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MedlinePlus
MedlinePlus is an online information service produced by the United States National Library of Medicine. The service provides curated consumer health information in English and Spanish.[1] The site brings together information from the National Library of Medicine
Medicine
(NLM), the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
(NIH), other U.S. government agencies, and health-related organizations. There is also a site optimized for display on mobile devices, in both English and Spanish. In 2015, about 400 million people from around the world used MedlinePlus.[2] The service is funded by the NLM and is free to users. MedlinePlus provides encyclopedic information on health and drug issues, and provides a directory of medical services
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United States National Library Of Medicine
The United States National Library of Medicine
National Library of Medicine
(NLM), operated by the United States federal government, is the world's largest medical library.[5] Located in Bethesda, Maryland, the NLM is an institute within the National Institutes of Health
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Trauma Surgery
Trauma surgery
Trauma surgery
is a surgical specialty that utilizes both operative and non-operative management to treat traumatic injuries, typically in an acute setting. Trauma surgeons generally complete residency training in General Surgery[1][2] and often fellowship training in trauma or surgical critical care. The trauma surgeon is responsible for initially resuscitating and stabilizing and later evaluating and managing the patient. The attending trauma surgeon also leads the trauma team, which typically includes nurses and support staff as well as resident physicians in teaching hospitals.[citation needed]Contents1 Training 2 Responsibilities 3 Acute care surgery 4 History 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksTraining[edit]Most United States
United States
trauma surgeons practice in larger centers and complete a 1-2 year trauma surgery fellowship, which often includes a surgical critical care fellowship
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Orthopedic Surgery
Orthopedic surgery
Orthopedic surgery
or orthopedics, also spelled orthopaedic[s], is the branch of surgery concerned with conditions involving the musculoskeletal system. Orthopedic surgeons use both surgical and nonsurgical means to treat musculoskeletal trauma, spine diseases, sports injuries, degenerative diseases, infections, tumors, and congenital disorders.Contents1 Etymology 2 History2.1 Early orthopedics 2.2 Modern orthopedics3 Training 4 Practice 5 Arthroscopy 6 Arthroplasty 7 Epidemiology 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksEtymology[edit] Nicholas Andry
Nicholas Andry
coined the word in French as orthopédie, derived from the Greek words ὀρθός orthos ("correct", "straight") and παιδίον paidion ("child"), when he published Orthopedie (translated as Orthopædia: Or the Art of Correcting and Preventing Deformities in Children[1]) in 1741
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Hand Surgery
The field of hand surgery deals with both surgical and non-surgical treatment of conditions and problems that may take place in the hand or upper extremity (commonly from the tip of the hand to the shoulder)[1] including injury and infection.[2] Hand
Hand
surgery may be practiced by graduates of general surgery, orthopedic surgery and plastic surgery.[1] More formally, chiroplasty, or cheiroplasty,[3] is a term which refers to plastic surgery of the hands.[4] The term combines root word "chir(o)", which means "hand", and the suffix "-plasty", which means "surgical repair". Plastic surgeons and orthopedic surgeons receive significant training in hand surgery during their residency training, with some graduates going on to do an additional one-year hand fellowship
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Otolaryngology
Otorhinolaryngology
Otorhinolaryngology
/oʊtoʊˌraɪnoʊˌlærənˈɡɒlədʒi/ (also called otolaryngology and otolaryngology–head and neck surgery) is a surgical subspecialty within medicine that deals with conditions of the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) and related structures of the head and neck. Doctors who specialize in this area are called otorhinolaryngologists, otolaryngologists, ENT doctors, ENT surgeons, or head and neck surgeons
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Pediatric Surgery
Pediatric surgery
Pediatric surgery
is a subspecialty of surgery involving the surgery of fetuses, infants, children, adolescents, and young adults. Pediatric surgery
Pediatric surgery
arose in the middle of the 1879 century as the surgical care of birth defects required novel techniques and methods and became more commonly based at children's hospitals. One of the sites of this innovation was Children's Hospital
Hospital
of Philadelphia. Beginning in the 1940s under the surgical leadership of C. Everett Koop, newer techniques for endotracheal anesthesia of infants allowed surgical repair of previously untreatable birth defects
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Plastic Surgery
Plastic surgery
Plastic surgery
