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Medieval Chola
Medieval Cholas
Cholas
rose to prominence during the middle of the 9th century CE and established one of the greatest empires in South India. They successfully united South India
India
under their rule and through their naval strength extended their influence in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
and Sri Lanka. They had trade contacts with the Arabs in the west and with the Chinese in the east. Medieval Cholas
Cholas
and Chalukyas
Chalukyas
were continuously in conflict over the control of Vengi and the conflict eventually exhausted both the empires and led to their decline
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Pazhaiyaarai
Pazhayarai or Pazhaiyarai (Tamil: பழையாறை paḻaiyāṟai) was an ancient capital of the medieval Chola
Chola
dynasty in Tamil Nadu. Today there are a number of villages within the area of historic Pazhaiyarai.[1] History[edit] There are lot of small villages inside the historical town of Pazhayarai - Thirunandipura Vinnagaram, Sathi mutram, Patteeswaram with all their temples. There were four legendary temples, Vadathali, Kelthali, Metrali and Thenthali across four sides of the city. The houses(veedu) of the warriors namely Aru padai veedu, Pudhu padai veedu, Manapadai veedu and Pambai padai veedu. There was only one palace for Vijayalaya Chola, but later individual palaces were built for all the princes
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Middle Ages
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
(or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and merged into the Renaissance
Renaissance
and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages
Middle Ages
is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, invasion, and movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages. The large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire
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Rajendra Chola II
Rajendra may refer to: Rajendra (name), a male given name (including a list of persons with the name) Rajendra (moth), a moth genus Rajendra Radar, a phased array radarThis disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Rajendra. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the li
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Vengi
The Vengi (or Venginadu) is a region spread over the mandals of Godavari and Krishna districts.[1][2] The capital city of Vengi is located at Pedavegi
Pedavegi
near Eluru. This area was part of Kalinga until that kingdom was conquered by Emperor Ashoka
Ashoka
of the Mauryan
Mauryan
Empire in the mid-3rd century BC. After the Mauryan
Mauryan
Empire collapsed in 185 BC, the region was dominated by the Satavahanas, who were succeeded in Vengi by the Andhra Ikshvakus. Around 300 AD, the Andhra Ikshvakus were replaced by the Salankayanas, who were vassals of the Pallavas
Pallavas
of Southern India
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South India
Most populous cities (2011)Chennai Bengaluru Hyderabad Trivandrum Coimbatore Madurai Mysore Ernakulam VisakhapatnamArea • Total 635,780 km2 (245,480 sq mi)Population • Total 253,051,953 • Density 400/km2 (1,000/sq mi)Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)Official languagesTelugu Tamil Kannada Malayalam Urdu Tulu South India
South India
is the area encompassing the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
and Telangana
Telangana
as well as the union territories of Andaman and Nicobar, Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
and Puducherry, occupying 19.31% of India's area (635,780 km2 or 245,480 sq mi)
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Sri Lanka
Coordinates: 7°N 81°E / 7°N 81°E / 7; 81Democratic Socialist Republic
Republic
of Sri Lanka ශ්‍රී ලංකා ප්‍රජාතාන්ත්‍රික සමාජවාදී ජනරජය (Sinhalese) Srī Lankā prajātāntrika samājavādī janarajaya இலங்கை ஜனநாயக சோசலிச குடியரசு (Tamil) Ilaṅkai jaṉanāyaka sōsalisa kuṭiyarasuFlagEmblemAnthem: "Sri
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Maldives
The Maldives
Maldives
(/ˈmɒldiːvz/ or /ˈmɔːldaɪvz/ ( listen); Dhivehi: ދިވެހިރާއްޖެ Dhivehi Raa'jey), officially the Republic of Maldives, is a South Asian island country, located in the Indian Ocean, situated in the Arabian Sea. It lies southwest of Sri Lanka and India. The chain of 26 atolls stretches from Ihavandhippolhu Atoll
Atoll
in the north to the Addu City
Addu City
in the south. Comprising a territory spanning roughly 298 square kilometres (115 sq mi), the Maldives
Maldives
is one of the world's most geographically dispersed countries, as well as the smallest Asian country by both land area and population, with around 427,756 inhabitants
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India
India, officially the Republic
Republic
of India
India
(IAST: Bhārat Gaṇarājya),[e] is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan
Pakistan
to the west;[f] China, Nepal, and Bhutan
Bhutan
to the northeast; and Myanmar
Myanmar
