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Medicine In The Medieval Islamic World
In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine is the science of medicine developed in the Islamic Golden Age, and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of Islamic civilization.[1][2] Islamic medicine preserved, systematized and developed the medical knowledge of classical antiquity, including the major traditions of Hippocrates, Galen
Galen
and Dioscorides.[3] During the post-classical era, Islamic medicine was the most advanced in the world, integrating concepts of the ancient Greek, Roman, Persian as well as the ancient Indian traditions of Ayurveda
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Al-Ma'mun
Abu al-Abbas al-Maʾmūn ibn Hārūn al-Rashīd (Arabic: أبو العباس المأمون‎; September 786 – 9 August 833) was the seventh Abbasid
Abbasid
caliph, who reigned from 813 until his death in 833. He succeeded his brother al-Amin after a civil war, and was also known for his role in the Mu'tazilism
Mu'tazilism
controversy, and the resumption of large-scale warfare with the Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire.Contents1 Birth 2 Abbasid
Abbasid
civil war 3 Internal strife 4 After arrival in Baghdad 5 Wars with Byzantium 6 Al-Ma'mun's reign 7 Personal characteristics 8 Death 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External linksBirth[edit] The future al-Ma'mun was born in Baghdad
Baghdad
on the night of the 13 to 14 September 786 CE to Harun al-Rashid
Harun al-Rashid
and his concubine Marajil, from Badghis
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Uthman
Uthman ibn Affan
Uthman ibn Affan
(Arabic: عثمان بن عفان‎, translit. ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān), also known in English by the Turkish and Persian rendering, Osman (579 – 17 June 656), was a companion of the Islamic prophet
Islamic prophet
Muhammad
Muhammad
and the third of the Rashidun, or "Rightly Guided Caliphs"
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Natural Sciences
Natural science
Natural science
is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation. Mechanisms such as peer review and repeatability of findings are used to try to ensure the validity of scientific advances. Natural science
Natural science
can be divided into two main branches: life science (or biological science) and physical science. Physical science is subdivided into branches, including physics, space science, chemistry, and Earth science
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Age Of Enlightenment
The Enlightenment
The Enlightenment
(also known as the Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
or the Age of Reason;[1] in French: le Siècle des Lumières, lit. '"the Century of Lights"'; and in German: Aufklärung, "Enlightenment")[2] was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".[3] The Enlightenment
The Enlightenment
included a range of ideas centered on reason as the primary source of authority and legitimacy and came to advance ideals like liberty, progress, tolerance, fraternity, constitutional government and separation of church and state.[4][5] In France, the central doctrines of the Enlightenment philosophers were individual liberty and religious tolerance, in opposition to an absolute monarchy and the fixed dogmas of the Roman Catholic Church
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Arabia
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia[1] (Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية‎ Shibhu al-jazīrati al-ʿarabiyya, ‘Arabian island’ or Arabic: جزيرة العرب‎ Jazīratu Al-ʿArab, ‘Island of the Arabs’),[2] is a peninsula of Western Asia
Asia
situated northeast of Africa
Africa
on the Arabian plate
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Al-Biruni
Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al-Bīrūnī (Chorasmian/Persian: ابوریحان بیرونی‎ Abū Rayḥān Bērōnī;[4][5] New Persian: Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī[6]) (4 September 973[7][8] – 9 December 1048[7]), known as Al-Biruni (Arabic: البيروني‎) in English,[9] was an Iranian[10][11][12][13] scholar and polymath from Khwarezm
Khwarezm
— a region which encompasses modern-day western Uzbekistan, and northern Turkmenistan. Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
is regarded as one of the greatest scholars of the medieval Islamic era and was well versed in physics, mathematics, astronomy, and natural sciences, and also distinguished himself as a historian, chronologist and linguist.[12] He studied almost all fields of science and was compensated for his research and strenuous work. Royalty and powerful members of society sought out Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
