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Member Of The Legislative Assembly (India)
A Member of Legislative Assembly (MLA) is a representative elected by the voters of an electoral district (constituency) to the Legislature of a State in the Indian system of government . Each state has between seven and nine MLAs for every Member of Parliament (MP) that it has in the Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
. There are also Members in two unicameral legislatures in Union Territories
Union Territories
: the Delhi Legislative Assembly and Puducherry Legislative Assembly . CONTENTS * 1 State legislature * 2 Qualification * 3 Term * 4 Powers * 5 MLA party memberships on 01 August 2017 * 6 Presiding officers * 7 See also * 8 References STATE LEGISLATUREIn states where there are two houses there is a Legislative Council and a Legislative Assembly. In such a case, the Legislative Council
Legislative Council
is the Upper House, while Legislative Assembly is the Lower House of the State Legislature. The Governor shall not be a member of the Legislature
Legislature
or Parliament; shall not hold any office of profit, shall be entitled to emoluments and allowances. (Article 158 of Indian constitution). The Legislative Assembly consists of not more than 500 members and not less than 60. The biggest state like Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
has 403 members in its Assembly
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Chambers Of Parliament
A LEGISLATIVE CHAMBER or HOUSE is a deliberative assembly within a legislature which generally meets and votes separately from the legislature's other chambers. Legislatures are usually unicameral , consisting of only one chamber, or bicameral , consisting of two, but there are rare examples of tricameral and tetracameral legislatures. CONTENTS * 1 Bicameralism * 2 Merging of chambers * 3 Floor and committee * 4 Security * 5 References * 6 See also BICAMERALISMThe lower house is almost always the originator of legislation , and the upper house is the body that offers the "second look" and decides whether to veto or approve the bills . In the United Kingdom legislation can be originated in either house, but the lower house can ultimately prevail if the two houses repeatedly disagree. In most countries the lower house, regarded as more particularly the representatives of the people, has sole or predominant control over matters to do with finance and taxation . A parliament's lower house is usually composed of at least 100 members , in countries with populations of over 3 million. The number of seats rarely exceeds 400, even in very large countries. Among the countries with large lower houses are France, where the National Assembly has 577 members, and Japan, where the House of Representatives has 475 members
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Unicameralism
In government , UNICAMERALISM (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber . Thus, a unicameral parliament or unicameral legislature is a legislature which consists of one chamber or house. CONTENTS * 1 Concept * 2 List of unicameral legislatures * 2.1 National * 2.2 Territorial * 2.3 Subnational * 2.3.1 Federations * 2.3.2 Devolved governments * 2.3.3 Other * 3 List of historical Unicameral legislatures * 3.1 National * 3.2 Subnational * 4 Unicameralism
Unicameralism
within the subdivisions of the United States
United States
* 5 Unicameralism
Unicameralism
in the Philippines
Philippines
* 6 References CONCEPTUnicameral legislatures exist when there is no widely perceived need for multicameralism . Many multicameral legislatures were created to give separate voices to different sectors of society. Multiple chambers allowed for guaranteed representation of different social classes (as in the Parliament
Parliament
of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
or the French States-General ), ethnic or regional interests, or subunits of a federation
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Multicameralism
In contrast to unicameralism , MULTICAMERALISM is the condition in which a legislature is divided into several deliberative assemblies, which are commonly called "chambers" or "houses". This can include bicameralism with two chambers, tricameralism with three, tetracameralism with four branches, or a system with any amount more. The word "multicameral" can also relate in other ways to its literal meaning of "many chambered" with use in science or biology. Many modern parliaments and congresses adopt a multicameral (usually bicameral) structure to provide multiple perspectives and a form of separation of powers within the legislature. Nations with bicameral legislatures. Nations with unicameral legislatures. No legislature. SEE ALSO * Federalism * Polycentric law * Politics portal * Law portal _ This legislature -related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it ._ * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= Multicameralism additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Bicameralism
A BICAMERAL legislature is one in which the legislators are divided into two separate assemblies , chambers or houses. BICAMERALISM is distinguished from unicameralism , in which all of the members deliberate and vote as a single group, and from some legislatures which have three or more separate assemblies, chambers or houses. As of 2015, somewhat less than half of the world's national legislatures are bicameral. Often, the members of the two chambers are elected or selected using different methods, which vary from country to country. This can often lead to the two chambers having very different compositions of members. Enactment of primary legislation often requires a concurrent majority – the approval of a majority of members in each of the chambers of the legislature. When this is the case, the legislature may be called an example of perfect bicameralism . However, in many Westminster system parliaments, the house to which the executive is responsible can overrule the other house and may be regarded as an example of imperfect bicameralism . Some legislatures lie in between these two positions, with one house only able to overrule the other under certain circumstances
