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Megaannum
A year is the orbital period of the Earth
Earth
moving in its orbit around the Sun. Due to the Earth's axial tilt, the course of a year sees the passing of the seasons, marked by changes in weather, the hours of daylight, and, consequently, vegetation and soil fertility. In temperate and subpolar regions around the planet, four seasons are generally recognized: spring, summer, autumn and winter. In tropical and subtropical regions several geographical sectors do not present defined seasons; but in the seasonal tropics, the annual wet and dry seasons are recognized and tracked. The current year is 2018. A calendar year is an approximation of the number of days of the Earth's orbital period as counted in a given calendar. The Gregorian, or modern, calendar, presents its calendar year to be either a common year of 365 days or a leap year of 366 days, as do the Julian calendars; see below
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Analemma
In astronomy, an analemma (/ˌænəˈlɛmə/; from Greek ἀνάλημμα analēmma "support")[a] is a diagram showing the variation of the position of the Sun in the sky over the course of a year, as viewed at a fixed time of day and from a fixed location on the Earth. The north–south component of the analemma is due to change of the Sun's declination caused by the tilt of the Earth's axis, and the east–west component is due to nonuniform rate of change of the Sun's right ascension, governed by combined effects of axial tilt and Earth's orbital eccentricity. The diagram has the form of a slender figure eight, and can often be found on globes of the Earth. It is possible to photograph the analemma by keeping a camera at a fixed location and orientation and taking multiple exposures throughout the year, always at the same clock time (and accounting for daylight saving time, when and where applicable)
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Martian Year
Various schemes have been used or proposed for timekeeping on the planet Mars
Mars
independently of Earth
Earth
time and calendars. Mars
Mars
has an axial tilt and a rotation period similar to those of Earth. Thus it experiences seasons of spring, summer, autumn and winter much like Earth, and its day is about the same length
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ISO 80000-3
ISO 80000-3:2006 is an ISO standard entitled Quantities and units – Part 3: Space and time, superseding ISO 31-1 and ISO 31-2.[1] It is a part of the group of standards called ISO/IEC 80000, which together form the International System of Quantities.Contents1 Contents list 2 Names, symbols and definitions2.1 Space and time2.1.1 Space2.1.1.1 Units of length, area and volume 2.1.1.2 Units of angle 2.1.1.3 Quantities2.1.2 Time2.1.2.1 Units of time, speed and acceleration 2.1.2.2 Quantities2.2 Logarithmic quantities and units3 Annex A (informative) 4 Annex B (informative) 5 Annex C (informative) 6 ReferencesContents list[edit] The standard is divided into the following chapters:Foreword IntroductionScope Normative references Names, symbols and definitionsAnnex A (i
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Julian Year (astronomy)
In astronomy, a Julian year (symbol: a) is a unit of measurement of time defined as exactly 365.25 days of 7004864000000000000♠86400 SI seconds each.[1][2][3][4] The length of the Julian year is the average length of the year in the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
that was used in Western societies until some centuries ago, and from which the unit is named. Nevertheless, because astronomical Julian years are measuring duration rather than designating dates, this Julian year does not correspond to years in the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
or any other calendar
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Unit Of Time
A unit of time or time unit is any particular time intravel, used as a standard way of measuring or expressing duration. The base unit of time in the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI), and by extension most of the Western world, is the second, defined as about 9 billion oscillations of the caesium atom. The exact modern definition, from the National Institute of Standards and Technology
National Institute of Standards and Technology
is:The duration of 7009919263177000000♠9192631770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the cesium 133 atom.[1]Historically units of time were defined by the movements of astronomical objects. Sun
Sun
based: the year was the time for the earth to rotate around the sun
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Day
A day, a unit of time, is approximately the period of time during which the Earth completes one rotation with respect to the Sun
Sun
(solar day).[1][2] In 1960, the second was redefined in terms of the orbital motion of the Earth in year 1900, and was designated the SI base unit of time. The unit of measurement "day", was redefined as 86 400 SI seconds and symbolized d. In 1967, the second and so the day were redefined by atomic electron transition.[3] A civil day is usually 86 400 seconds, plus or minus a possible leap second in Coordinated Universal Time
Time
(UTC), and occasionally plus or minus an hour in those locations that change from or to daylight saving time. In common usage, it is either an interval equal to 24 hours[4] or daytime, the consecutive period of time during which the Sun
Sun
is above the horizon
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Second
The second is the SI base unit
SI base unit
of time, commonly understood and historically defined as 1/86,400 of a day – this factor derived from the division of the day first into 24 hours, then to 60 minutes and finally to 60 seconds each. Another intuitive understanding is that it is about the time between beats of a human heart.[nb 1] Mechanical and electric clocks and watches usually have a face with 60 tickmarks representing seconds and minutes, traversed by a second hand and minute hand. Digital clocks and watches often have a two-digit counter that cycles through seconds
