei within the atmosphere . When the transition happens from the gaseous phase into the solid phase directly, the change is called deposition (or desublimation, see Sublimation (phase transition)
Sublimation (phase transition)

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Thermal Energy
In thermodynamics , THERMAL ENERGY refers to the internal energy present in a system due to its temperature . The concept is not well-defined or broadly accepted in physics or thermodynamics , because the internal energy can be changed without changing the temperature, and there is no way to distinguish which part of a system's internal energy is "thermal". Thermal energy
Thermal energy
is sometimes used loosely as a synonym for more rigorous thermodynamic quantities such as the (entire) internal energy of a system; or for heat or sensible heat which are defined as types of transfer of energy (just as work is another type of transfer of energy). Heat
Heat
and work depend on the way in which an energy transfer occurred, whereas internal energy is a property of the state of a system and can thus be understood even without knowing how the energy got there
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Infiltration (medical)
INFILTRATION is the diffusion or accumulation (in a tissue or cells ) of foreign substances or in amounts in excess of the normal. The material collected in those tissues or cells is called INFILTRATE. CONTENTS * 1 Definitions of infiltration * 2 Causes * 3 Signs and symptoms * 3.1 Grading * 3.2 Nursing treatment * 4 Notes * 5 References DEFINITIONS OF INFILTRATIONAs part of a disease process, infiltration is sometimes used to define the invasion of cancer cells into the underlying matrix or the blood vessels. Similarly, the term may describe the deposition of amyloid protein. During leukocyte extravasation , white blood cells move in response to cytokines from within the blood, into the diseased or infected tissues, usually in the same direction as a chemical gradient , in a process called chemotaxis . The presence of lymphocytes in tissue in greater than normal numbers is likewise called infiltration
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Meniscus (liquid)
The MENISCUS (plural: menisci, from the Greek for "crescent ") is the curve in the upper surface of a liquid close to the surface of the container or another object, caused by surface tension . It can be either concave or convex , depending on the liquid and the surface. A concave meniscus occurs when the particles of the liquid are more strongly attracted to the container (adhesion ) than to each other (cohesion ), causing the liquid to climb the walls of the container. This occurs between water and glass. Water-based fluids like sap, honey, and milk also have a concave meniscus in glass or other wettable containers. Conversely, a convex meniscus occurs when the particles in the liquid have a stronger attraction to each other than to the material of the container. Convex menisci occur, for example, between mercury and glass in barometers and thermometers. THE MENISCUS AND MEASUREMENT A MENISCUS as seen in a burette of colored water
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Molecules
A MOLECULE is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds . Molecules are distinguished from ions by their lack of electrical charge . However, in quantum physics , organic chemistry , and biochemistry , the term molecule is often used less strictly, also being applied to polyatomic ions . In the kinetic theory of gases , the term molecule is often used for any gaseous particle regardless of its composition. According to this definition, noble gas atoms are considered molecules as they are in fact monoatomic molecules. A molecule may be homonuclear , that is, it consists of atoms of one chemical element , as with oxygen (O2); or it may be heteronuclear , a chemical compound composed of more than one element, as with water (H2O). Atoms and complexes connected by non-covalent interactions , such as hydrogen bonds or ionic bonds , are generally not considered single molecules
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Hydrophobic
In chemistry , HYDROPHOBICITY is the physical property of a molecule (known as a HYDROPHOBE) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water . (Strictly speaking, there is no repulsive force involved; it is an absence of attraction.) In contrast, hydrophiles are attracted to water. Hydrophobic molecules tend to be nonpolar and, thus, prefer other neutral molecules and nonpolar solvents . Because water molecules are polar, hydrophobes do not dissolve well among them. Hydrophobic molecules in water often cluster together, forming micelles . Water
Water
on hydrophobic surfaces will exhibit a high contact angle . Examples of hydrophobic molecules include the alkanes , oils , fats , and greasy substances in general. Hydrophobic materials are used for oil removal from water, the management of oil spills , and chemical separation processes to remove non-polar substances from polar compounds
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Dipole
In electromagnetism , there are two kinds of DIPOLES: * An electric dipole is a separation of positive and negative charges. The simplest example of this is a pair of electric charges of equal magnitude but opposite sign, separated by some (usually small) distance. A permanent electric dipole is called an electret . * A magnetic dipole is a closed circulation of electric current . A simple example of this is a single loop of wire with some constant current through it. Dipoles can be characterized by their dipole moment, a vector quantity. For the simple electric dipole given above, the electric dipole moment points from the negative charge towards the positive charge, and has a magnitude equal to the strength of each charge times the separation between the charges
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Surface Tension
SURFACE TENSION is the elastic tendency of a fluid surface which makes it acquire the least surface area possible. Surface tension allows insects (e.g. water striders ), usually denser than water, to float and stride on a water surface. At liquid–air interfaces, surface tension results from the greater attraction of liquid molecules to each other (due to cohesion ) than to the molecules in the air (due to adhesion ). The net effect is an inward force at its surface that causes the liquid to behave as if its surface were covered with a stretched elastic membrane. Thus, the surface becomes under tension from the imbalanced forces, which is probably where the term "surface tension" came from. Because of the relatively high attraction of water molecules for each other through a web of hydrogen bonds, water has a higher surface tension (72.8 millinewtons per meter at 20 °C) compared to that of most other liquids
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Electrical Energy
ELECTRICAL ENERGY is the energy newly derived from electric potential energy or kinetic energy . When loosely used to describe energy absorbed or maybe delivered by an electrical circuit (for example, one provided by an electric power utility) "electrical energy" talks about energy which has been converted from electric potential energy. This energy is supplied by the combination of electric current and electric potential that is delivered by the circuit. At the point that this electric potential energy has been converted to another type of energy, it ceases to be electric potential energy. Thus, all electrical energy is potential energy before it is delivered to the end-use. Once converted from potential energy, electrical energy can always be called another type of energy (heat, light, motion, etc.). ELECTRICITY GENERATION Main article: Electricity generation ELECTRICITY GENERATION is the process of generating electrical energy from other forms of energy
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Fresh Water
FRESH WATER is the debut album by Australian rock and blues singer Alison McCallum , released in 1972. Rare for an Australian artist at the time, it came in a gatefold sleeve. It was re-issued in 1974 under the title ANY WAY YOU WANT ME in a single sleeve with new artwork
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Flow Velocity
In continuum mechanics the MACROSCOPIC VELOCITY, also FLOW VELOCITY in fluid dynamics or DRIFT VELOCITY in electromagnetism , is a vector field which is used to mathematically describe the motion of a continuum. The length of the flow velocity vector is the FLOW SPEED and is a scalar. CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 Uses * 2.1 Steady flow * 2.2 Incompressible flow * 2.3 Irrotational flow * 2.4 Vorticity
Vorticity
* 3 The velocity potential * 4 See also * 5 References DEFINITIONThe flow velocity U of a fluid is a vector field u = u ( x , t ) , {displaystyle mathbf {u} =mathbf {u} (mathbf {x} ,t),} which gives the velocity of an element of fluid at a position x {displaystyle mathbf {x} ,} and time t . {displaystyle t.,} The flow speed q is the length of the flow velocity vector q = u {displaystyle q=mathbf {u} } and is a scalar field
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Water Treatment
WATER TREATMENT is any process that makes water more acceptable for a specific end-use. The end use may be drinking , industrial water supply, irrigation, river flow maintenance, water recreation or many other uses, including being safely returned to the environment. Water treatment removes contaminants and undesirable components, or reduces their concentration so that the water becomes fit for its desired end-use
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