to conduct research and study to uncover certain findings
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Materia Medica
Materia medica
Materia medica
(English: medical material/substance) is a Latin
Latin
term for the body of collected knowledge about the therapeutic properties of any substance used for healing (i.e., medicines). The term derives from the title of a work by the Ancient Greek physician Pedanius Dioscorides
Dioscorides
in the 1st century AD, De materia medica, 'On medical material' (Περὶ ὕλης ἰατρικῆς, Peri hylēs iatrikēs, in Greek). The term materia medica was used from the period of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
until the 20th century, but has now been generally replaced in medical education contexts by the term pharmacology
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History Of India
The history of India
India
includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation
Indus Valley Civilisation
to the eve
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Academy Of Gundishapur
Coordinates: 32°17′N 48°31′E / 32.283°N 48.517°E / 32.283; 48.517 The Academy of Gondishapur (Persian: فرهنگستان گندی‌شاپور‎, Farhangestân-e Gondišâpur), also known as The Jondishapur University (دانشگاه جندی‌شاپور Dânešgâh-e Jondišapur), was one of the three Sasanian centers of education (Ctesiphon, Resaina, Gundeshapur) [1] and academy of learning in the city of Gundeshapur, Iran during late antiquity, the intellectual center of the Sasanian Empire. It offered education and training in medicine, philosophy, theology and science. The faculty were versed in Persian traditions
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Renaissance Of The 12th Century
The Renaissance
Renaissance
of the 12th century was a period of many changes at the outset of the high Middle Ages. It included social, political and economic transformations, and an intellectual revitalization of Western Europe
Western Europe
with strong philosophical and scientific roots
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Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
Greece
was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages
Greek Dark Ages
of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (c. 600 AD). Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and the Byzantine
Byzantine
era.[1] Roughly three centuries after the Late Bronze Age collapse
Late Bronze Age collapse
of Mycenaean Greece, Greek urban poleis began to form in the 8th century BC, ushering in the period of Archaic Greece
Archaic Greece
and colonization of the Mediterranean Basin. This was followed by the period of Classical Greece, an era that began with the Greco-Persian Wars, lasting from the 5th to 4th centuries BC
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Ancient Rome
In historiography, ancient Rome
Rome
is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome
Rome
in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic
Roman Republic
and Roman Empire
Roman Empire
until the fall of the western empire.[1] The term is sometimes used to just refer to the kingdom and republic periods, excluding the subsequent empire.[2] The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian peninsula, dating from the 8th century BC, that grew into the city of Rome
Rome
and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed
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Ophthalmology
Ophthalmology
Ophthalmology
(/ˌɒfθælˈmɒlədʒi/ or /ˌɒpθælˈmɒlədʒi/)[1] is the branch of medicine that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eyeball and orbit.[2] An ophthalmologist is a specialist in medical and surgical eye disease. Their credentials include a doctorate degree in medicine, followed by an additional four years of Ophthalmology
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Ibn Khaldun
Ibn Khaldun
Ibn Khaldun
(/ˈɪbən kælˈduːn/; Arabic: أبو زيد عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن خلدون الحضرمي‎, Abū Zayd ‘Abd ar-Raḥmān ibn Muḥammad ibn Khaldūn al-Ḥaḍramī; 27 May 1332 – 17 March 1406) was an Arab
Arab
historiographer and historian.[8] He is claimed as a forerunner of the modern disciplines of historiography, sociology, economics, and demography.[n 1][9][n 2] He is best known for his book, the Muqaddimah
Muqaddimah
or Prolegomena ("Introduction")
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Muqaddimah
The Muqaddimah, also known as the Muqaddimah
Muqaddimah
of Ibn Khaldun
Ibn Khaldun
(Arabic: مقدّمة ابن خلدون‎) or Ibn Khaldun's Prolegomena (Ancient Greek: Προλεγόμενα), is a book written by the Arab historian Ibn Khaldun
Ibn Khaldun
in 1377 which records an early view of universal history
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