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Meiolania
Meiolania
Meiolania
("small roamer") is an extinct genus of basal turtle[2][3] from the Middle Miocene to Holocene, with the last relict populations at New Caledonia
New Caledonia
which survived until 3,000 years ago.Contents1 Description 2 Behaviour 3 Discovery and species 4 Extinction 5 See also 6 References6.1 Further reading7 External linksDescription[edit]Front view of M. platyceps fossil, Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island
museumThe tail of Meiolania
Meiolania
platyceps ( AMNH
AMNH
29076) Meiolania
Meiolania
had an unusually shaped skull that sported many knob-like and horn-like protrusions. Two large horns faced sideways, giving the skull a total width of 60 centimetres (2.0 ft), and would have prevented the animal fully withdrawing its head into its shell
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Precambrian
The Precambrian
Precambrian
(or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pЄ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon. The Precambrian
Precambrian
is so named because it preceded the Cambrian, the first period of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
eon, which is named after Cambria, the Latinised name for Wales, where rocks from this age were first studied. The Precambrian
Precambrian
accounts for 88% of the Earth's geologic time. The Precambrian
Precambrian
(colored green in the timeline figure) is a supereon that is subdivided into three eons (Hadean, Archean, Proterozoic) of the geologic time scale
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Megalochelys Atlas
Megalochelys atlas is an extinct species of giant cryptodiran turtle from the Miocene[2] through to the Pleistocene[3] periods. During the dry glacial periods it ranged from western India and Pakistan (possibly even as far west as southern and eastern Europe) to as far east as Sulawesi and Timor in Indonesia. Description[edit] Megalochelys atlas is the largest known member of Testudinidae, with a shell length of about 2.1 m (6.9 ft), an estimated total length of 2.5 to 2.7 m (8.2 to 8.9 ft), and an approximate total height of 1.8 m (5.9 ft). Popular weight estimates for this taxon have varied greatly with the highest estimates reaching up to 4,000 kg (8,800 lb) in some instances.[4] However, weights based on volumetric displacement of the skeleton,[5] or inferences based on two-dimensional skeletal drawings,[6] indicate that M. atlas was probably closer to 1,000 to 2,000 kg (2,200 to 4,400 lb) in mass. M
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Cambrian
The Cambrian
Cambrian
Period ( /ˈkæmbriən/ or /ˈkeɪmbriən/) was the first geological period of the Paleozoic
Paleozoic
Era, of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon.[6] The Cambrian
Cambrian
lasted 55.6 million years from the end of the preceding Ediacaran
Ediacaran
Period 541 million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Ordovician
Ordovician
Period 485.4 mya.[7] Its subdivisions, and its base, are somewhat in flux
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Relict
A relict is a surviving remnant of a natural phenomenon.In biology a relict (or relic) is an organism that at an earlier time was abundant in a large area but now occurs at only one or a few small areas. In ecology, an ecosystem which originally ranged over a large expanse, but is now narrowly confined, may be termed a relict. In geology, a relict is a structure or mineral from a parent rock that did not undergo metamorphosis when the surrounding rock did, or a rock that survived a destructive geologic process. In geomorphology, a relict landform is a landform formed by either erosive or constructive surficial processes that are no longer active as they were in the past. In agronomy, a relict crop is a crop which was previously grown extensively, but is now only used in one limited region, or a small number of isolated regions. In history (as revealed in DNA testing), a relict population refers to an ancient people in an area who have been largely supplanted by a later group of
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New Caledonia
Coordinates: 21°15′S 165°18′E / 21.25°S 165.30°E / -21.25; 165.30New Caledonia Nouvelle-Calédonie (French)Flags of New CaledoniaMotto: "Terre de parole, terre de partage"[1] "Land of speech, land of sharing"Anthem: Soyons unis, devenons frères[1]EmblemStatus Sui generis
Sui generis
special collectivityCapital and largest city Nouméa 22°16′S 166°28′E / 22.267°S 166.467°E / -22.267; 166.467Official languages FrenchRecognised regional languagesDrehu Nengone Paicî Ajië Xârâcùùand 35 other native languagesDemonym New Caledonian


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AMNH
AMNH.orgAmerican Museum
Museum
of Natural HistoryU.S. National Register of Historic PlacesNYC LandmarkBuilt 1874; 144 years ago (1874)NRHP reference # 76001235[4]Significant datesAdded to NRHP June 24, 1976Designated NYCL August 24, 1967The American Museum
Museum
of Natural History (abbreviated as AMNH), located on the Upper West Side
Upper West Side
of Manhattan, New York City, is one of the largest museums in the world. Located in Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
Park across the street from Central Park, the museum complex comprises 28 interconnected buildings housing 45 permanent exhibition halls, in addition to a planetarium and a library
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Skull
The skull is a bony structure that forms the head in most vertebrates. It supports the structures of the face and provides a protective cavity for the brain.[1] The skull is composed of two parts: the cranium and the mandible. In the human these two parts are the neurocranium and the viscerocranium or facial skeleton that includes the mandible as its largest bone. The skull forms the anterior most portion of the skeleton and is a product of cephalisation—housing the brain, and several sensory structures such as the eyes, ears, nose, and mouth.[2] In humans these sensory structures are part of the facial skeleton. Functions of the skull include protection of the brain, fixing the distance between the eyes to allow stereoscopic vision, and fixing the position of the ears to enable sound localisation of the direction and distance of sounds
