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Mellon Optical Memory
Mellon optical memory was an early form of computer memory invented at the Mellon Institute
Mellon Institute
(today part of Carnegie Mellon University) in 1951.[1][2] The device used a combination of photoemissive and phosphorescent materials to produce a "light loop" between two surfaces. The presence or lack of light, detected by a photocell, represented a one or zero. Although promising, the system was rendered obsolete with the introduction of core memory in the early 1950s. It appears that the system was never used in production.Contents1 Description1.1 Writing 1.2 Reading2 ReferencesDescription[edit] The main memory element of the Mellon device consisted of a very large (television sized) square vacuum tube consisting of two slightly separated flat glass plates. The inner side of one of the plates was coated with a photoemissive material that released electrons when struck by light
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Mellon Institute
Mellon Institute of Industrial Research, founded in 1913 by Andrew W. Mellon and Richard B. Mellon, merged with the Carnegie Institute of Technology in 1967 to form Carnegie Mellon University
Carnegie Mellon University
in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. While it ceased to exist as a distinct institution, the landmark building bearing its name remains located at the corner of Fifth Avenue and Bellefield Avenue in Oakland, the city's university district
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Carnegie Mellon University
Coordinates: 40°26′36″N 79°56′37″W / 40.443322°N 79.943583°W / 40.443322; -79.943583 Carnegie Mellon University
Carnegie Mellon University
(Carnegie Mellon or CMU /ˈkɑːrnɪɡi ˈmɛlən/ or /kɑːrˈneɪɡi ˈmɛlən/) is a private research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Founded in 1900 by Andrew Carnegie
Andrew Carnegie
as the Carnegie Technical Schools, the university became the Carnegie Institute of Technology in 1912 and began granting four-year degrees. In 1967, the Carnegie Institute of Technology merged with the Mellon Institute of Industrial Research
Mellon Institute of Industrial Research
to form Carnegie Mellon University. The university's 140-acre (57 ha) main campus is 3 miles (5 km) from Downtown Pittsburgh
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Photoemission
The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons or other free carriers when light shines on a material. Electrons emitted in this manner can be called photo electrons. This phenomenon is commonly studied in electronic physics, as well as in fields of chemistry, such as quantum chemistry or electrochemistry. According to classical electromagnetic theory, this effect can be attributed to the transfer of energy from the light to an electron. From this perspective, an alteration in the intensity of light would induce changes in the kinetic energy of the electrons emitted from the metal. Furthermore, according to this theory, a sufficiently dim light would be expected to show a time lag between the initial shining of its light and the subsequent emission of an electron
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Phosphorescent
Phosphorescence
Phosphorescence
is a type of photoluminescence related to fluorescence. Unlike fluorescence, a phosphorescent material does not immediately re-emit the radiation it absorbs. The slower time scales of the re-emission are associated with "forbidden" energy state transitions in quantum mechanics
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Photocell
Photosensors or photodetectors are sensors of light or other electromagnetic energy.[1] A photo detector has a p–n junction that converts light photons into current. The absorbed photons make electron–hole pairs in the depletion region. Photodiodes and photo transistors are a few examples of photo detectors
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Cathode Ray Tube
The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube that contains one or more electron guns and a phosphorescent screen, and is used to display images.[1] It modulates, accelerates, and deflects electron beam(s) onto the screen to create the images. The images may represent electrical waveforms (oscilloscope), pictures (television, computer monitor), radar targets, or others. CRTs have also been used as memory devices, in which case the visible light emitted from the fluorescent material (if any) is not intended to have significant meaning to a visual observer (though the visible pattern on the tube face may cryptically represent the stored data). In television sets and computer monitors, the entire front area of the tube is scanned repetitively and systematically in a fixed pattern called a raster
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a digital object identifier (DOI) is a persistent identifier or handle used to identify objects uniquely, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to identify their referents uniquely
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International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number
International Standard Serial Number
(ISSN) is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine.[1] The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, cataloging, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature.[2] The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975.[3] ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media
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Special
Special
Special
or the specials or variation, may refer to:.mw-parser-output .tocright float:right;clear:right;width:auto;background:none;padding:.5em 0 .8em 1.4em;margin-bottom:.5em .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-left clear:left .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-both clear:both .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-none clear:none Contents1 Policing 2 Literature 3 Film and television 4 Music4.1 Albums 4.2 Songs5 Computing 6 Other uses 7 See alsoPolicing[edit] Specials, Ulster
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Computer Memory
In computing, memory refers to the computer hardware integrated circuits that store information for immediate use in a computer; it is synonymous with the term "primary storage". Computer
Computer
memory operates at a high speed, for example random-access memory (RAM), as a distinction from storage that provides slow-to-access information but offers higher capacities. If needed, contents of the computer memory can be transferred to secondary storage, through a memory management technique called "virtual memory". An archaic synonym for memory is store.[1] The term "memory", meaning "primary storage" or "main memory", is often associated with addressable semiconductor memory, i.e. integrated circuits consisting of silicon-based transistors, used for example as primary storage but also other purposes in computers and other digital electronic devices. There are two main kinds of semiconductor memory, volatile and non-volatile
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Core Memory
Magnetic-core memory
Magnetic-core memory
was the predominant form of random-access computer memory for 20 years between about 1955 and 1975. Such memory is often just called core memory, or, informally, core. Core uses tiny magnetic toroids (rings), the cores, through which wires are threaded to write and read information. Each core represents one bit of information. The cores can be magnetized in two different ways (clockwise or counterclockwise) and the bit stored in a core is zero or one depending on that core's magnetization direction. The wires are arranged to allow for an individual core to be set to either a one or a zero and for its magnetization to be changed by sending appropriate electric current pulses through selected wires. The process of reading the core causes the core to be reset to a zero, thus erasing it. This is called destructive readout
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Williams Tube
The Williams tube, or the Williams–Kilburn tube after inventors Freddie Williams (26 June 1911 – 11 August 1977), and Tom Kilburn (11 August 1921 – 17 January 2001),[1][2] is an early form of computer memory. It was the first random-access digital storage device,[3] and was used successfully in several early computers. The Williams tube
Williams tube
works by displaying a grid of dots on a cathode ray tube (CRT). Due to the way CRTs work, this creates a small charge of static electricity over each dot. The charge at the location of each of the dots is read by a thin metal sheet just in front of the display. Since the display faded over time, it was periodically refreshed. In comparison to the contemporary acoustic delay line memory, the Williams–Kilburn tube was much faster, since the cycling took place at the speed of the electrons inside the vacuum tube, as opposed to the speed of sound within the delay line
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Mellon Optical Memory
Mellon optical memory was an early form of computer memory invented at the Mellon Institute
Mellon Institute
(today part of Carnegie Mellon University) in 1951.[1][2] The device used a combination of photoemissive and phosphorescent materials to produce a "light loop" between two surfaces. The presence or lack of light, detected by a photocell, represented a one or zero. Although promising, the system was rendered obsolete with the introduction of core memory in the early 1950s. It appears that the system was never used in production.Contents1 Description1.1 Writing 1.2 Reading2 ReferencesDescription[edit] The main memory element of the Mellon device consisted of a very large (television sized) square vacuum tube consisting of two slightly separated flat glass plates. The inner side of one of the plates was coated with a photoemissive material that released electrons when struck by light
[...More...]

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