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Membrane Distillation
Membrane
Membrane
distillation (MD) is a thermally driven separational program in which separation is enabled due to phase change. A hydrophobic membrane displays a barrier for the liquid phase, allowing the vapour phase (e.g. water vapour) to pass through the membrane's pores
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Water Desalination
Desalination
Desalination
is a process that extracts mineral components from saline water. More generally, desalination refers to the removal of salts and minerals from a target substance,[1] as in soil desalination, which is an issue for agriculture.[2] Saltwater is desalinated to produce water suitable for human consumption or irrigation. One by-product of desalination is salt. Desalination
Desalination
is used on many seagoing ships and submarines. Most of the modern interest in desalination is focused on cost-effective provision of fresh water for human use. Along with recycled wastewater, it is one of the few rainfall-independent water sources.[3] Due to its energy consumption, desalinating sea water is generally more costly than fresh water from rivers or groundwater, water recycling and water conservation. However, these alternatives are not always available and depletion of reserves is a critical problem worldwide
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Thermal Energy
Thermal energy
Thermal energy
is a term sometimes used loosely as a synonym for more rigorous thermodynamic quantities such as the (entire) internal energy of a system; or for heat or sensible heat which are defined as types of transfer of energy (just as work is another type of transfer of energy), or for the characteristic energy of a degree of freedom in a thermal system k T displaystyle kT , where T displaystyle T is temperature and k displaystyle k is the Boltzmann constant
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Molecules
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.[4][5][6][7][8] Molecules are distinguished from ions by their lack of electrical charge. However, in quantum physics, organic chemistry, and biochemistry, the term molecule is often used less strictly, also being applied to polyatomic ions. In the kinetic theory of gases, the term molecule is often used for any gaseous particle regardless of its composition. According to this definition, noble gas atoms are considered molecules as they are monoatomic molecules.[9] A molecule may be homonuclear, that is, it consists of atoms of one chemical element, as with oxygen (O2); or it may be heteronuclear, a chemical compound composed of more than one element, as with water (H2O)
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Hydrophobic
In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.[1] (Strictly speaking, there is no repulsive force involved; it is an absence of attraction.) In contrast, hydrophiles are attracted to water. Hydrophobic molecules tend to be nonpolar and, thus, prefer other neutral molecules and nonpolar solvents. Because water molecules are polar, hydrophobes do not dissolve well among them. Hydrophobic molecules in water often cluster together, forming micelles. Water
Water
on hydrophobic surfaces will exhibit a high contact angle. Examples of hydrophobic molecules include the alkanes, oils, fats, and greasy substances in general. Hydrophobic materials are used for oil removal from water, the management of oil spills, and chemical separation processes to remove non-polar substances from polar compounds.[2] Hydrophobic is often used interchangeably with lipophilic, "fat-loving"
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Dipole
In electromagnetism, there are two kinds of dipoles:An electric dipole is a separation of positive and negative charges. The simplest example of this is a pair of electric charges of equal magnitude but opposite sign, separated by some (usually small) distance. A permanent electric dipole is called an electret. A magnetic dipole is a closed circulation of electric current. A simple example of this is a single loop of wire with some constant current through it.[1][2]Dipoles can be characterized by their dipole moment, a vector quantity. For the simple electric dipole given above, the electric dipole moment points from the negative charge towards the positive charge, and has a magnitude equal to the strength of each charge times the separation between the charges
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Surface Tension
At liquid–air interfaces, surface tension results from the greater attraction of liquid molecules to each other (due to cohesion) than to the molecules in the air (due to adhesion). The net effect is an inward force at its surface that causes the liquid to behave as if its surface were covered with a stretched elastic membrane. Thus, the surface becomes under tension from the imbalanced forces, which is probably where the term "surface tension" came from.[1] Because of the relatively high attraction of water molecules for each other through a web of hydrogen bonds, water has a higher surface tension (72.8 millinewtons per meter at 20 °C) compared to that of most other liquids. Surface tension
Surface tension
is an important factor in the phenomenon of capillarity. Surface tension
Surface tension
has the dimension of force per unit length, or of energy per unit area
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Meniscus (liquid)
The meniscus (plural: menisci, from the Greek for "crescent") is the curve in the upper surface of a liquid close to the surface of the container or another object, caused by surface tension. It can be either concave or convex, depending on the liquid and the surface. A concave meniscus occurs when the particles of the liquid are more strongly attracted to the container (adhesion) than to each other (cohesion), causing the liquid to climb the walls of the container. This occurs between water and glass