and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India
India
is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and the Maldives
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Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
Asia
or Southeastern Asia
Asia
is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea
New Guinea
and north of Australia.[4] Southeast Asia
Asia
is bordered to the north by East Asia, to the west by South Asia
Asia
and Bay of Bengal, to the east by Oceania
Oceania
and Pacific Ocean, and to the south by Australia
Australia
and Indian Ocean. The region is the only part of Asia that lies partly within the Southern Hemisphere, although the majority of it is in the Northern Hemisphere
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Rajadhiraja Chola II
The genitive phrase King
King
of Kings (Assyrian šar šarrāni, Hebrew מֶלֶךְ מְלָכִים melek mĕlakîm, Persian شاهنشاه) is a superlative expression for "great king" or high king; it is probably originally of Semitic origins (compare the superlatives Lord of Lords, Song of Songs
Song of Songs
or Holy of Holies),[1] but from there was also adopted in Persian (Shahanshah),[2] Hellenistic and Christian traditions.Contents1 Historical usage1.1 Assyrian Empire 1.2 Ancient Persia 1.3 Hellenistic era2 Religious usage2.1 Judaism 2.2 Christianity 2.3 Islam3 Modern usage3.1 Monarchs and autocrats 3.2 Popular culture4 See also 5 ReferencesHistorical usage[edit] Assyrian Empire[edit] The first king known to use the title "king of kings" (šar šarrāni) was Tukulti-Ninurta I
Tukulti-Ninurta I
of Assyria (13th century BC)
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King
King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant,[1] while the title of queen on its own usually refers to the consort of a king.In the context of prehistory, antiquity and contemporary indigenous peoples, the title may refer to tribal kingship. Germanic kingship is cognate with Indo-European traditions of tribal rulership (c.f. Indic rājan, Gothic reiks, and Old Irish rí, etc.). In the context of classical antiquity, king may translate in Latin as rex and in Greek as archon or basileus. In classical European feudalism, the title of king as the ruler of a kingdom is understood to be the highest rank in the feudal order, potentially subject, at least nominally, only to an emperor (harking back to the client kings of the Roman Empire).[2] In a modern context, the title may refer to the ruler of one of a number of modern monarchies (either absolute or constitutional)
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Monarchy
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty. The actual power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic (crowned republic), to partial and restricted (constitutional monarchy), to completely autocratic (absolute monarchy). Traditionally the monarch's post is inherited and lasts until death or abdication. In contrast, elective monarchies require the monarch to be elected.[1] Both types have further variations as there are widely divergent structures and traditions defining monarchy. For example, in some[which?] elected monarchies only pedigrees are taken into account for eligibility of the next ruler, whereas many hereditary monarchies impose requirements regarding the religion, age, gender, mental capacity, etc
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Shaivism
Shiva
Shiva
- ShaktiSadasiva Rudra Bhairava Parvati Durga KaliGanesha Murugan OthersScriptures and textsAgamas and TantrasVedas SvetasvataraTirumurai Shivasutras VachanasPhilosophyThree ComponentsPati Pashu PasamThree bondagesAnava Karma Maya 36 Tattvas YogaPracticesVibhuti Rudraksha Panchakshara Bilva Maha Shivaratri Yamas-Niyamas Guru-Linga-JangamSchoolsAdi MargamPashupata Kalamukha Kapalika
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Hinduism
ArtsBharatanatyam Kathak Kathakali Kuchipudi Manipuri Mohiniyattam Odissi Sattriya Bhagavata Mela Yakshagana Dandiya Raas Carnatic musicRites of passageGarbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha AntyeshtiAshrama DharmaAshrama: Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha SannyasaFestivalsDiwali Holi Shivaratri Navaratri Durga
Durga
Puja Ramlila Vijayadashami-Dussehra


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Tamil Language
 Sri Lanka  Singapore  India:Tamil Nadu[3] Puducherry[4] Andaman & Nicobar Islands[5]Recognised minority language in Malaysia[6]  Mauritius[7]  South Africa[8]Language codesISO 639-1 taISO 639-2 tamISO 639-3 Variously: tam – Modern Tamil oty – Old Tamil ptq – Pattapu BhashaiLinguist Listoty Old TamilGlottolog tamil1289  Modern Tamil[9] oldt1248  Old Tamil[10]Linguasphere 49-EBE-aThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.This article contains Indic text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks or boxes, misplaced vowels or missing conjuncts instead of Indic text.Tamil is written in a non-Latin script
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