is a surgical specialty involving the restoration, reconstruction, or alteration of the human body. It can be divided into two categories. The first is reconstructive surgery which includes craniofacial surgery, hand surgery, microsurgery, and the treatment of burns. The other is cosmetic or aesthetic surgery.[1] While reconstructive surgery aims to reconstruct a part of the body or improve its functioning, cosmetic surgery aims at improving the appearance of it
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Reproductive Surgery
Reproductive surgery is using surgery in the field of reproductive medicine. It can be used for contraception, e.g. in vasectomy, wherein the vasa deferentia of a man are severed, but is also used plentifully in assisted reproductive technology. A reproductive surgeon is an obstetrician-gynecologist or urologist who specializes in reproductive surgery.[1] In assisted reproductive technology[edit] Reproductive surgery is used for treating e.g. fallopian tube obstruction and vas deferens obstruction, or reversing a vasectomy by a reverse vasectomy. [2] Surgical sperm retrieval is an alternative means of semen collection, where other means are not possible, e.g
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Surgical Oncology
Surgical oncology is the branch of surgery applied to oncology; it focuses on the surgical management of tumors, especially cancerous tumors. As one of several modalities in the management of cancer, the specialty of surgical oncology, before modern medicine the only cancer treatment with a chance of success, has evolved in steps similar to medical oncology (pharmacotherapy for cancer), which grew out of hematology, and radiation oncology, which grew out of radiology. The Ewing Society known today as the Society of Surgical Oncology
Oncology
was started by surgeons interested in promoting the field of oncology. Complex General Surgical Oncology
Oncology
was ratified by a specialty Board certification in 2011 from the American Board of Surgery
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Thoracic Surgery
Cardiothoracic surgery
Cardiothoracic surgery
(also known as thoracic surgery) is the field of medicine involved in surgical treatment of organs inside the thorax (the chest)—generally treatment of conditions of the heart (heart disease) and lungs (lung disease)
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Organ Transplantation
Organ transplantation
Organ transplantation
is a medical procedure in which an organ is removed from one body and placed in the body of a recipient, to replace a damaged or missing organ. The donor and recipient may be at the same location, or organs may be transported from a donor site to another location. Organs and/or tissues that are transplanted within the same person's body are called autografts. Transplants that are recently performed between two subjects of the same species are called allografts. Allografts can either be from a living or cadaveric source. Organs that have been successfully transplanted include the heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, pancreas, intestine, and thymus. Some organs, like the brain, cannot be transplanted. Tissues include bones, tendons (both referred to as musculoskeletal grafts), corneae, skin, heart valves, nerves and veins
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Urology
Urology (from Greek οὖρον ouron "urine" and -λογία -logia "study of"), also known as genitourinary surgery, is the branch of medicine that focuses on surgical and medical diseases of the male and female urinary-tract system and the male reproductive organs. Organs under the domain of urology include the kidneys, adrenal glands, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra, and the male reproductive organs (testes, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, and penis). The urinary and reproductive tracts are closely linked, and disorders of one often affect the other
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Neurosurgery
orBachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery
Surgery
(M.B.B.S.) with Fellowship of the Royal College of Surgeons (F.R.C.S.)orMaster of Surgery
Surgery
(M.S.)or
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Andrology
Andrology
Andrology
(from Ancient Greek: ἀνήρ, anēr, genitive ἀνδρός, andros, "man"; and -λογία, -logia) is the medical specialty that deals with male health, particularly relating to the problems of the male reproductive system and urological problems that are unique to men. It is also known as "the science of men".[citation needed] It is the counterpart to gynaecology, which deals with medical issues which are specific to the female reproductive system
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Vascular Surgery
Vascular surgery
Vascular surgery
is a surgical subspecialty in which diseases of the vascular system, or arteries, veins and lymphatic circulation, are managed by medical therapy, minimally-invasive catheter procedures, and surgical reconstruction. The specialty evolved from general and cardiac surgery as well as minimally invasive techniques pioneered by interventional radiology. The vascular surgeon is trained in the diagnosis and management of diseases affecting all parts of the vascular system except those of the heart and brain. Cardiothoracic surgeons and interventional cardiologists manage diseases of the heart vessels
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