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SI Base Unit
The International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI) defines seven units of measure as a basic set from which all other SI units can be derived. The SI base units and their physical quantities are the metre for measurement of length, the kilogram for mass, the second for time, the ampere for electric current, the kelvin for temperature, the candela for luminous intensity, and the mole for amount of substance. The SI base units form a set of mutually independent dimensions as required by dimensional analysis commonly employed in science and technology. The names and symbols of SI base units are written in lowercase, except the symbols of those named after a person, which are written with an initial capital letter
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Seasonal Year
The seasonal year is the time between successive recurrences of a seasonal event such as the flooding of a river, the migration of a species of bird, or the flowering of a species of plant. The need for farmers to predict seasonal events led to the development of calendars. However, the variability from year to year of seasonal events (due to climate change or just random variation) makes the seasonal year very hard to measure. This means that calendars are based on astronomical years (which are regular enough to be easily measured) as surrogates for the seasonal year
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Fiscal Year
A fiscal year (or financial year, or sometimes budget year) is the period used by governments for accounting and budget purposes, which vary between countries. It is also used for financial reporting by business and other organizations. Laws in many jurisdictions require company financial reports to be prepared and published on an annual basis, but generally do not require the reporting period to align with the calendar year (1 January to 31 December). Taxation laws generally require accounting records to be maintained and taxes calculated on an annual basis, which usually corresponds to the fiscal year used for government purposes. The calculation of tax on an annual basis is especially relevant for direct taxaction, such as income tax. Many annual government fees—such as Council rates, licence fees, etc.—are also levied on a fiscal year basis, while others are charged on an anniversary basis. The "fiscal year end" (FYE) is the date that marks the end of the fiscal year
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Academic Year
An academic year or school year is a period of time which schools, colleges and universities use to measure a quantity of study.Contents1 Australia
Australia
and New Zealand 2 United Kingdom 3 United States3.1 Seasonal pattern 3.2 Duration4 See also 5 References Australia
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Planet
Shown in order from the Sun
Sun
and in true color. Sizes are not to scale.A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant thatis massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.[a][1][2]The term planet is ancient, with ties to history, astrology, science, mythology, and religion. Several planets in the Solar System
Solar System
can be seen with the naked eye. These were regarded by many early cultures as divine, or as emissaries of deities. As scientific knowledge advanced, human perception of the planets changed, incorporating a number of disparate objects. In 2006, the International Astronomical Union
International Astronomical Union
(IAU) officially adopted a resolution defining planets within the Solar System
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Venus
Venus
Venus
is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.[12] It has the longest rotation period (243 days) of any planet in the Solar System
Solar System
and rotates in the opposite direction to most other planets (meaning the Sun
Sun
would rise in the west and set in the east).[13] It does not have any natural satellites. It is named after the Roman goddess of love and beauty
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Leap Year
A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or bissextile year) is a calendar year containing one additional day (or, in the case of lunisolar calendars, a month) added to keep the calendar year synchronized with the astronomical or seasonal year.[1] Because seasons and astronomical events do not repeat in a whole number of days, calendars that have the same number of days in each year drift over time with respect to the event that the year is supposed to track. By inserting (also called intercalating) an additional day or month into the year, the drift can be corrected. A year that is not a leap year is called a common year. For example, in the Gregorian calendar, each leap year has 366 days instead of the usual 365, by extending February to 29 days rather than the common 28
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Great Year
The term Great Year has a variety of related meanings. It is defined by NASA
NASA
as "The period of one complete cycle of the equinoxes around the ecliptic, about 25,800 years ... also known as [a] Platonic Year."[1] One complete cycle of the equinoxes here means one complete cycle of axial precession.Contents1 Description 2 See also 3 Footnotes 4 ReferencesDescription[edit] Although Plato
Plato
uses the term "perfect year" to describe the return of the celestial bodies (planets) and the diurnal rotation of the fixed stars (circle of the Same) to their original positions, there is no evidence he had any knowledge of axial precession. The cycle which Plato
Plato
describes is one of planetary and astral conjunction, which can be postulated without any awareness of axial precession
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