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Tricameralism
TRICAMERALISM is the practice of having three legislative or parliamentary chambers. It is contrasted to unicameralism and bicameralism , both of which are far more common. The term was used in South Africa to describe the Parliament established under the apartheid regime's new South African Constitution of 1983 . Other instances of tricameral legislatures in history include Simón Bolívar 's model state. The word could also describe the French Estates-General , which had three 'estates'. CONTENTS * 1 South African tricameralism * 2 Bolívar\'s tricameralism * 3 French tricameralism * 3.1 Ancien Régime * 3.2 Consulate * 4 Republic of China tricameralism * 5 Other examples * 5.1 Former Yugoslavia * 5.2 Isle of Man * 5.3 Church of England * 5.4 Medieval Ireland * 5.5 Labor unions * 6 References * 7 External links SOUTH AFRICAN TRICAMERALISM Main article: Tricameral Parliament In 1983, South Africa 's apartheid government put forward a constitution providing for a tricameral legislature. On 2 November, around seventy percent of the country's white population voted in favour of the changes – black South Africans were not consulted, and under the proposal they continued to be denied representation since in theory they were citizens of independent or autonomous bantustans
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Tetracameralism
TETRACAMERALISM (Greek : tetra-, four + Latin : _camera_, chamber) is the practice of having four legislative or parliamentary chambers. It is contrasted to unicameralism and bicameralism , which are far more common, and tricameralism , which is rarely used in government. No state currently has a tetracameral system. Medieval Scandinavian deliberative assemblies were traditionally tetracameral, with four estates; the nobility , the clergy , the burghers and the peasants . The Swedish and Finnish Riksdag of the Estates maintained this tradition the longest, having four separate legislative bodies. Finland, as a part of Imperial Russia used the tetracameral Diet of Finland until 1906, when it was replaced by the unicameral Parliament . * Law portal * Politics portal _ This legislature -related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it ._ * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= Tetracameralism additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Upper House
An UPPER HOUSE, sometimes called a Senate , is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature (or one of three chambers of a tricameral legislature ), the other chamber being the lower house . The house formally designated as the upper house is usually smaller, and often has more restricted power, than the lower house. Examples of upper houses in countries include the UK's House of Lords , Canada's Senate , India's Rajya Sabha , Russia's Federation Council , Ireland's Seanad , Germany's Bundesrat and the United States Senate . A legislature composed of only one house (and which therefore has neither an upper house nor a lower house) is described as unicameral . CONTENTS * 1 Possible specific characteristics * 2 Powers * 2.1 Parliamentary systems * 2.2 Presidential systems * 3 Institutional structure * 4 Abolition * 5 Titles of upper houses * 5.1 Common terms * 5.2 Unique titles * 6 Notes and references POSSIBLE SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICSAn upper house is usually different from the lower house in at least one of the following respects: POWERS: * In a parliamentary system , it often has much less power than the lower house
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Senate
A SENATE is a deliberative assembly , often the upper house or chamber of a bicameral legislature or parliament . The name comes from the ancient Roman Senate (Latin: _Senatus_), so-called as an assembly of the senior (Latin: _senex_ meaning "the elder" or "old man") and therefore allegedly wiser and more experienced members of the society or ruling class . Thus, the literal meaning of the word "senate" is: ASSEMBLY OF ELDERS. Many countries have an assembly named a _senate_, composed of _senators_ who may be elected , appointed, have inherited the title, or gained membership by other methods, depending on the country. Modern senates typically serve to provide a chamber of "sober second thought" to consider legislation passed by a lower house , whose members are usually elected. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Alternative meanings * 3 National senates in the world * 4 Defunct senates * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links OVERVIEWThe modern word _Senate_ is derived from the word _senātus_ (senate), which comes from _senex_, “old man”. The members or legislators of a senate are called SENATORS. The Latin word _senator_ was adopted into English with no change in spelling
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Lower House