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Horn (anatomy)
A horn is a permanent pointed projection on the head of various animals consisting of a covering of keratin and other proteins surrounding a core of live bone. Horns are distinct from antlers, which are not permanent. In mammals, true horns are found mainly among the ruminant artiodactyls[not verified in body], in the families Antilocapridae
Antilocapridae
(pronghorn) and Bovidae
Bovidae
(cattle, goats, antelope etc.). One pair of horns is usual; however, two or more pairs occur in a few wild species and domesticated breeds of sheep. Polycerate (multi-horned) sheep breeds include the Hebridean, Icelandic, Jacob, Manx Loaghtan, and the Navajo-Churro. Horns usually have a curved or spiral shape, often with ridges or fluting. In many species only males have horns. Horns start to grow soon after birth, and continue to grow throughout the life of the animal (except in pronghorns, which shed the outer layer annually, but retain the bony core)
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Convergent Evolution
Convergent evolution
Convergent evolution
is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages. Convergent evolution
Convergent evolution
creates analogous structures that have similar form or function but were not present in the last common ancestor of those groups. The cladistic term for the same phenomenon is homoplasy. The recurrent evolution of flight is a classic example, as flying insects, birds, pterosaurs, and bats have independently evolved the useful capacity of flight. Functionally similar features that have arisen through convergent evolution are analogous, whereas homologous structures or traits have a common origin but can have dissimilar functions
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Ankylosauridae
Ankylosaurinae
Ankylosaurinae
Brown, 1908SynonymsSyrmosauridae Maleev, 1952 Ankylosauridae
Ankylosauridae
(/ˌæŋkɪloʊˈsɔːrɪdiː/)[1] are a family of the armored dinosaurs within Ankylosauria, and sister group to Nodosauridae. Ankylosaurids appeared 122 million years ago and went extinct 66 million years ago during the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event.[2] These animals were mainly herbivorous and were obligate quadrupeds, with leaf-shaped teeth and robust, scute-covered bodies. Ankylosaurids possess a distinctly domed and short snout, wedge-shaped osteoderms on their skull, scutes along their torso, and a tail club.[3] Ankylosauridae
Ankylosauridae
is exclusively known from the northern hemisphere, with specimens found in western North America, Europe, and East Asia
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Australia
Coordinates: 25°S 133°E / 25°S 133°E / -25; 133Commonwealth of AustraliaFlagCoat of armsAnthem: "Advance Australia
Australia
Fair"[N 1]Capital Canberra 35°18′29″S 149°07′28″E / 35.30806°S 149.12444°E / -35.30806; 149.12444Largest city SydneyNational language English[N 2]DemonymAustralian Aussie
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Genus
A genus (/ˈdʒiːnəs/, pl. genera /ˈdʒɛnərə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.E.g. Felis catus
Felis catus
and Felis silvestris
Felis silvestris
are two species within the genus Felis. Felis
Felis
is a genus within the family Felidae.The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist. The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera
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Vanuatu
Vanuatu
Vanuatu
(English: /ˌvɑːnuˈɑːtuː/ ( listen) VAH-noo-AH-too or /vænˈwɑːtuː/ van-WAH-too; Bislama, French IPA: [vanuatu]), officially the Republic of Vanuatu
Vanuatu
(French: République de Vanuatu, Bislama: Ripablik blong Vanuatu), is a Pacific island nation located in the South Pacific Ocean. The archipelago, which is of volcanic origin, is 1,750 kilometres (1,090 mi) east of northern Australia, 540 kilometres (340 mi) northeast of New Caledonia, east of New Guinea, southeast of the Solomon Islands, and west of Fiji. Vanuatu
Vanuatu
was first inhabited by Melanesian people. The first Europeans to visit the islands were a Spanish expedition led by Portuguese navigator Fernandes de Queirós, who arrived on the largest island in 1606
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Queensland
Queensland
Queensland
(abbreviated as Qld) is the second-largest and third-most-populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia
South Australia
and New South Wales
New South Wales
to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland
Queensland
is bordered by the Coral Sea
Coral Sea
and Pacific Ocean. The state is the world's sixth largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 km2. Queensland
Queensland
has a population of 4,750,500, concentrated along the coast and particularly in the state's South East. The capital and largest city in the state is Brisbane, Australia's third largest city
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Walpole Island (New Caledonia)
Walpole Island (French: Île de Walpole) is a small and uninhabited French island, 180 kilometres (112 miles) east of New Caledonia in the South Pacific. Although it is geographically part of the Loyalty Islands, administratively it belongs to the Isle of Pines municipality of New Caledonia. History[edit] There is evidence that the island had prehistoric inhabitants. Graves, shell and bone tools, as well as stone markers indicate the presence of a permanent population at some point. The island is the topic of several oral traditions from Maré and the Isle des Pines, the two closest inhabited islands
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