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Infiltration (medical)
Infiltration is the diffusion or accumulation (in a tissue or cells) of foreign substances or in amounts in excess of the normal. The material collected in those tissues or cells is called infiltrate.Contents1 Definitions of infiltration 2 Causes 3 Signs and symptoms3.1 Grading 3.2 Nursing treatment4 Notes 5 ReferencesDefinitions of infiltration[edit] As part of a disease process, infiltration is sometimes used to define the invasion of cancer cells into the underlying matrix or the blood vessels. Similarly, the term may describe the deposition of amyloid protein. During leukocyte extravasation, white blood cells move in response to cytokines from within the blood, into the diseased or infected tissues, usually in the same direction as a chemical gradient[1], in a process called chemotaxis
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Evaporator
An evaporator is a device in a process used to turn the liquid form of a chemical substance such as water into its gaseous-form/vapor. The liquid is evaporated, or vaporized, into a gas form of the targeted substance in that process.Contents1 Uses 2 Energetics 3 How an evaporator works 4 Types of evaporators used today4.1 Natural/forced circulation evaporator 4.2 Falling film evaporator 4.3 Rising film (Long Tube Vertical) evaporator 4.4 Climbing and falling-film plate evaporator 4.5 Multiple-effect evaporators 4.6 Agitated thin film evaporators5 Problems 6 Marine use 7 See also 8 ReferencesUses[edit] One kind of evaporator is a kind of radiator coil used in a closed compressor driven circulation of a liquid coolant
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Thermal Insulation
Thermal insulation
Thermal insulation
is the reduction of heat transfer (i.e. the transfer of thermal energy between objects of differing temperature) between objects in thermal contact or in range of radiative influence. Thermal insulation
Thermal insulation
can be achieved with specially engineered methods or processes, as well as with suitable object shapes and materials. Heat flow is an inevitable consequence of contact between objects of different temperature. Thermal insulation
Thermal insulation
provides a region of insulation in which thermal conduction is reduced or thermal radiation is reflected rather than absorbed by the lower-temperature body. The insulating capability of a material is measured as the inverse of thermal conductivity (k). Low thermal conductivity is equivalent to high insulating capability (Resistance value)
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Volatility (chemistry)
In chemistry and physics, volatility is quantified by the tendency of a substance to vaporize. Volatility is directly related to a substance's vapor pressure
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Condensation
Condensation
Condensation
is the change of the physical state of matter from gas phase into liquid phase, and is the reverse of vapourisation. The word most often refers to the water cycle.[1] It can also be defined as the change in the state of water vapour to liquid water when in contact with a liquid or solid surface or cloud condensation nuclei within the atmosphere
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Electrical Energy
Electrical energy is the energy newly derived from electric potential energy or kinetic energy. When loosely used to describe energy absorbed or maybe delivered by an electrical circuit (for example, one provided by an electric power utility) "electrical energy" talks about energy which has been converted from electric potential energy. This energy is supplied by the combination of electric current and electric potential that is delivered by the circuit. At the point that this electric potential energy has been converted to another type of energy, it ceases to be electric potential energy. Thus, all electrical energy is potential energy before it is delivered to the end-use
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Electrical Polarity
Electrical polarity is a term used throughout industries and fields that involve electricity. There are two types of poles: positive (+) and negative (-). This represents the electrical potential at the ends of a circuit. A battery has a positive terminal (pole) and a negative terminal (pole).Contents1 Current Direction 2 Conventions for identification 3 AC systems 4 See alsoCurrent Direction[edit] Conventional Current flows from the positive pole (terminal) to the negative pole. Electrons flow from negative to positive. In a direct current (DC) circuit, current flows in one direction only, and one pole is always negative and the other pole is always positive
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Fresh Water
Fresh water
Fresh water
(or freshwater) is naturally occurring water on Earth's surface in ice sheets, ice caps, glaciers, icebergs, bogs, ponds, lakes, rivers and streams, and underground as groundwater. Fresh water is generally characterized by having low concentrations of dissolved salts and other total dissolved solids. The term specifically excludes seawater and brackish water although it does include mineral-rich waters such as chalybeate springs. Fresh water
Fresh water
is not the same as potable water (or drinking water): Much of the earth's surface fresh water and groundwater is unsuitable for drinking without some form of treatment
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