A LOWER HOUSE is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature , the other chamber being the upper house . Inside the Australian House of Representatives Despite its official position "below" the upper house, in many legislatures worldwide, the lower house has come to wield more power. A legislature composed of only one house is described as unicameral . CONTENTS * 1 Common attributes * 2 Titles of lower houses * 2.1 Common names * 2.2 Unique Names * 3 See also * 4 References COMMON ATTRIBUTESIn comparison with the upper house, lower houses frequently display certain characteristics: Powers * In a parliamentary system : * Much more power, usually based on restrictions against the upper house. * Able to override the upper house in some ways. * Can vote a motion of no confidence against the government. * Exceptions are Australia, where the Senate has considerable power approximate to that of the House of Representatives, and Italy, where the Senate has exactly the same powers as the Chamber of Deputies.* In a presidential system : * Somewhat less power, as the upper house alone gives advice and consent to some executives decisions (e..g
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Parliament
In modern politics and history, a PARLIAMENT is a legislative , elected body of government. Generally, a modern parliament has three functions: representing the electorate , making laws, and overseeing the government via hearings and inquiries. Although some restrict the use of the word _parliament_ to parliamentary systems , it is also commonly used to describe the legislature in presidential systems (e.g. the French parliament ), even where it is not in the official name. Historically, parliaments included various kinds of deliberative, consultative, and judicial assemblies, e.g. mediaeval parlements
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Parliamentary System
A PARLIAMENTARY SYSTEM is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament , and is also held accountable to that parliament. In a parliamentary system, the head of state is usually a different person from the head of government . This is in contrast to a presidential system , where the head of state often is also the head of government and, most importantly, the executive branch does not derive its democratic legitimacy from the legislature. Countries with parliamentary systems may be constitutional monarchies , where a monarch is the head of state while the head of government is almost always a member of parliament (such as the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, Denmark
Denmark
, Sweden
Sweden
and Japan
Japan
), or parliamentary republics , where a mostly ceremonial president is the head of state while the head of government is regularly from the legislature (such as Ireland , Germany
Germany
, India
India
and Italy
Italy
)
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Parliamentary Group
A PARLIAMENTARY GROUP, PARLIAMENTARY PARTY, or PARLIAMENTARY CAUCUS is a group consisting of members of the same political party or electoral fusion of parties in a legislative assembly such as a parliament or a city council . Parliamentary groups correspond to "CAUCUSES" in the United States Congress and in the Canadian Parliament. A parliamentary group is sometimes called the _parliamentary wing_ of a party, as distinct from its _organisational wing_. Generally, parliamentary groups have some independence from the wider party organisations. It is often thought improper for elected MPs to take instructions solely from non-elected party officials or from the small subset of the electorate represented by party members. In any case, the exigencies of government, the need to cooperate with other members of the legislature and the desire to retain the support of the electorate as a whole often preclude strict adherence to the wider party's wishes. The exact relationship between the parliamentary party and the party varies between countries, and also from party to party. For example, in some parties, the parliamentary and organisational leadership will be held by the same person or people, whether _ex officio_ or not; other parties maintain a sharp distinction between the two offices
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Member Of Parliament
A MEMBER OF PARLIAMENT (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament . In many countries with bicameral parliaments, this category includes specifically members of the lower house, as upper houses often have a different title. Members of parliament tend to form parliamentary groups (also called _parliamentary parties_) with members of the same political party
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International Parliament
An INTERNATIONAL PARLIAMENT is a branch of an intergovernmental organization tasked with legislative powers and thus establishing a hybrid system of not only intergovernmentalism , but also supranationalism . It could be based on a predecessor inter-parliamentary institution or a newly established organization-level legislature. Such branches of intergovernmental organizations are typically established in order to provide for representation of citizens , rather than governments who are represented in other bodies within the organization. The assembly can be composed of members of the national legislatures (whose members are directly elected in most cases ) or of its own directly elected members, further strengthening the supranationalism of the organization
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Parliamentary Procedure
PARLIAMENTARY PROCEDURE is the body of rules , ethics and customs governing meetings and other operations of clubs , organizations , legislative bodies and other deliberative assemblies . In the United Kingdom , Canada , Ireland , Australia , New Zealand , South Africa and other English-speaking countries it is often called _chairmanship_, _chairing_